Hugo Junkers

Hugo Junkers


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Hugo Junkers was born in Rheydt, Germany, in 1859. He was professor of mechanical engineering at Aachen (1897-1912) and during the First World War became involved in aircraft production. In 1915 he designed the world's first all-metal plane, the Junkers D-I. His ideas were too advanced for his time, and it did not begin production until 1918. He also produced the Junkers CL-I, the best German ground attack plane of the war.

After the Armistice Junkers established his own company, Lufthansa, and his aircraft factories in Dessau, Magdeburg and Stassfurt produced civil and military planes.

Junkers was a socialist and a pacifist and when Adolf Hitler gained power the government took over control of his company. He was also placed under house arrest.

Hugo Junkers died on 3rd February, 1935.


The role of patents in the history of aviation

The history of how a heavier-than-air machine took flight is replete with tales of fearless inventors, daredevils and dream chasers. It is also full of stories of meticulous and repetitive experimentation, advanced calculus and reliance on hard science. Government, too, played a decisive role in the airplane’s development, in particular during the two World Wars.

In the early years of aviation, when flying was still a dream, a small but growing community of enthusiasts was driven by the challenge of “how to fly.” During this period, aviation dreamers openly collaborated with each other. Those that filed patents generally did so for non-monetary reasons. (Photo: maodesign / DigitalVision Vectors).

How the airplane came to be is an insightful example of how minor and major technological and scientific advances by notable risk-takers under specific economic conditions resulted in a truly ground-breaking innovation – one that has transformed the way the world works today.

But what part did the patent system play in the evolution of the airplane?

The answer: patenting had a role in the development of this technological marvel in the start-up years when commercial flight became a reality. But it is difficult to assess the extent to which patents alone shaped the evolution of the industry overall, given the critical influence of government intervention in driving advances in aviation in the lead up to the First World War through to the end of the Second World War. While governments continue to support the aerospace industry, their scope of influence is arguably lower than in the first half of the 20 th century. Also, in the post-war era, and still today, there is little evidence of critical patents blocking the technological evolution of the airplane.

Tracing the evolution of the airplane reveals three important stages of development: the early years of open collaboration, followed by the emergence of a new industry years and finally the war years. Each of these stages provided a different innovation setting and dynamic among the inventors, the academic institutions, governments and economic environment.


Another string and balance

By taking over the gas appliance operations of Junkers in Dessau, Bosch added another string to its bow besides automotive equipment. This made the company less dependent on the automotive industry and helped to strike a better balance for the company by introducing new fields of business. Sales crashes in the automotive industry in 1925 and 1926 had shown Bosch the risk of a one-sided focus.

“Warm and cozy” was the slogan Bosch used to promote the products of the newly acquired division: Under the leadership of Bosch, Junkers also manufactured room heating systems in addition to water heaters.


Inhaltsverzeichnis

Kindheit und Ausbildung Bearbeiten

Hugo Junkers stammte aus einer begüterten Familie, die ihm und seinen Geschwistern sehr gute Bildungsmöglichkeiten und finanzielle Unabhängigkeit bot. Er war das dritte von sieben Kindern des Unternehmers und Inhabers einer Baumwollweberei Heinrich Junkers und seiner Ehefrau Luise. Nach dem Besuch der Höheren Bürgerschule (heute: Hugo-Junkers-Gymnasium) von 1864 bis 1875 in Rheydt wechselte er anschließend an die Gewerbeschule in Barmen, wo er 1878 sein Abitur ablegte. Nach einem Praktikum in der Werkzeugmaschinenfabrik Karl Klingelhoefer nahm Junkers im September des gleichen Jahres das Studium an der Königlichen Gewerbeschule in Berlin auf, die 1879 in der Technischen Hochschule Charlottenburg aufging. Nach zwei Semestern setzte er ab Oktober 1881 das Studium an der Technischen Hochschule in Aachen fort und schloss dort 1883 mit einem Examen im Maschinenbau ab. Während seines Studiums wurde er Mitglied der Turnerschaft Rhenania Berlin (heute Turnerschaft Berlin zu Berlin) und des Corps Delta Aachen. [2]

Nach ersten beruflichen Erfahrungen in verschiedenen Firmen in Aachen und in der väterlichen Firma in Rheydt, für die er zeitweise auch sein Studium unterbrach, ging Junkers erneut an die Technische Hochschule Charlottenburg, um bei Adolf Slaby weitere Vorlesungen in Elektrodynamik und Thermodynamik zu hören und in dessen Elektrotechnischem Laboratorium mechanische Versuche durchzuführen.

Unternehmer Bearbeiten

Auf Vermittlung von Slaby ging Junkers 1888 nach Dessau zur Deutschen Continental Gasgesellschaft, die zwei Jahre zuvor in die Stromproduktion eingestiegen war und auch entsprechende Motoren entwickelte. Zusammen mit dem Technischen Direktor, Wilhelm von Oechelhäuser jun., entwickelte Junkers neue Motoren beiden gelang 1892 die Entwicklung des ersten Zweitakt-Gegenkolben-Gasmotors.

Da die Kenntnis des Heizwerts des eingesetzten Gases entscheidend für die Betriebsweise des Motors ist, entwickelte Junkers zeitgleich ein Kalorimeter, das am 29. Juni 1892 zum Patent eingetragen wurde. Im Oktober des gleichen Jahres gründete Hugo Junkers sein erstes Unternehmen Hugo Junkers, Civil-Ingenieur und nahm die Tätigkeit in einem von der Gasanstalt gemieteten Pferdestall auf. Erster Angestellter wurde der Klempnermeister Otto Knick (1865–1921), späterer Betriebsleiter der Junkers & Co.

Das Kalorimeter, das den Temperaturunterschied des erhitzten Wassers misst, wurde auf der Weltausstellung 1893 in Chicago einer breiten Öffentlichkeit vorgestellt und dort mit einer Goldmedaille ausgezeichnet. Junkers selbst hielt sich in den USA auf und präsentierte das Gerät zusammen mit Paul Sachsenberg von den Sachsenberg-Werken in Roßlau.

Mit dem gleichen technischen Prinzip meldete Junkers 1894 seinen ersten Gasbadeofen zum Patent an und entwickelte diesen zum Durchlauferhitzer weiter. Zur wirtschaftlichen Auswertung seiner Patente gründete Junkers am 2. Juli 1895 zusammen mit Paul Ludwig als Kapitalgeber die Firma Junkers & Co. und bezog ein Jahr später ein neu errichtetes Betriebsgebäude in der Dessauer Albrechtstraße. Hergestellt wurden dort Kalorimeter, Haushaltsgeräte („Junkers-Thermen“) und Gasdruckregler.

Bereits 1897 nahm Junkers zusätzlich einen Ruf als Professor für Thermodynamik an die Technische Hochschule Aachen an, nachdem er seinen Partner Ludwig ausbezahlt hatte. Er übergab die Betriebsleitung an Hermann Schleissing und gründete die Versuchsanstalt Professor Junkers in Aachen, um neben seiner Tätigkeit in der Lehre auch die Forschung voranzutreiben. Er finanzierte das aus den Überschüssen der Junkers & Co. Zunächst wandte sich Junkers wieder dem Motorenbau zu und meldete einige Patente zu Schwerölmotoren an.

Am 31. März 1898 heiratete Junkers die Dessauer Bürgerstochter Therese Bennhold (1876–1950). Aus der Ehe gingen 12 Kinder hervor.

Weitere Forschungen zur Wärmeübertragung mündeten ab 1901 in Patente, die Junkers ab 1904 in der Abteilung Kalorifer bei Junkers & Co mit der Herstellung von Heizlüftern wirtschaftlich verwertete.

Flugzeug-, Motorenbauer und Luftreeder Bearbeiten

Ab 1908 arbeitete Junkers in Aachen mit Hans Reissner zusammen, der Junkers' Blickfeld auf die Aerodynamik und den Flugzeugbau richtete. Ein Jahr später hob Reissners Prototyp zu einem Testflug ab, dessen Tragflächen noch im Gasgerätewerk von Junkers & Co. in Dessau gefertigt worden waren. Es waren Flügel in Metallkonstruktion.

1910 meldete Junkers den freitragenden, unverspannten Flügel mit dickem Profil zum Patent an, sein erstes Patent im Flugzeugbau, das richtungsweisend für die gesamte Flugtechnik wurde. [3] Auf Initiative von Junkers wurde ebenfalls 1910 in Aachen ein Windkanal erbaut. Fast nebenbei entwarf Junkers um diese Zeit die erste Wasserwirbelbremse.

1912 ging Junkers nach Dessau zurück und eröffnete im Folgejahr eine Motorenfabrik in Magdeburg sie wurde schon 1915 wieder geschlossen.

1915 folgte die Entwicklung des ersten Ganzmetallflugzeuges, der J 1. 1917 bis 1919 erfolgte der Firmenzusammenschluss mit Fokker zur Junkers-Fokkerwerke AG. Während des Ersten Weltkrieges war dieses Unternehmen zwar eine wichtige Rüstungsfirma, jedoch wurden nur wenige dort entwickelte Flugzeuge frontreif.

1926 wurde seine Fluggesellschaft Junkers Luftverkehr AG auf Drängen des Reichsverkehrsministeriums mit dem Deutsche Aero Lloyd zur Deutschen Luft Hansa fusioniert, weil beide Reedereien einzeln ohne Subventionen nicht wirtschaftlich waren. Die Initiative in der Reichsregierung ging dabei wesentlich von Ernst Brandenburg aus.

Junkers Bestrebungen nach dem Ersten Weltkrieg bis zu seinem Ausscheiden 1933 galten hauptsächlich der zivilen Luftfahrt, die er als Flugzeug- und Motorenbauer wie auch Luftreeder voranbrachte und geprägt hat. Berühmtheit erlangten dabei die Flugzeugbaumuster Junkers F 13, die G 38 und die Ju 52/3m. Junkers konkurrierte mit Dornier um das bessere Konzept für Langstreckenflüge über den Atlantik (siehe auch Atlantiküberquerung). Junkers favorisierte Landflugzeuge Dornier Wasserflugzeuge. Der wesentlich jüngere Dornier (1884–1969) bot Junkers eine Zusammenarbeit an Junkers lehnte ab.

Nachdem die Junkers Motorenbau GmbH, die Hugo Junkers 1923 in Dessau neu gegründet hatte, vor dem Hintergrund der Weltwirtschaftskrise bereits zu Beginn des Jahres 1930 in finanzielle Schwierigkeiten geraten war, musste Junkers am 22. März 1932 für seine gesamte Unternehmensgruppe Insolvenz anmelden. Am 4. November 1932 übernahm die Robert Bosch AG für 2,6 Millionen Reichsmark das Unternehmen Junkers & Co. und ermöglichte es damit Hugo Junkers, am 8. November 1932 die Vergleichsverhandlungen in seinem Sinne zu beenden. Durch den Verkauf seines Gasgerätewerkes konnte Hugo Junkers den Flugzeug- und Motorenbau zunächst vor fremdem Zugriff bewahren.

Enteignung Bearbeiten

Bereits kurz nach der Machtübernahme des NSDAP-Regimes am 30. Januar 1933 wurden für den neuen „Reichskommissar für Luftfahrt“, Hermann Göring, dessen Beschäftigung Junkers zehn Jahre zuvor abgelehnt hatte, die Junkers-Motorenbau GmbH und die Junkers-Flugzeugwerk AG zum Objekt der von ihm verfolgten Aufrüstungspolitik. Unter großen Druck gesetzt, musste Hugo Junkers 1933 die Mehrheit an dem restlichen Konzern an das Deutsche Reich abgeben. Junkers erhielt Haus- und Stadtverbot und musste Dessau verlassen.

Nach der Enteignung bis zu seinem Tode verschrieb sich Junkers ganz dem Metallbau, einem weiteren Interessengebiet, das während seiner Zeit in Dessau entstanden war. Angeregt durch die Nachbarschaft und Zusammenarbeit mit dem Bauhaus hat Junkers theoretische Planungen zur Metallarchitektur geschaffen. Aus diesen Überlegungen sind die Lamellenkonstruktionen seiner geräumigen Hangars entstanden. Für Hallen in über 27 Ländern wurde diese auf Friedrich Zollinger zurückgehende Bauweise dann exportiert. Ein Muster-Metallhaus ist heute im Technikmuseum Hugo Junkers in Dessau-Roßlau zu sehen.

Die Betriebe wurden 1936 zur Junkers Flugzeug- und Motorenwerke AG vereinigt. Die später, ab 1939 im Krieg eingesetzten Flugzeuge – wie beispielsweise die Ju 87 oder Ju 88 – entstanden unter staatlicher Regie sie hatten mit ihrer Glattrumpfbauweise nichts mehr mit der von Junkers geprägten Bauweise gemein und können ihm nicht zugerechnet werden.

  • 1892 Erste Firma Hugo Junkers - Civil Ingenieur in Dessau und Patent für das Kalorimeter
  • 1895 Gründung der Firma Junkers & Co. in Dessau, Partner ist Ludwig, der 1897 wieder ausscheidet
  • 1897 Gründung der Versuchsanstalt Prof. Junkers in Aachen
  • 1902 Gründung der Versuchsanstalt für Ölmotoren in Aachen
  • 1913 Gründung Junkers Motorenbau in Magdeburg, 1915 geschlossen
  • 1914 Gründung Kaloriferwerk Hugo Junkers in Dessau
  • 1915 Gründung der Forschungsanstalt Prof. Junkers in Dessau mit Übernahme der Versuchsanstalt in Aachen (1919)
  • 1915 Entwicklung des ersten Ganzmetallflugzeugs (J1)
  • 1916 Gründung des Hauptbüro Junkers Werke in Dessau
  • 1917 Firmenzusammenschluss zur Junkers-Fokkerwerke AG, 1919 wieder aufgelöst
  • 1919 Gründung Junkers Flugzeugwerke AG (Ifa) in Dessau
  • 1919 Bau des ersten zivilen Ganzmetallflugzeugs F13
  • 1919 Bildung der Abteilung Lamellen Kalorifer innerhalb Junkers & Co.
  • 1921 Bildung Abteilung Stahlbau innerhalb Kaloriferwerk Hugo Junkers
  • 1921 Gründung Junkers Luftbild innerhalb der Ifa
  • 1921 Gründung der Abteilung Luftverkehr innerhalb der Ifa (später Bestandteil der Luft Hansa)
  • 1923 Gründung der Junkers Motorenbau GmbH (Jumo) in Dessau
  • 1924 Gründung der Junkers Luftverkehr AG in Umgründung der Abteilung Luftverkehr
  • 1925 Gründung der Junkers Flugzeugführerschule
  • 1925 Bildung der Abteilung Schädlingsbekämpfung innerhalb der Ifa
  • 1927 Bildung der Zentralen Lehrwerkstatt in Dessau
  • 1927 Auszeichnung mit der Wilhelm Exner Medaille[4]
  • 1927 Auszeichnung mit der Grashof-Denkmünze des Vereins Deutscher Ingenieure
  • 1928
    • Erste Ost-West-Überquerung des Atlantiks mit einer Junkers W 33 durch Hermann Köhl, Ehrenfried Günther Freiherr von Hünefeld und James Fitzmaurice
    • Verleihung der Ehrenbürgerschaft der Stadt Rheydt
    • Verleihung der Ehrenbürgerschaft der Stadt Aachen
    • Ernennung zum Ehrenbürger der RWTH Aachen
    • Ernennung zum Ehrensenator der RWTH Aachen

    Seine Witwe verkaufte die bei Junkers verbliebenen 49 Prozent stillen Anteile an den Werken kurz nach seinem Tode für 30 Millionen Reichsmark an das Deutsche Reich. Ab 1935 waren die Junkers Flugzeugwerke AG einschließlich der verbundenen Betriebe ein Staatsbetrieb des Deutschen Reiches. Im Zweiten Weltkrieg wurden die Junkers-Werke zu einem der wichtigsten deutschen Produzenten von Militärflugzeugen. Die Werke waren aber in diesem Zeitraum nicht mehr im Besitz von Junkers oder seiner Nachkommen.

    Hugo Junkers wird heute in Dessau, der Stadt seines Wirkens, mit dem Technikmuseum Hugo Junkers gewürdigt. Exponate des Museums sind unter anderem eine restaurierte Ju 52 (auch bekannt als „Tante Ju“), ein Junkers-Stahlhaus sowie viele weitere Exponate aus dem umfangreichen Schaffensfeld Junkers'.


    100 Years Ago

    A revolution in aircraft manufacturing was under way when on December 12, 1915, at the Döberitz airfield west of Berlin, the Junkers J1 took off for her maiden flight. The J1 was the first aircraft built completely of metal - other than all contemporary planes which were manufactured of wood, struts, tension wires, and canvas. It was the era of biplanes, of those ‘flying boxes” and their death-defying pilots, and all experts of the time believed that aircraft could only be constructed of light material, and not of a heavy material like metal. Their opinion: “There’s no way metal can fly.” Yet one visionary saw the future of aviation differently: In the opinion of Professor Hugo Junkers (1859-1935) the future of aircraft not only consisted of aerial competitions and air battles, but in the transport of passengers and goods. And only a metal aircraft could achieve that.

    The J1 was the world’s first aircraft to also feature another innovation: an unbraced, cantilever monoplane wing with a thick profile guaranteeing the wing’s inner stability. Already in 1910 Professor Junkers had received a patent for his concept of the “thick wing.” In his own wind tunnel he then tested a multitude of wing profiles, confirming his expectation that a thick wing resulted in no more resistance than the thin, curved wing profiles common at the time. Instead, the thick wing allowed for a much better uplift and could carry additional load. Both Junkers’ innovations - the metal construction and the self-supporting thick wing - are influencing aircraft manufacturing still today.

    As duralumin, a particularly strong aluminum alloy, had only just been invented and was difficult to obtain, the Junkers J1 was still built of steel. However, Junkers’ employees at his Dessau plant, where Junkers gas heaters were built, were experts in processing extremely thin sheets of metal, with a thickness of only 0.1 to 0.2 millimeters. The smooth exterior of the aircraft was reinforced internally by corrugated iron. This modern structure was later also used in other aircraft, like the Boeing B-17 in 1935.

    The J1 was not intended for mass production, but rather served to demonstrate these new technologies. Less than two years later, in 1917, Junkers introduced the J7, the first monoplane made of corrugated duralumin which would become typical for all subsequent Junkers aircraft.. Four years after the J1, in 1919, the Junkers F 13 started for her maiden flight. The F 13 was the world’s first all-metal transport aircraft, and it became a huge commercial success. Over the next decade, a whole family of passenger and freight planes followed, such as the W 33 and W 34, the three-engine aircraft G 24 and G 31, the four-engine G 38, and finally the legendary three-engine Ju 52, nicknamed “Tante Ju” [Aunt Ju].

    Considered a milestone in aviation technology, the Ju 1 was exhibited from 1926 at the Deutsches Museum in Munich, Germany. In December 1944 it was destroyed during a World War II bombing raid. 100 years after the first flight of the J1, the Junkers Technology Museum in Dessau, Germany, intends to build a full-scale replica of this pioneering aircraft, financed through a crowd funding campaign at Kickstarter.

    In order to celebrate this anniversary and to support this great project, the Junkers Shop will soon launch a Limited Edition Junkers J 1 watch. More information will follow as soon as the crowdfunding campaign has started.


    JUNKERS Brand History

    As is the case with a few, but famous, the history of the company Junkers started with one person, and the invention itself, which initiated the whole direction of development of heating equipment, was not directly related to the heating appliances. The German inventor, a professor at the University of Aachen, Dr. Hugo Junkers patented in 1892 developed a calorimeter for measuring the calorific value of natural gas used in gas engines. A year later, the device was awarded the highest award at the World Exhibition in Chicago. Honored triumph noted originality of approach, outstanding creative abilities of the author, however all this was only the beginning of his brilliant creative way.

    The idea, built in the principle of the calorimeter (flowing water heating due to the heat released during the combustion of natural gas), pushed the inventor to create a larger capacity water heater, which soon won the strongest position in the home appliances market. Already in 1895, Hugo Junkers opened the Junkers & Co factory in Dessau, which starts producing the world's first gas water heaters Junkers. The beginning of the commercial activities of the company Junkers & Co was so successful that it led to the creation of a number of improved models: from heavy floor to elegant wall. The pace and capabilities of the new production grew steadily, by 1904 the factory Junkers produced 19 models of devices, among which, in addition to water heaters, there were also coolers and ventilation equipment under the brand name Junkers. The use of automation has opened the possibility of controlling the supply of gas depending on the consumption of hot water. And the streamlined serial production has made flowing water heaters Junkers available for almost any home.

    And to this day the principle of running water heating is successfully used in gas water heaters and boilers. His genius Hugo Junkers showed not only in inventions in the field of heat engineering. By 1911, the author of a flow-through gas water heater became the world leader in the number of registered inventions, among which a new place for processing sheet metal was occupied. But the field of activity, where Hugo Junkers once again immortalized his name, was aircraft construction, in particular, his talent and work in 1915 created the world's first all-metal aircraft Junkers, and later the world's first serial passenger aircraft Ju 52.

    In 1925 the company Junkers in conjunction with the company Deutsche Aero Lloyd organized the company Lufthansa. The factory for producing gas columns for a long time has progressed successfully. In 1929, a thermoelectric switch of gas was first applied on Junkers columns, which made these devices the safest in the world. The cardinal changes in the fate of the enterprise are related to the world economic crisis that erupted in the early 1930s. XX century.

    In 1932, Hugo Junkers sold a factory of gas columns to Robert Bosch GmbH, whose history also began in the 19th century with modest electromechanical workshops in Stuttgart, founded in 1886 by Robert Bosch. The great experience accumulated by Hugo Junkers over the years of production of gas appliances, and the technical know-how of Bosch paved the way for inventions that determined the main directions in the development of heating and water heating equipment. Until the late 80's. The equipment was produced only under the trademark Junkers and was oriented mainly to the German market. Then the gas equipment division began to work consistently to raise its international authority, expand its sales markets.


    Hugo Junkers and the all-metal monoplane

    On February 3 , 1859 , German engineer and aircraft designer Hugo Junkers was born. Junkers is generally credited with pioneering the design of all-metal airplanes and flying wings . As founder of the Junkers Flugzeug- und Motorenwerke AG, he was one of the mainstays of the German aircraft industry in the years between World War I and World War II . Amongst the highlight of his career were the Junkers J 1 of 1915 , the world’s first practical all-metal aircraft , incorporating a cantilever wing design with virtually no external bracing, the Junkers F 13 of 1919 , the world’s first all-metal passenger aircraft .

    Hugo Junkers – Early Years

    Hugo Junkers came from a wealthy family that offered him and his siblings very good educational opportunities and financial independence. He was the third of seven children of the entrepreneur and owner of a cotton weaving mill Heinrich Junkers and his wife Luise. After attending the Höhere Bürgerschule (today: Hugo-Junkers-Gymnasium) in Rheydt from 1864 to 1875, he then moved to the Gewerbeschule in Barmen, where he graduated from high school in 1878. After an internship at the machine tool factory Karl Klingelhoefer, Junkers began studying at the Royal Vocational School in Berlin in September of the same year, which merged with the Royal Polytechnic University in Charlottenburg in 1879. After two semesters he continued his studies from October 1881 at the Technical University in Aachen, where he graduated in 1883 with an examination in mechanical engineering.

    The two-stroke Opposed Piston Gas Engine

    After initial professional experience in various companies in Aachen and in his father’s company in Rheydt, for which he also temporarily interrupted his studies, Junkers went back to the Charlottenburg University of Technology to attend further lectures on electrodynamics and thermodynamics with Adolf Slaby and to carry out mechanical tests in his electrotechnical laboratory. In 1888, at Slaby’s suggestion, Junkers went to Dessau to join the German Continental Gas Company, which had started producing electricity two years earlier and had also developed corresponding engines. Together with the Technical Director, Wilhelm von Oechelhäuser jun., Junkers developed new engines both succeeded in 1892 in developing the first two-stroke opposed-piston gas engine.

    The Calorimeter and Further Developments

    Since knowledge of the calorific value of the gas used is decisive for the mode of operation of the engine, Junkers simultaneously developed a calorimeter, which was registered for patent on 29 June 1892. In October of the same year, Hugo Junkers founded his first company, Hugo Junkers, civil engineer, and began work in a horse stable rented by the gas company. The calorimeter, which measures the temperature difference of the heated water, was presented to the general public at the 1893 World’s Fair in Chicago, where it was awarded a gold medal. Junkers himself stayed in the USA and presented the device together with Paul Sachsenberg from the Sachsenberg-Werke in Roßlau.

    Using the same technical principle, Junkers applied for a patent for its first gas bath furnace in 1894 and further developed it into a continuous-flow heater. For the economic evaluation of his patents, Junkers founded the Junkers & Co. company together with Paul Ludwig as investor on July 2, 1895 and one year later moved into a newly constructed factory building in Albrechtstrasse in Dessau. Calorimeters, household appliances (“Junkers thermal baths”) and gas pressure regulators were manufactured there. As early as 1897, Junkers also accepted a professorship in thermodynamics at the Technical University of Aachen after he had paid out his partner Ludwig.

    Aeronautical Work

    It is believed that Junker first began with his aeronautical work when he collaborated with Hans Reissner in Aachen. They started to construct their all-metal canard design, which they named the Ente (“Duck“). Junkers & Co built the flying surfaces as well as the radiator of Reissner’s design. While working on the project, Junkers began working on the problems of airframe design and solving the problem of eliminating the then-prevalent exterior bracing from airframes. In 1910, Junkers applied for a patent for the cantilever, unbraced wing with a thick profile, his first patent in aircraft construction, which became a trend-setter for all aviation technology. At the initiative of Junkers, a wind tunnel was also built in Aachen in 1910. Almost incidentally, Junkers designed the first water vortex brake around this time. In 1912 Junkers returned to Dessau and the following year opened an engine factory in Magdeburg it was closed again in 1915.

    The First All-Metal Aircraft

    In 1915, Junker and his company received the first aircraft construction contract from the German government to produce a two-seat all-metal aircraft with a top speed of 130 km/h. Otto Mader was back then the head of Junkers’ Forschungsanstalt and Hans Steudel was director of the company’s structural materials and testing department. They began working on the design of the Junkers J 1 in 1915 and in November of the same year, the initial test flights began. Junkers engineers Otto Mader, head of Junkers’ Forschungsanstalt, and Hans Steudel, director of Junkers’ structural materials and testing department, started the work on the design of what would become the Junkers J 1 in September of that year, and by November 1915, the completed J 1 was ready for initial flight testing.

    The J 1 was a mid-wing monoplane with a cantilever wing. The fuselage used welded strip-steel angle stock and I-beam sections along with some steel tubing to form its main internal structure with 42cm wide sheet steel panels wrapped around the fuselage to form its covering. The wing root had a depth of about 75% of the height of the fuselage at the root’s thickest point, and the wing had at least three airfoil changes, along with tapering of the leading and trailing edge angles between the wing’s root and the wingtip which became Junkers design hallmark on the later 1918 Junkers D.I. single seat all metal fighter design. On the J 1, Junker also relied on steel panels with span-wise corrugations running from root to tip as a structural element hidden under the smooth outer metal covering to increase the wing’s strength. These elements were later used on all-metal aircraft, such as the wings of the American Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress heavy bomber design of 1935.

    The static tests on the airplane were completed on 3 December 1915 and it was taken to the airfield in Döberitz near Berlin for its flight testing program. After the first test flight was not so successful and some repairs were accomplished over the holidays. On 18 January 1916, the second attempt at flight for the J 1 was carried out successfully. Junkers was given a contract to continue working on his all-metal concept. The Junkers J 2 single-seat fighter, which was the follow-on to the J 1, never saw front line service. The J 1 probably never flew after January 1916.

    Postwar Developments

    From 1917 to 1919 the company merged with Fokker to form Junkers-Fokkerwerke AG. During the First World War this company was an important armaments company, but only a few aircraft developed there became ready for the front. After World War I started, Junker had became more and more convinced of the necessity to use metal as the main structural material for airplanes. However, the apparently best metal alloy for aircraft construction, duralumin , had only been invented some six years earlier in Germany, Junkers’ first all-metal aircraft designs had to use sheets of heavier electrical steel. Junker’s efforts after the First World War up to his retirement in 1933 were mainly focused on civil aviation, which he advanced and shaped as an aircraft and engine manufacturer as well as an air carrier. The Junkers F 13 , the G 38 and the Ju 52/3m became famous. Junkers competed with Dornier for the better concept for long-distance flights across the Atlantic (see also Atlantic Crossing).[6] Junkers favoured land planes Dornier seaplanes. The much younger Dornier (1884-1969) offered Junkers a cooperation Junkers declined.[5]

    Later Years and Expropriation

    After Junkers Motorenbau GmbH, which Hugo Junkers had newly founded in Dessau in 1923, had already got into financial difficulties at the beginning of 1930 against the backdrop of the global economic crisis, Junkers had to file for insolvency for its entire group of companies on 22 March 1932. Shortly after the Nazi regime took power on 30 January 1933, Junkers-Motorenbau GmbH and Junkers-Flugzeugwerk AG became the objects of the new “Reichskommissar für Luftfahrt” (Reich Commissioner for Aviation), Hermann Göring, whose employment Junkers had rejected ten years earlier. Put under great pressure, Hugo Junkers had to hand over the majority of the remaining company to the German Reich in 1933. Junkers was banned from the house and the city and had to leave Dessau. Hugo Junkers died on 3 February 1935 at age 76.

    In 1936 the companies were merged to form Junkers Flugzeug- und Motorenwerke AG. The aircraft that were later used in the war from 1939 onwards – such as the Ju 87 or Ju 88 – were built under state control with their smooth fuselage construction they had nothing in common with the design that Junkers had coined and cannot be attributed to him.


    Hugo Junkers - History

    Junkers Motorenwerke AG (Jumo)

    Hugo Junkers was researching internal combustion engine improvements as early as 1888, co-founded his first engine company in 1890, and patented the opposed-piston Diesel engine in 1892. Other Junkers companies began building aircraft and experimental aircraft engines during WWI. Junkers Motorenwerke AG (Jumo) produced successful aircraft Diesel, spark-ignition and gas turbine engines through WWII.

    More information about Hugo Junkers and his companies is available from the Hugo Junkers Homepage

    1943 paper by Helmut Schelp comparing turbosupercharged Jumo 222 performance with gas turbines.

    Robert Inkol has kindly contributed the following manual pages.

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    Hugo Junkers

    Hugo Junkers (3 February 1859 – 3 February 1935) was a German aircraft engineer and aircraft designer who pioneered the design of all-metal airplanes and flying wings. His company, Junkers Flugzeug- und Motorenwerke AG (Junkers Aircraft and Motor Works), was one of the mainstays of the German aircraft industry in the years between World War I and World War II. His multi-engined, all-metal passenger- and freight planes helped establish airlines in Germany and around the world.

    In addition to aircraft, Junkers also built both diesel and petrol engines and held various thermodynamic and metallurgical patents. He was also one of the main sponsors of the Bauhaus movement and facilitated the move of the Bauhaus from Weimar to Dessau (where his factory was situated) in 1925.

    Amongst the highlights of his career were the Junkers J𔀳 of 1915, the world's first practical all-metal aircraft, incorporating a cantilever wing design with virtually no external bracing, the Junkers F󈈁 of 1919 (the world's first all-metal passenger aircraft), the Junkers W󈈕 (which made the first successful heavier-than-air east-to-west crossing of the Atlantic Ocean), the Junkers G.38 "flying wing", and the Junkers Ju󈈨, affectionately nicknamed "Tante Ju", one of the most famous airliners of the 1930s.

    When the Nazis came into power in 1933 they requested Junkers and his businesses aid in the German re-armament. When Junkers declined, the Nazis responded by demanding ownership of all patents and market shares from his remaining companies, under threat of imprisonment on the grounds of High Treason. In 1934 Junkers was placed under house arrest, and died at home in 1935 during negotiations to give up the remaining stock and interests in Junkers. Under Nazi control, his company produced some of the most successful German warplanes of the Second World War.


    The Long, Strange Saga of the Bremen

    Eleven months after Charles Lindbergh’s solo Atlantic crossing in the custom-built Spirit of St. Louis, three men boarded a Junkers factory-made, all-metal airplane, the Bremen, and, despite fierce headwinds, fog, and sleet, became the first to fly across the ocean in the other direction. Teddy Fennelly, the biographer of the Bremen’s Irish co-pilot, wrote that the flight “was considered impossible by the experts of the day—including Lindbergh.” Although Lindbergh’s trip from New York to Paris was the second nonstop eastward crossing (eight years after John Alcock and Arthur Brown made the first in an open-cockpit Vimy that landed them in an Irish bog) and the Bremen’s crew achieved a first, the Bremen did not win the lasting fame of the Spirit. Lindbergh’s airplane became a centerpiece at the Smithsonian Institution’s National Air and Space Museum. Germany’s premier science museum rejected the Bremen, and it bounced from one American museum to another, until finally, 70 years after its historic flight, it made its way back across the Atlantic to its namesake city. The story of the Bremen proves again that finding a place in history depends as much on timing and social context as it does on virtuosity.

    Toast of the town: In April 1928, Günther von Hünefeld, James Fitzmaurice, and Hermann Köhl (left to right) sign autographs at the Ritz-Carlton, New York. (Alamy)

    GLOBAL STRATEGY

    When the Bremen rolled out of the Junkers Dessau plant on July 28, 1927, Hermann Köhl, the 39-year-old Lufthansa pilot who would fly it across the ocean, called it “the greatest plane in existence.” Its low-slung, 60-foot-long, cantilevered wings set it apart from the competition. The Spirit of St. Louis and most other monoplanes of the day needed struts to brace the wings against aerodynamic stress, even though struts increased drag. With its modern wing and corrugated aluminum-
    alloy shell, the Junkers W 33 was derived from the world-changing Junkers F 13, a four-passenger transport first flown in 1919. Within five years, the F 13 had come to dominate world air traffic. Still, the political and economic instability of post-World War I Europe and Russia made Junkers seek even more passengers—in the United States.

    While the Bremen was being built, the company’s Dessau plant became a center for Hugo Junkers’ Atlantic projects, part of his years-long fight to keep the company from being taken over by the German government. Despite his aeronautical triumphs, a decade of inflation in Germany had brought Junkers to insolvency. Taking advantage of its financial vulnerability, Germany’s aviation ministries forcibly merged part of his company in 1926 with his chief competitor to create the nationalized airline Deutsche Luft Hansa (Lufthansa). Historian Richard Byers, author of Flying Man: Hugo Junkers and the Dream of Aviation, explains that Lufthansa was created not only to take over the privately held airline industry but also to serve “as a mechanism for Germany’s covert rearmament.” Byers believes Junkers was desperate to break into the North American market and saw a transatlantic feat as a way to burnish his brand. If the flight failed, his reputation would be lost, and with it his aviation business.

    Only a month after Lindbergh’s flight to Paris, Clarence Chamberlin flew his Bellanca Miss Columbia into Berlin’s Tempelhof airport (having just bested Lindbergh’s distance by 300 miles the day before on a flight from New York to Mansfeld, Germany). Hermann Köhl was one of the 150,000 people on hand in Berlin to greet him. As a Luftwaffe pilot in World War I, Köhl had become an expert in the then-rudimentary skills of night and fog flying. At Tempelhof, he heard about the Atlantic projects from other pilots awaiting Chamberlin’s arrival. Not long after, he traveled to Dessau, where he was introduced to a fellow veteran, Baron Ehrenfried Günther von Hünefeld, 36, a press agent for a German shipping company. The monocled aristocrat, sickly and blind in one eye, was a monarchist who believed a transatlantic flight would win glory for Germany, and he became a chief sponsor of the Atlantic project.

    At the same time, however, public opinion was beginning to turn against trans-ocean attempts. In 1927 alone, 16 people had died trying to cross the Atlantic. Sarcastically reminding its readers that April meant “Die Ozeanflug-Saison beginnt! ” (Ocean flying season begins!), the 1928 spring cover of a German magazine featured an illustration of airplanes spiraling down into turbulent waters. As headlines warned “Long Death List Brings Protests Against Flights,” officials in Europe, Canada, and the United States rebuked those who dangled cash prizes for these “foolhardy” flights, and considered banning them.

    On its first transatlantic attempt, the Bremen almost added to the casualty list. One month after its factory rollout, the modified W 33 departed from Dessau, with von Hünefeld and Köhl aboard, to fly to America. Battered by fuel-consuming headwinds, Köhl and Czech pilot Fritz Loos became disoriented in fog, and nearly crashed. They recovered but had to turn back.

    Lufthansa officials, still at odds with Junkers, warned Köhl not to fly the “inadequate machine” again. Undeterred, the pilot modified the Bremen’s wingtips and increased its fuel capacity. Von Hünefeld lined up 13 investors from among friends in his hometown of Bremen, and Junkers sold him the airplane at a discount. Facing an outright Weimar government ban on cross-Atlantic gambits, the fliers eyed Ireland. Noted Teddy Fennelly, “That little country on the edge of the Atlantic had no such bans and, as a take-off point, would save them nine hours flying time.”

    Irish airplane enthusiasts showed up at Baldonnel airfield near Dublin to cheer the arrival of the Bremen, which had flown nine hours from Germany. (Mary Evans Picture Library / Sueddeutsche Zeitung)

    CLOAKED IN MYSTERY

    In his history The Bremen, Fred Hotson observes that by March, German officials were becoming concerned about the “wily Baron” and the “taciturn Köhl.” Authorities warned air controllers to halt the takeoff of any “heavily loaded” aircraft—extra crew or fuel could signal the staging of another attempt. The two adventurers arranged to smuggle two Junkers mechanics carrying fuel and oil to Baldonnel airfield on Ireland’s eastern coast. “The aviators took on pretty much everyone by staging this flight,” says Byers.

    Late on Saturday, March 24, 1928, the Bremen was flown from Dessau to Tempelhof airfield. Von Hünefeld sneaked into the aircraft early Monday morning. Köhl drove over a few hours later, jotted “test flight to Dessau” in the air station’s logbook, and got a takeoff stamp.

    So as not to raise suspicions, the crew postponed takeoff until 8 a.m., their normal test-run time. Köhl taxied the aircraft to a grassy field to avoid a potential runway blockade. The Bremen made its furtive takeoff while authorities worked belatedly on a seize order. Lufthansa fired Köhl immediately.

    Joining him and von Hünefeld for the nine-hour, 816-mile journey was Arthur Spindler, 37, a former sergeant-major in Köhl’s bombing squadron. Junkers fretted that Spindler had spent too many post-war years on the ground, and once in Ireland, he was replaced as copilot by a 29-year-old commander of the Irish Army Air Corps, James Fitzmaurice. Fitzmaurice was a World War I Royal Air Force ace, but he didn’t speak German. The crew communicated with hand signals.

    Barricading themselves behind barbed-wire at Baldonnel airfield, the three methodically planned their assault on the Atlantic. Influenced by Köhl’s reputation as “Europe’s most cautious pilot,” Wall Street odds on their success improved, dropping from one in a hundred to a mere one in four.

    A long flight ahead: With the three aviators inside, the Bremen begins its April 12 takeoff roll at Baldonnel. It landed 36 and a half hours later in Canada. (Getty)

    Seventeen rain-drenched days later, ships crossing the Atlantic telegraphed that the weather was changing. Von Hünefeld wrapped a revolver in oiled silk (intending suicide in the event of a crash), and a steamroller tried to wring out the runway’s soggy turf. Throttle opened, chocks removed, the Bremen was wheels up at 5:38 a.m. on April 12, barely clearing wandering sheep. Its destination: Long Island, or as Fitzmaurice said, “Mitchel Field or heaven.”

    Things didn’t go well. The crew’s magnetic compass eventually became insensible. The instrument panel lights broke. Having omitted a radio to save weight, the crew didn’t receive ships’ warnings of fog-shrouded icebergs. The uninsulated, unpressurized airplane “trembled in every joint,” Köhl later reported. Fog was followed by a blizzard a leak sprang in an oil line. Thirty-plus hours in, they were low on fuel and lost.

    Spotting what Fitzmaurice believed was a “ship frozen in the ice,” the pilots landed on what turned out to be the iced-over reservoir of tiny Greenly Island, two miles from the mainland in eastern Quebec province. There was a brief moment of stillness and relief then the ice rind broke, pitching the Bremen forward and denting the propeller and undercarriage.

    The contrast between Lindbergh’s landing and the Bremen’s are worth noting: Roughly 100,000 Parisians had greeted Lindy at Le Bourget airfield on a warm May evening. Frigid Greenly Island was populated by a Canadian family of eight who, unfamiliar with airplanes, deduced that a “flying fish” had pierced the sky. It was Friday, April 13, 1928.

    The island’s lighthouse keeper, John Letemplier, helped the fliers absorb the news that they were 1,077 miles short of Mitchel Field. Letemplier’s brother walked two miles across the frozen Strait of Belle Isle to the home office of Alfred Cormier, whose telegraphs unleashed an explosion of excited reactions, bestowing fame on the fliers.

    The Bremen never flew again.

    After landing near the lighthouse on Greenly Island, Quebec, the aircraft suffered a series of mishaps before being dismantled for shipping back to Germany. (NASM (SI-79-1567))

    GATHERING OF HEROES

    Three days later, aviator Herta Junkers, Hugo’s 30-year-old daughter and vice president of Junkers North America, flew north from New York in a Junkers F 13 with two pilots. A wing design specialist who “imposed her strong will and personality on everyone here,” according to New York Times reporter B.W. Nyson, she supervised the Bremen rescue mission while 60 reporters camped at the Western Canadian Airways base in Lac Sainte-Agnès, 700 arctic flying miles from Greenly, waiting breathlessly for word.

    The rescue developed into a worldwide news story of its own and turned somber when one of its pilots, famed North Pole aviator Floyd Bennett, developed pneumonia while attempting to deliver supplies to the stranded crew. Now there were two rescue dramas. Lindbergh himself carried anti-pneumonia serums in the Army’s fastest airplane to Bennett’s bedside in Quebec City, but for naught. He died the next morning.

    The following day, before boarding the rescue mission’s Ford Tri-motor for the trip from Greenly, the ocean-crossers bid goodbye to their stalwart airplane. “Good old Bremen, you brought us through, and now we have to leave you on the last, easiest lap,” whispered Fitzmaurice. They headed to Arlington National Cemetery to pay respects at Bennett’s grave. Three days later, they were cheered by an estimated two million in a Manhattan ticker-tape parade.

    Touched by the warm reception, the trio presented the Museum of the City of New York with the Bremen’s propeller and Fitzmaurice’s ceremonial sword. After a heady nine-city tour, the Bremen crew took the oceanliner Columbus back to Germany in June. Lufthansa rehired Köhl.

    The Bremen, though, remained stranded on Greenly. In mid-May, Herta Junkers asked the U.S. War Department to help her pilot, Fred Melchior, reach the island. The Army Air Corps’ chief, Major General James E. Fechet, signed on to fly this third rescue. Melchior parachuted from a Loening OA-1 amphibian to reach the Bremen, which had been towed to a hill on the mainland.

    As if cursed, the week-long effort was marked by its own misfortunes, and ended with the W 33 loping downward to a crash. When the pilots heard the news, “each of us felt we had lost his own child,” reported von Hünefeld.


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Comments:

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