Biography of Geronimo - History

Biography of Geronimo - History

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Born in southern Arizona in June of 1829, Geronimo’s real name was Goyathlay ("one who yawns"). He was named Geronimo by a group of Mexicans whom he raided in 1858, after the Mexicans had killed his family. A war shaman of the Chiricahua Apaches, Geronimo was a skilled guerilla fighter with a strong enmity toward whites and a fierce loyalty to his people and commitment to freedom. In 1876, when the US Army forced Geronimo’s people to move to New Mexico, Geronimo led a group to Mexico to conduct a brief campaign of sorties into the United States. In the early 1880s, he began a series of raids on white communities, which built up to a concentrated campaign in May of 1885 directed against settlements in New Mexico and southern Arizona. After being pursued for ten months, he surrendered in March of 1886, but escaped soon after. His continued efforts to evade capture and remain free were covered by the press of white communities across the country. Geromino was finally captured near the Bavispe River in Mexico in August of 1886, and formally surrendered to General Nelson Miles at Camp Bowie, Arizona on September 4, 1886. At his surrender, he said: "Once I moved about like the wind. Now I surrender to you and that is all."
Geronimo was transferred to several prisons, and was eventually allowed to settle at Fort Sill, Oklahoma. He returned to farming, and converted to Christianity. In 1903, Geronimo joined the Dutch Reformed Church. He became something of a legend in his latter years, and even marched in President Theodore Roosevelt’s inaugural procession in 1905. The next year, his autobiography, Geronimo’s Story of His Life, was published. Geronimo died at Fort Sill, Oklahoma, on February 17, 1909.

Biography of Geronimo - History

Geronimo (1829-1909) was an eminent figure of Bedonkohe Apache tribe. He led the war against the U.S. and Mexico for many decades so that the Apache tribal lands could be expanded. The name Geronimo means “the one who yawns.” He was given this name during the Apache wars in one of the battles against Mexico.

In 1858 a group of Mexican soldiers attacked his village and killed his wife, mother and three children. It was then that he joined hands with others to respond to the killings. He made his name as a war chief who was notorious for raiding Mexican towns and provinces. He then went on to attack American locations across the Western Texas, New Mexico and Arizona.

In 1886, Geronimo gave in to the authorities of United States following a very long pursuit. Being a inmate of war during his elderly days, he came to be a celebrity in the region and appeared in many fairs. Still, he was restricted from going back to his land of birth. He died in 1909 following complications with pneumonia.

Geronimo’s early days

Geronimo was born near Turkey Creek which is a branch of the modern-day Gila River in New Mexico. His grandfather, known as Mako, was the chief of the Bendonkohe Apache. The parents of Geronimo raised him in accordance with the traditions and customs of the Apache people. After his father died, he was taken to Chihenne by his mother where he grew up. When he was 17 years old he wedded a woman by the name Alope of the band of Apache from Nedni-Chiricahua. Together they bore three children.

On March 6, 1858, when Geronimo and the other men were in the town trading, a group of soldiers from Sonora being led by Colonel Jose Maria Carrasco attacked the women and the children who had been left behind in the camp. Among the people who died were Geronimo’s mother, wife and children. This loss made him furious. From then on, together with his followers, he initiated attacks against any Mexicans that they would come across.

Geronimo later married a second wife by the name Chee-hash-kish and they had two children, Dohn-say and Chappo. He then took another wife by the name Nana-tha-thtith who gave him one child. He had several more wives including Zi-yeh, She-gha, Shtsha-she and Ih-tedda. In total he had nine wives with the last one being Azul.

His Religious background

When he was young, Geronimo was raised in accordance with the religious beliefs of the Bedonkohe people. In an autobiography that he wrote in 1905, he said that the religious teachings he got from his tribe did not say where one goes after death. However the teachings did speak of another life after death. He said that they believed that one’s duty in the current life would impact the future life.

In the later years, Geronimo embraced Christianity. He said that ever since he had become a prisoner he had received the lessons of the white man and perceived them to be better than his previously held beliefs. He said that he was not ashamed of being a Christian and he asked his native people to embrace Christianity. According to Geronimo there was no better religion than Christianity. In 1903 he became a member of the Dutch Reformed Church but was expelled four years later for gambling.

The Kas-Ki-Yeh Massacre

Raids on Chihuahua and Sonora took place for the first time at the end of 17th century. By 1835 Mexico had begun to offer rewards for Apache scalps. Mangas Coloradas became the chief two years later and started a chain of vengeful attacks against the Mexicans. These attacks and raids were so brutal and numerous that none of the areas were safe. Between the years 1820 and 1835 a total of 5,000 Mexicans died and some 100 settlements were destroyed. Geronimo became the war chief and notoriously urged for more raids and wars against the Mexican provinces.

These attacks became a daily occurrence. In December, 1860, the encampment of Bedonkohes was attacked by a group of 30 miners on the Western bank of the Mimbers River. A historian by the name R. Sweeney states that these miners killed several Indians, wounded many and captured 13 women and children. This heated up the retaliatory attacks by the Apache against the citizens of U.S. and their property.

According to Geronimo, the attack happened in the afternoon when they were returning from town. They met women and children who told them that their camp had been attacked by the Mexican troops. They learned that the men on guard had been killed, the ponies captured, arms taken, supplies destroyed and many women and children killed. Together the survivors took what they could find and assembled by the river. After the counting who was left, is when Geronimo realized that his aged mother, three children and his young wife were among those killed.

It was then that Geronimo decided to go on a revenge mission for the slaying of his family. According to National Geographic, Sanora’s governor claimed that over the five months that Geronimo and his men spent in the wild in 1886, they slaughtered a total of 500 to 600 Mexicans.

The Casa Grande Massacre

The Mexicans attacked the Apache once more in 1873. The men fought for months before deciding to sign a peace agreement at Casa Grande. Once the Apache had agreed on the terms, the Mexicans gave them mescal to make them intoxicated. Then the Mexicans attacked and killed twenty Apaches and captured many more. This forced the Apaches to retreat again.

The forces of Geronimo became outnumbered, but this did not stop him from fighting against the Mexican and U.S. troops. He was renowned for his brave exploits and his many escapes that took place between 1858 and 1886.

In his last days of his military career, Geronimo led a small gang consisting of thirty six women, men and children. Together they evaded American and Mexican troops for more than a year, making him the most popular Native American of that time. He even earned the title of the “worst Indian to ever live” among the white settlers.

Geronimo Campaign

In 1886, Captain Henry Lawton and Charles B. Gatewood were selected by General Nelson to lead an expedition that was to capture Geronimo. They were given strict orders to pursue Geronimo to the South of U.S.-Mexico boundary, where he took refuge, subdue and present him to the United States either dead or alive. Geronimo surrendered officially to the U.S. on August 4, 1886 in Arizona, in a place known as Skeleton Canyon.

Life in Prison

Geronimo was put into prison at Fort Sam Houston together with other Apaches and Apache scouts that aided the army in tracking him down. They were held there for six months before being sent to Pensacola, Florida at Fort Pickens. In 1887, Geronimo’s family was reunited when they were taken to the Mount Vernon barracks in Alabama where they stayed for 7 years. They were later taken to Fort Sill, Oklahoma in 1894.

During Geronimo’s later years he spent his days as a prisoner and a celebrity. He appeared at many fairs, such as the 1904 World’s Fair, held in St. Louis. In 1905 he also got an opportunity to ride in President Theodore Roosevelt’s inauguration parade. Around the same time he was approached by S.M. Barrett for an interview and he published his own book.

His Death

In the February of 1909, Geronimo fell from his horse when he was riding home and lied in the cold the entire evening before a colleague found him. He caught a cold and eventually succumbed to pneumonia while still serving his prison term in Fort Sill, Oklahoma.

Early years

Geronimo related that he was born in June 1829 in No-doyohn Cañon, Arizona, but many historians claim Geronimo was born in 1827. Geronimo was given the name Goyathlay (also spelled Goyahkla which means "One Who Yawns") at birth and was called this until his late teens. Goyathlay's grandfather was the chief of a Chiricahua Apache tribe: Goyathlay's father was not a chief because he had joined his wife's tribe of Bedonkohe Apache, thereby losing his right to rule by heredity. Mangas Coloradas succeeded Goyathlay's grandfather as chief of the Chiricahua Apaches, a position Goyathlay might have held otherwise.

At the age of seventeen, sometime around the year 1846, Goyathlay was invited to join the council of warriors, signifying that he was now considered a man in the tribe and not a boy. As a member of the council, he was eligible to fight in battle and to marry. Goyathlay gave many ponies to the father of a young woman named Alope, and she became his wife. In his lifetime, Goyathlay married about eight times. His many children from these marriages would not live easy lives. Four of his children were killed by Mexicans, and four were imprisoned by the U.S. government.

Geronimo: Love, Loss, And Tragedy

In the summer of 1858, Geronimo changed. The mild-mannered, peaceful man turned into a warrior hellbent on revenge.

It all happened when his tribe journeyed to a Mexican town called Kaskiyeh. While the men would go into town during the day to trade with the locals, the women and children would stay at the camp while a few men stood guard.

But one day when the traders returned, everyone — including Geronimo’s wife, mother, and children — had been brutally murdered. Villagers told them that Mexican troops from a nearby town had done the killing.

Wikimedia Commons From left to right: Geronimo, Yanozha (his brother-in-law), Chappo (his son by his second wife), and Fun (Yanozha’s half brother). 1886.

Seeing his entire family slain in cold blood left Geronimo with a hatred of Mexicans that he never overcame.

“I was never again contented in our quiet home,” he wrote. “I had vowed vengeance upon the Mexican troopers who had wronged me, and whenever I…saw anything to remind me of former happy days my heart would ache for revenge upon Mexico.”

The death of his family and subsequent lust for retribution set Geronimo on a path of battle and bloodshed. And a visit by a disembodied voice fueled his fire.


1988–2003: Early beginnings and Star for a Night Edit

Sarah Asher Tua Geronimo was born on July 25, 1988, in Santa Cruz, Manila, the Philippines to Delfin Geronimo, a retired PLDT employee, and Divina Tua, who ran a beauty salon in their house. She is the third of four children. [9] She started singing publicly at age two. At the age of four, she was accompanied by her mother to join auditions for different television programs. Geronimo became part of the shows Penpen De Sarapen (4–6 years old), Ang TV (7–8 years old) and NEXT (8–9 years old). [10] She has also played as an extra in the movie Sarah. Ang Munting Prinsesa (1995). [11] In between auditions, Geronimo would perform at shopping malls and hotel lounges. Geronimo, then age 7, was one of the performers during the 1995 visit of Pope John Paul II. Geronimo at an early age joined different singing contests the first of which was Tuklas Talino sponsored by the Philippine Long Distance Telephone Company (PLDT). [ citation needed ]

In 2002, Geronimo competed in the television singing contest Star for a Night airing in IBC. At the age of fourteen, she won the grand prize that included ₱1 million and a managerial contract from Viva Entertainment. Geronimo released her first album Popstar: A Dream Come True in 2003. Her acting debut was a supporting role in the film Filipinas (2003). She had another supporting role in Captain Barbell (2003).

2004–2007: The Other Side and In Motion Edit

Still managed by VIVA, Geronimo signed a TV contract with ABS-CBN network in 2004. [12] She starred in her first television series, Sarah the Teen Princess (2004) and became a regular host and performer on the variety show ASAP (2004–present). [13] [14] Geronimo again had supporting roles in the films Masikip sa Dibdib (2004), Annie B. (2004) and Lastikman: Unang Banat (2004). Geronimo sang the Philippine National Anthem at the pre-inaugural ceremonies of President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo on June 30, 2004. In November 2004, Geronimo released her second album, Sweet Sixteen that included the single "How Could You Say You Love Me". Geronimo performed in the Night of the Champions concert at the Araneta Coliseum with other singing competition winners Rachelle Ann Go and Erik Santos.

In 2005, Geronimo joined the cast of the teen-oriented television program SCQ Reload: Kilig Ako and hosted two seasons of the singing competition show Little Big Star (2005-2007). On September 30, 2005, Geronimo staged a solo concert at Araneta Coliseum entitled The Other Side.

In 2006, Geronimo starred in ABS-CBN's primetime soap opera, Bituing Walang Ningning, a remake of the 1985 movie. She played the role of an aspiring singer named Dorina Pineda, originally played by Sharon Cuneta in the movie, [15] [16] and released a soundtrack of the series. In July 2006, Geronimo release her third studio album, Becoming, produced by Christian De Walden. The album yielded three singles: "I Still Believe In Loving You", "Carry My Love" and "Iingatan Ko Ang Pag-ibig Mo". On November 18, 2006, Manny Pacquiao chose Geronimo to sing Lupang Hinirang, the Philippine national anthem, before his match against Mexico's Erik Morales at the Thomas and Mack Center in Las Vegas. [17] [18]

Geronimo staged her second major solo concert "In Motion" on July 14, 2007, at the Araneta Coliseum. Unlike her first solo concert, this concert went off with no technical glitches. [19] She spent the rest of 2007 performing concerts in the Philippines and the U.S. [13] [20] and recording her fourth studio album, Taking Flight, [21] which sold more than 60,000 units and achieved double-platinum status. In the latter half of 2007, Geronimo appeared in her third television series for ABS-CBN, Pangarap Na Bituin. [13]

2008–2010: The Next One and Record Breaker Edit

In early 2008, Geronimo reunited with Erik Santos, Rachelle Ann Go, and Christian Bautista in a Valentine's Day concert at the Araneta Coliseum, entitled "OL4LUV". [22] Before Geronimo released her fifth studio album, she released I'll Be There as the fourth single from Taking Flight. On July 30, 2008, Geronimo starred with Filipino actor John Lloyd Cruz in A Very Special Love which was produced by Star Cinema and VIVA films and grossed almost ₱180 million . [23] [24] [25] The movie opened with ₱14 million and Isah V. Red of The Manila Standard Today said, "This only proves that the new generation of Filipino movie audience is ready for their own screen heroine, not someone passed on to them by their parents or grandparents. [26] Geronimo included a track from the film, "A Very Special Love", on her album Taking Flight. Geronimo's fifth studio album, Just Me, included a duet with Backstreet Boys member Howie Dorough entitled, "I'll Be There". De Walden again produced this album. [27] [28] Like her previous albums, Just Me achieved platinum status in December 2008. She was recognized for this accomplishment on the 2008 ASAP Platinum Circle Awards show. [29] On November 8, 2008, Geronimo staged her third major solo concert in Araneta Coliseum, entitled The Next One, which marked the first time she accompanied herself on the piano while on stage. [30] Geronimo's Just Me album, was re-released, adding You Changed My Life. [24] She was also recognized by ASAP for attaining platinum status for her albums Taking Flight and Just Me and for her two concert DVDs (The Other Side and Sarah in Motion). [29]

In February 2009, Geronimo made a movie again with John Lloyd Cruz in You Changed My Life, the sequel of A Very Special Love. [31] The film's total theatrical earnings earned over ₱230 million , and holds [ when? ] the record for the highest grossing Filipino movie made. [32] Geronimo traveled to the US in March to April 2009 for her The Next One tour, where she received positive reviews about her performances. [33] In June 2009, she re-staged the Sarah Geronimo: The Next One Philippine concert tour. [34] [35] On August 5, 2009, Geronimo was given the honor to sing the Virna Lisa's 1986 People Power anthem, "Magkaisa" during the funeral of former President Corazon Aquino. [36] Geronimo released a solo Christmas album, Your Christmas Girl in October 2009. In November 2009, she staged her fourth solo sold-out concert, Record Breaker, in the Araneta Coliseum. [37] [38] The Philippine Daily Inquirer called the concert "a qualified success". [32] At the same day of her concert, she released her sixth studio album, Music and Me. [39] [40] [41] In December 2009, Your Christmas Girl and Music and Me both reached platinum status after a month of their release. [42]

On December 1, 2009, Geronimo received a star on the Philippines Walk of Fame at Libis, Eastwood. [43] Geronimo released the DVD Record Breaker, filmed at the Araneta Coliseum, on March 16, 2010, and eventually achieved triple Platinum status in December 2010.

In April 2010, Geronimo was chosen to endorse an online game called Superstar which was launched by X-Play as an online singing star search. Geronimo also lent her voice in singing its theme song "This Is My Dream." [44]

In September 2010, Geronimo starred in a musical series entitled 1DOL which was aired in ABS-CBN and she appeared in the film Hating Kapatid under Viva Films.

2011–2012: Catch Me, I'm in Love, Sarah G. Live!, and concerts Edit

In February 2011, she had a Valentine concert with Martin Nievera titled "What Love Is" at the Araneta Coliseum. [45] Geronimo worked with Gerald Anderson in the film collaboration of Star Cinema and Viva Films entitled Catch Me, I'm in Love which was shown on March 23, 2011, in theaters nationwide and shown as a summer release in the Philippines. In November 2011, Geronimo made a movie again with Gerald Anderson in Won't Last A Day Without You which earned ₱20 million on its opening day. [ citation needed ] Geronimo signed an exclusive one-year contract with ABS-CBN, it states her future projects and commitments such as having a weekly solo show, an extension as a performer in ASAP Rocks, and a movie with John Lloyd Cruz for the third time. [46] Also this year, Geronimo is declared as the Princess of Philippine Movies by the Guillermo Mendoza Box Office Awards for her movie, Catch Me, I'm in Love together with Gerald Anderson.

In October of the same year, the singer took private lessons on Jazz music during her vacation in the USA. She was also vocally supervised by Yosha Honassan who later on became the writer of some of her jazz songs. [ citation needed ]

Geronimo had her solo weekly musical-variety show every Sunday night titled Sarah G. Live! and her movie with John Lloyd Cruz is in production. [47]

In July 2012, Geronimo staged her fifth major solo concert in the "Big Dome" entitled 24/SG. [48] In November 2012, Geronimo was chosen as the "Bayanihan Ambassadress" of the Armed Forces of the Philippines.

In December 2012, Geronimo won a string of awards one of which is the Best Asian Artist Award (Philippines) at the recently concluded Mnet Asian Music Awards. [49] Geronimo also won major awards in Awit Awards, Aliw Awards and PMPC Star Awards for Music. [50]

2013–2015: The Voice of The Philippines and international activities Edit

In 2013, Geronimo will have her own drama anthology entitled Sarah G. Presents. [51] [52] [53] Geronimo is also set to be a coach and judge in The Voice of the Philippines.

In March 2013, Geronimo received two Presidential Awards, Ani ng Dangal for Multi-Disciplinary Arts and National Commission for Culture and the Arts (Philippines) Goodwill Ambassadress for Music. [54] Geronimo is nominated for three categories at the 2013 World Music Awards (WMA): best entertainer of the year, best live act, and best female artist. [55] Also her movie which is shown on March 30, 2013, It Takes a Man and a Woman broke box office records and became the highest grossing Filipino film of all time.

In June 2013, Viva Records announced that she wouldbe releasing her tenth studio album on July before her birthday. The album's title was later revealed to be Expressions, which was contain mainly original songs that she co-produced herself. [56] It was released on July 22. [57] On August 8, Geronimo became the brand endorser of KakaoTalk together with K-pop boyband Big Bang. [58]

In December 2013, she was elevated into Anak TV Seal Hall of Famer for being a "credible, wholesome and worth emulating by the youth". [59] Geronimo was also nominated for the Best Southeast Asian Act category in the 2013 MTV Europe Music Awards.

On May 27, 2014, Geronimo are among the acts that won accolades in the 2014 World Music Awards held in Monaco, winning the Best Selling Philippines Artist award. She became the first Filipino music artist who received an award in the World Music Awards history. [60]

On August 26, 2014, Spotify Philippines revealed that Geronimo was one of the most streamed artists within the country alongside band Eraserheads. [61]

Geronimo release her eleventh studio album titled Perfectly Imperfect on October 4, 2014. The album also included songs which were written by international music producer Adam Hurstfield and Canadian singer Elise Estrada. The album's lead single, "Kilometro", premiered on September 17, 2014, and was written by Thyro & Yumi. [62] [63]

Geronimo was voted as the Best Southeast Asia Act at the 2014 MTV Europe Music Awards and was also nominated as Best Southeast Asia, China, Hong Kong, and Taiwanese Act. [64] [65]

She was included in BuzzFeed's 2014 list of The 20 Filipino Music Artists You Need To Listen Right Now. [66]

Geronimo has been chosen by Disney to re-interpret the theme song of its Princess franchise. In a teaser aired on Disney Channel, Geronimo revealed that she did her own version of "The Glow" and that its music video will premiere on December 6, 2014. [67]

In July 2015, Geronimo with her song "Kilometro" represented the Philippines in the 10th International Song Contest: The Global Sound hosted by Australian jury, as one of the 70 semi-finalists from different countries all over the world and later on advanced as one of the top 25 finalists. In the final round, Geronimo was adjudged as the winner and received the Gold Global Sound award. ISC: The Global Sound confirmed on their Facebook page that this is the first Asian country to win the contest. [68] [69]

Geronimo also starred in the blockbuster movie The Breakup Playlist, together with Filipino actor Piolo Pascual, which was shown in cinemas on July 1. The movie grossed PHP 200 million. [70]

In October 2015, Geronimo was chosen to record Felix Manalo's theme song "Ang Sugo ng Diyos Sa Mga Huling Araw" and later won Best Movie Theme Song on both PMPC Star Awards for Movies and FAMAS Awards in 2016.

Xeleb Inc., the first celebrity mobile games company in the Philippines, tapped Geronimo for its newest gaming app, Sarah G Popsters. [71] The app officially launched on November 24, 2015.

In December 2015, for the second consecutive year, Spotify Philippines hailed Geronimo as one of the most streamed Filipino artists alongside bands Eraserheads and Up Dharma Down. [72] [73]

On December 9, 2015, Geronimo received her 10th Awit Award. At the 28th Awit Awards, "Perfectly Imperfect" was awarded "Album of the Year". [74]

On December 18, 2015, Geronimo was voted as the Asian Artist of the Year at the Hello Asia! K-Pop Awards 2015. [75]

2016–2018: Endorsements, The Great Unknown, This 15 Me, Miss Granny and International Recognition Edit

On February 29, 2016, Big Apple Music Awards announced on their official Twitter account that Geronimo has been nominated as "Best Filipino Female Artist". [76]

In March 2016, Philippine Airlines officials, led by the chairman Dr. Lucio C. Tan and President Jaime J. Bautista, celebrated the airline's 75th anniversary during a gala dinner for PAL employees at the SMX-MOA in Pasay, where the flag carrier also unveiled its new advertising campaign – The Heart of the Filipino: Shining Through – with top Filipino singers Sarah Geronimo, Bamboo and Lea Salonga as endorsers. [77]

On September 21, 2016, Geronimo was named as one of the nominees in the Best Southeast Asian Act for the 2016 MTV Europe Music Awards set on November 6, 2016, at the Ahoy Rotterdam in the Netherlands. [78]

On October 12, 2016, Geronimo's The Great Unknown won Best Secular Album in the 38th Catholic Mass Media Awards. [79] This is the second time Sarah received the award, the first was for Perfectly Imperfect album.

Geronimo was recognized as this year's Best Asian Performer during the Classic Rock Awards 2016 held in Tokyo, Japan on November 11, 2016. Geronimo attended the awarding ceremony at the Ryogoku Kokugikan Stadium in Tokyo, where she performed the song "Anak" by Freddie Aguilar. [80]

On November 29, 2016, Geronimo held her album show entitled The Great Unknown: Unplugged in Kia Theatre in promotion of her platinum-selling album The Great Unknown. Due to its success, Geronimo brought the show in different provinces in the country including Albay, Pampanga and Iloilo. [81]

In March 2017, Geronimo confirmed that she will be returning as one of the coaches of The Voice Teens Philippines. Geronimo will return to the teens edition along with coaches Bamboo, Sharon Cuneta, and Lea Salonga. [82] [83] [84] [85]

On May 15, 2017, US-based World Top Musicians included her on their website.

In July 2017, Geronimo starred in the movie Finally Found Someone with John Lloyd Cruz. The movie served as a reunion movie of Geronimo and John Lloyd Cruz tandem after four years. [86]

In January 2018, Geronimo released the single called Sandata and topped the iTunes Philippines chart for 4 consecutive days. The song also landed on Spotify Philippines Viral Chart. The official lyric video of the song was published on Viva Records' official channel a week later. On April, she released two singles called Ganito and Duyan. Both songs topped the iTunes Philippines songs chart. [87] [88]

In March 2018, Geronimo was included at Spotify's "Amplify: Women of the World" global playlist with her song 'Tayo' in celebration of Women's Month. She is the only OPM artist included alongside Rihanna, Dua Lipa, CL and more.

On April 14, 2018, she held her 15th anniversary concert called "This Is Me" stylized as "This 15 Me" at the Araneta Coliseum. The sold-out concert was reported as the "Highest Grossing Local Concert of All-time." The concert's official hashtag was also the number one trending topic on Twitter Philippines on the day of the concert with over 200,000 tweets, whilst recorded performances from the said concert instantly trended on YouTube Philippines, including her opening number Dulo, her song and dance number for Tala, the rendition of Whitney Houston's I Have Nothing and the rendition of Aerosmith's I Don't Wanna Miss A Thing. Geronimo's take on the Dame Tu Cosita Dance Challenge also went viral on various social media platforms including Facebook. [89] [90] [91] [92]

In August 2018, Geronimo starred in her first title-role movie Miss Granny, a remake of the 2014 South Korean film of the same name. The film was both critically acclaimed and commercial success. Her performance was praised by both critics and viewers. Writing for Cosmopolitan Philippines, Ro Manalo stated "In my opinion, this was her (Sarah Geronimo) best performance as an actress to date. No other local female celebrity has the combination of characteristics required for the role—impeccable comedic timing, a talent for drama, a powerful singing voice, and an old soul with an almost manang charm. Sarah was so believable as a 70-year-old woman inside a 20-year-old's body." She is currently nominated as "Best Actress" at the 2018 Rawr Awards and Inside Showbiz Awards. [93]

She released the first single from Miss Granny's Movie Soundtrack entitled "Kiss Me, Kiss Me" prior to the release of the film. The song went number one on iTunes Philippines and became an instant hit in the country. On July 15, Miss Granny soundtrack was released and also went number one. While its tracks "Isa Pang Araw" "Kiss Me, Kiss Me" and "Rain" all stayed on iTunes Philippines songs chart during and even after the run of the film in Philippine Cinemas. [94]

She represented the Philippines at the 2nd ASEAN-Japan Music Festival held at the NHK Hall in Tokyo on October 4 where she performed her original hits "Kilometro" and "Tala." The event was hosted by Hikaru Nishida and Pico Taro coincided with the 45th anniversary of the ASEAN-Japan Friendship and Cooperation. [95]

She went to Dubai for her This 15 Me concert and filled the 5,000-seater Dubai Duty-Free Stadium on September 20. Days after performing at ASEAN Music Festival, Geronimo staged her Nagoya, Japan leg of This 15 Me on October 7. She is set to stage her concert in Spain, Oman, and various cities in the Philippines. [96]

While filming "Miss Granny" and touring the Philippines and the other side of the world for "This 15 Me" Geronimo has been winning on various award-giving bodies in Manila. She won three awards at the 2018 MYX Music Awards including the "Female Artist of the Year" award and was hailed by EdukCircle Awards as the "Most Influential Actress" for her 2017 film Finally Found Someone. [97] [98]

In November 2018, Geronimo was hailed as the Best Pilipino Artist and the Most Popular BAMA 2018 Artist at the 2018 Big Apple Music Awards (BAMA), Geronimo failed to attend the ceremony held in New York but according to BAMA, the trophies were already sent to Geronimo. She staged her This 15 Me Laguna concert in Santa Rosa Sports Complex, Laguna the next day. It was the first-ever sold-out local show in the history of the said arena. On December 23, 2018, she was announced a winner at Universal Music Awards 2018 in Warsaw, Poland with her song "Ganito". She beat more than 200 entries from different countries including songs by Ed Sheeran, Little Mix, Charlie Puth, Taylor Swift and more. She also bags Popular Award, while Charles Aznavour won Historic Award.

On December 26, 2018, Geronimo's song "Sandata" tops CNN Philippines' "The 15 Best Filipino Songs of 2018" list. [99] [100]

2019–present: Unforgettable, Tala Dance Craze, Concerts, Awards and Recognitions Edit

On January 29, 2019, Geronimo performed in front of 130,000 people who attended the first-ever holy mass of a Pope in the Middle East held at Zayed Sports City Stadium. [101]

She performed in front of fans at Zurich and Milan on May 3 and 5 for her Europe concert tour after her "This 15 Me" anniversary concert in 2018. [102]

Geronimo also supports incumbent senator Sonny Angara's re-election because 'of his advocacies'. Sarah also sang her song 'Sa Iyo' as Angara's campaign jingle in 2013 and was reused in the upcoming elections. [103]

On May 30, 2019, Shopee, the leading e-commerce platform in Southeast Asia and Taiwan, announced her as the brand's newest ambassador. A TV commercial was aired on the first of June. [104]

Geronimo launched her own makeup line, Pop Studio, on May 31, 2019. It was a collaboration with iFace Inc. [105]

On June 2, Geronimo tied with Kathryn Bernardo as Best Actress at the PMPC Star Awards for Movies 2019 against veteran actresses Judy Ann Santos, Gina Pareño, Gloria Romero, and more. [106]

She was announced "Star of the Week" by a Germany-based entertainment website and music awards Daf Entertainment on July 31, 2019. [107]

Her newest film, "Unforgettable", under VIVA Films was released on October 23, 2019. It was directed by Jun Robles Lana, and also stars celebrity dog Milo, Gina Pareno, Ara Mina, Meg Imperial, and more. [108]

On October 10, 2019, she won 3 awards from the 2019 Awit Awards including "Female Artist of the year", "Best Song was written for a Movie/TV/Stageplay", and "Best Performance by a Female Recording Artist." [109]

In late 2019, "Tala" turned into a viral dance craze. [110]

On January 27, 2020, Geronimo's single "Tala" entered the 12th spot in Billboards Digital Song sales chart. The song also charted in more than 20 countries around the globe including the US, UK, Australia, New Zealand, Singapore, and more after it regained its popularity. It also reached the Global Viral 50 in Spotify, as well as YouTube's weekly global chart of world's most viewed music videos. [ citation needed ]

Geronimo won "Best Actress" award from 4th Guild of Educators, Mentors, and Students (GEMS) Hiyas ng Sining Awards last February 13 for her "Unforgettable" movie. [111]

On February 27, Geronimo's viral song Tala has reached 100 million views on YouTube, making Geronimo the first local solo female artist to achieve the milestone. [112]

On May, Sarah G received another international award as "Distinguished Entertainment Personality of the Year" award at the Akwa-Ibom State Advancement Awards 2020 (ASAA). [113]

On June 2020, The music video of her song, Tala became the "Most Viewed OPM Music Video on YouTube". [114]

She was also included the 2020 "Philippine’s Most Admired" list by YouGov PH. [115]

On December 2020, Geronimo was included in Forbes Asia's 100 Digital Stars. [116] She was also awarded as one of the "Most Influential Celebrities of The Decade" in the 10th EdukCircle Awards. [117] She also bags various recognitions such as Google PH's "Most Searched Lyrics and Songs" for her song 'Tala', her movie 'Unforgettable' is on the list of Netflix PH's "Most Watched Movie for Drama", Yahoo PH's "2nd Most Searched Female Personality" and Youtube Music included Sarah G's "Your Universe" in 3 of their playlists: Top Southeast Asian Song Of 2020, Top Song Of 2020 Philippines, and Top OPM 2020. [118]

In May 2021, Geronimo's digital concert film Tala: The Film Concert received two encore screenings, with tickets selling for PHP 1,000. [119]

Music and voice Edit

Geronimo's music is generally pop and sings songs mostly about love. International producer Christian de Walden praised Geronimo's voice and said "The personality of her voice is phenomenally distinct. Many have great voices but they tend to imitate foreign divas like Mariah Carey or Whitney Houston. She definitely is the biggest talent I have come across within the last ten years. ". [120]

Rito P. Asilo of Philippine Daily Inquirer stated in a review of her album: "it's hard to resist the rich and lush quality of her melodies when they fall smoothly and squarely on her confident middle registers" and has praised her transition saying, "her phrasing style to her interchanging shifts in vocal placement, from deep chest tones to heady soft trills, and back which isn't really a bad thing: In fact, it could represent growth because Sarah used to win her admirers solely with the lung-busting high notes." [121]

Influences Edit

Geronimo has cited Michael Jackson as her major influence and she grew up singing and dancing to his music. [122] Geronimo said: "As a child, my dream was to be hugely popular like Michael Jackson. I wanted to have that kind of worldwide fame," added, "I want to be like him while performing, everyone gets so wild and emotional. Besides that, I see him as not only a performer, he's an inspiration to many people, and that's what I also want to become." Geronimo also cited American pop star, Beyoncé as one of her influences in singing and dancing live. [123]

Stage Edit

After Geronimo's concert in Araneta Coliseum dubbed as "The Other Side", The Manila Bulletin said: [ citation needed ]

"Sarah's very successful concert showcased the various facets of her personality. She's an old soul who can sing Celine Dion's "If I Could" and Mariah Carey's "Through the Rain" with such emotion. She's an 80s baby who can moonwalk to "Billie Jean" ala Michael Jackson. She's a budding belter who can hit the high notes of Whitney Houston's "The Greatest Love of All" with Regine Velasquez."

Geronimo's participation in the "What Love Is. " with Martin Nievera concert was described by Baby A. Gil of the Philippine Star with the comment, "Who needs a dancing Martin anyway when you have the long-limbed Sarah there, who is a daring, enthusiastic dancer? I like watching her dance and finding her moving even better now than the last time is a treat. Of course, she has also become an even better singer. To those who are wont to ask, has she gotten rid of her Celine Dion tendencies? Well, she still sings a good To Love You More, but she has obviously come to her own with fuller tones, nice, sexy low notes." [45]

In her 24/SG concert People's Journal commented, "Sarah has reached a new level in her career as a concert artist. In fact, she has earned the right to be called the Concert Queen of the New Generation." Aside from her singing prowess, Geronimo's dancing skills has improved greatly. [124]

Her performances earned her a win at the 2016 Classic Rock Awards in Tokyo as "Best Asian Performer". [125]

Public image Edit

Camille Bersola of The Philippine Star described Geronimo as more than just a pop icon for being an inspiration, especially to today's youth. She stated: "In amateur singing competitions, there will be at least three contestants that will have their own rendition of 'To Love You More' or 'Forever's Not Enough'. When these little girls are asked who their favorite singer is, and whose path they’d like to follow someday, you can bet more or less 75 percent of them will have the same answer: Sarah Geronimo." [126]

Quezon City Vice Mayor Joy Belmonte described Geronimo in The Philippine Star: "She's wholesome on and off camera, untainted by unsavory rumors. She's an ideal daughter and that makes her a good role model for the youth." [127] Wilson Lee Flores of The Philippine Star said, "She is a breath of fresh air in terms of wholesome image, humility, real talent and source of good news for the Philippine entertainment industry". [128] In 2005, Geronimo was awarded with "Pinoy Wannabe Awardee", a prestigious Nickelodeon Kids' Choice Awards given to a celebrity whom kids consider as their role model. [129] In 2006, QTV 11's magazine show Ang Pinaka named her as "Ang Pinaka Idol na Singer ng mga Bata." [130]

Geronimo however admitted it's not always easy protecting that image, especially since everyone looks up to her as a role model for young people. She said, "It's a bit hard although I'd like to become a role model. I rather take it as a big challenge because it is probably my purpose being here in this industry. This may also be the reason why I'm being trusted by companies to promote their products." [126]

In 2011, Geronimo was ranked as the third in the top celebrity endorsers by the AGB Nielsen Philippines survey. [131] In 2013, she ranks as the sixth highest female taxpayer and as fourth top endorser. [132] [133] In 2014, the entertainment publication YES! Magazine ranked Geronimo as the "Most Beautiful Star", leading the list as the top 1 of the top 100 celebrities. [134] [135] [136] She also ranks in 2014, as the fourth highest female celebrity taxpayer. [137]

Since 2014, Geronimo has been the most streamed solo Filipino artist in Spotify Philippines. [138] [139] [140] In 2015, FAMAS named Geronimo the "Iconic Movie Queen of Philippine Cinema". [141]

In December 2020, Forbes named Geronimo as one of Forbes Asia's 100 Digital Stars, a list of the most influential names in the Asia-Pacific region. She was praised for her efforts in helping Filipinos during the coronavirus pandemic. [142]

Geronimo attended Dominican School Manila for her primary education. She enrolled at University of Santo Tomas Education High School but later completed her secondary education at Angelicum College. [143] Geronimo studied Associate in Arts program in University of the Philippines Open University (UP Open University). [144] [145]

Geronimo regularly holds benefit concerts for various charities for children and cancer patients and has been involved with several outreach programs and with Gawad Kalinga. [146]

In November 2019, Sarah announced her engagement to long-time boyfriend, actor Matteo Guidicelli. [147] [148] They were secretly married in a Christian wedding at Victory Church, The Fort past six in the evening, Thursday night officiated by Senior Pastor Paulo Punzalan on February 20, 2020. [149]

  • Popstar: A Dream Come True (2003)
  • Sweet Sixteen (2004)
  • Becoming (2006)
  • Taking Flight (2007)
  • Just Me (2008)
  • Your Christmas Girl (2009)
  • Music and Me (2009)
  • One Heart (2011)
  • Pure OPM Classics (2012)
  • Expressions (2013)
  • Perfectly Imperfect (2014)
  • The Great Unknown (2015)
  • THIS 15 ME (2018)
  • Popstar: A Dream Come True Concert (2004)
  • To Love Her More (2004) (2005)
  • In Motion (2007)
  • The Next One (2008)
  • Record Breaker (2009)
  • 24/SG (2012)
  • Perfect 10 (2013–14)
  • From The Top (2015–16)
  • The Great Unknown: Unplugged (2016–17) (2018-2019)
  • Unified (Sarah & Regine) (2020)
  • Tala: The Film Concert (2021)

Film Edit

Year Title Role Notes Film Production
1995 Sarah. Ang Munting Prinsesa Sarah's classmate Background only
Credited as "Sarah Asher Geronimo" [150]
Star Cinema
2003 Filipinas Kathleen Debut film Viva Films
Captain Barbell Mara
2004 Masikip sa Dibdib Cameo role
Annie B. Patty
Lastikman: Unang Banat Lara Manuel
2008 A Very Special Love Laida Magtalas First movie in a lead role

2008 Highest Grossing Non-MMFF Filipino Film

2009 ENPRESS Golden Screen Awards- nominated for Best Performance by an Actress in a Lead Role (Comedy/Musical)

2010 FAMAS Awards- nominated for Best Actress

2009 Highest Grossing Non-MMFF Filipino Film

2010 ENPRESS Golden Screen Awards- nominated for Best Performance by an Actress in a Lead Role (Comedy/Musical)

2014 FAMAS Awards- nominated for Best Actress

2013 Highest Grossing Non-MMFF Filipino Film

2014 ENPRESS Golden Screen Awards- Best Performance by an Actress in a Lead Role (Comedy/Musical) [151]

2019 EDDYs - Best Actress Nominee

Television Edit

Year Title Role Network
1992–1994 Penpen De Sarapen Herself/Performer RPN
1995–1996 Ang TV Herself/Performer ABS-CBN
1996–1997 NEXT Herself
2002–2003 Star for a Night Herself/Grand Winner IBC
2003 SOP Guest Performer GMA Network
Search for a Star
2004–present ASAP Host/Performer ABS-CBN
2005 SCQ Reload Kilig Ako Sarah
Search for the Star in a Million Host
2005–2007 Little Big Star Herself/Host
2006 MMK: Kwintas Episode Rose Erea
Bituing Walang Ningning Dorina Pineda
2007 Pangarap Na Bituin Emerald Gomez
2008 MMK: Dollhouse Episode Marie
2010–2019 Popstar Diaries Herself Viva TV
2010 1DOL Belinda "Billie/Jean" Suarez ABS-CBN
Kapamilya Channel
2012–2013 Sarah G. Live! Host/Performer
2013 The Voice of the Philippines (season 1) Coach
2014 The Voice Kids (season 1)
2014–2015 The Voice of the Philippines (season 2)
2015 The Voice Kids (season 2)
2017 The Voice Teens (season 1)
2019 The Voice Kids (season 4)
2020 The Voice Teens (season 2)

Sarah Geronimo has received awards and recognition in the entertainment industry (music, film, and television) and from other organizations including different international award-giving bodies such as 12 Awit Awards, 8 Aliw Awards, 28 Myx Music Awards, and a FAMAS Golden Artist Award.

She has also won the Best Asian Artist at the Mnet Asian Music Awardsin 2012, Best Southeast Asian Act at the MTV Europe Music Awards in 2014, Best Selling Filipino Artist at the 22nd World Music Awards and Best Asian Performer at Classic Rock Roll of Honour Awards in 2016. She was inducted into the Anak TV Hall of Fame in 2013. Geronimo is a Goodwill Ambassador for Music of the National Commission for Culture and the Arts and a recipient of their Ani ng Dangal or "Harvest of Honors" state recognition for multi-disciplinary arts.

Defender of His People

Confrontation with American soldiers escalated in the mid-1870s after gold was discovered in the Black Hills, a sacred area to Native Americans that the American government had recognized as their land following the 1868 Fort Laramie Treaty.

As white prospectors rushed into the Sioux lands, the American government tabled the treaty and declared war on any native tribes that prevented it from taking over the land. When Sitting Bull refused to abide by these new conditions, the stage was set for confrontation.

Sitting Bull&aposs defense of his land was rooted both in the history of his culture and in the fate he believed awaited his people. At a Sun Dance ceremony on the Little Bighorn River, where a large community of Native Americans had established a village, Sitting Bull danced for 36 consecutive hours, slashed his arms as a sign of sacrifice andꃞprived himself of drinking water.ਊt the end of this spiritual ceremony, he informed villagers that he had received a vision in which the American army was defeated.

In June 1876, just a few days later, the chief led a successful battle against American forces in the Battle of the Rosebud. A week later, he was engaged in battle again, this time against General George Armstrong Custer in the now famous Battle at Little Bighorn, known as theꂺttle of the Greasy Grass to the Lakota. There, Sitting Bull led thousands of Sioux and Cheyenne warriors against Custer&aposs undermanned force, wiping out the American general and his 200-plus men.

For the U.S. government, the defeat was an embarrassment, and the Army doubled down its efforts to wrest control of the territory from Native American tribes. To escape its wrath, Sitting Bull led his people into Canada, where they remained for four years.


An Apache leader who fought fiercely against Mexico and the U.S. for expanding into his tribe’s lands (now present-day Arizona), Geronimo began inciting countless raids against the two parties, after his wife and three children were slaughtered by Mexican troops in the mid-1850s. 

਋orn as Goyahkla, Geronimo was given his now-famous name when he charged into battle amid a flurry of bullets, killing numerous Mexicans with merely a knife to avenge the death of his family. Although how he got the name "Geronimo" is up for debate, white settlers at the time were convinced he was the "worst Indian who ever lived." 

On September 4, 1886, Geronimo surrendered to U.S. troops, along with his small band of followers. During the remaining years of his life, he converted to Christianity (but was kicked out of his church due to incessant gambling), appeared at fairs and rode in President Theodore Roosevelt’s inaugural parade in 1905. He also dictated his own memoir, Geronimo’s Story of His Life, in 1906. 

On his deathbed three years later, Geronimo reportedly told his nephew he regretted surrendering to the U.S. “I should have fought until I was the last man alive," he told him. Geronimo was buried at the Apache Indian Prisoner of War Cemetery in Fort Still, Oklahoma.

Geronimo's Cadillac (Short biography)

One of these photographs shows Geronimo with several mounted Army soldiers. At this time, he was still imprisoned at Fort Sill, Oklahoma and guards had to accompany him.

Another photograph shows him standing beside a dead buffalo, which he had supposedly just killed. The picture shows a number of arrows sticking out of the dead animal. They advertised this event as the last buffalo Geronimo killed. This is extremely ironic since buffalo were not found in the region that Geronimo lived and he had not killed this animal. Range hands had put the buffalo in a bow and arrow range and since the arrows were not fatal, one of the cowboys finally shot the animal in the head.

The third photograph shows Geronimo skinning the dead buffalo.

This photograph served as the inspiration for the noteworthy song by Michael Martin Murphey as the title track of his debut album, Geronimo's Cadillac in 1972. This song has become an unofficial anthem for the American Indian Movement in the 1970s. This song has been redone multiple times.

The life and times of Geronimo:
He was born in June of 1829.
He was a naturally-gifted hunter.
By the time he was 17 years old, he lead four successful raiding operations.
He continued the tradition of the Apaches who resisted the white colonization of their territory in the Southwest. Mexico put a bounty on Apache scalps- up to 25$ for a child's scalp.
He met and married a woman named Alope. They had 3 children together.
During a trading trip, tragedy stuck their camp. When Geronimo returned, he found his mother, wife, and children were all dead. To honour tradition, he burned the belongings of his family and headed out into the wilderness to grieve.
He and 200 other men, hunted down the Mexican soldiers who killed his family. This went on for 10 years as he tried to have revenge on the Mexican government.
He was caught in 1877 and was sent to live on a reservation.
For four long years he struggled with life on the reservation and escaped in September 1881.
Over the next five years, he and a small band of followers engaged in what was the last Indian wars with the U.S.
At one time he had almost 1/4 of the Army's forces (almost 5,000 troops) trying to hunt him down.
After years of war, he surrendered to U.S. troops in 1886.
While he became a celebrity, he spent the last 2 decades of his life as a prisoner of war.
He published his biography in 1905.
He died in February of 1909, when thrown from a horse on his way home. He spent one night in the cold and was found by a friend the next day. Unfortunately, his health was declining and he passed away 6 days later with his nephew by his side.

On his death bed he said" I should never have surrendered" and "I should have fought until I was the last man alive".

Geronimo Black

Geronimo Black would be just another of the hundreds of all but forgotten semi-progressive hard rock bands of the early '70s but for the pedigree of the group's members. Geronimo Black was formed by former…
Read Full Biography

Artist Biography by Stewart Mason

Geronimo Black would be just another of the hundreds of all but forgotten semi-progressive hard rock bands of the early '70s but for the pedigree of the group's members. Geronimo Black was formed by former Mothers of Invention drummer Jimmy Carl Black in 1970, shortly after Frank Zappa broke up the original Mothers. Named after his youngest son (who has since grown up to be a musician himself), Geronimo Black was Black's band all the way, although he was one of two lead singers and everyone in the band contributed to the songwriting. Besides Black on drums and vocals and his Mothers bandmate Bunk Gardner on keyboards and reeds, the group also included sax player Tjay Cantrelli (who had previously been in the second lineup of Love), guitarist and singer Denny Walley (who ironically would later work for Frank Zappa for several years in the late '70s and early '80s), bassist Tom Leavey, and drummer and keyboardist Andy Cahan (who would later join another set of ex-Zappaites, Flo & Eddie). This lineup signed with MCA Records and released their first album, Geronimo Black, in 1972. Though it's a surprisingly solid album with a varied and occasionally experimental sound, the record attracted almost no attention and the group split up shortly after its release.

Normally, that would be that, but the entire original lineup of Geronimo Black re-formed in 1980 to record a new album, Welcome Back Geronimo Black, for the indie Helios label. Besides including new versions of three songs, "Low Ridin' Man," "Other Man," and the Native American epic "An American National Anthem" from Geronimo Black, the album featured contributions from three more former members of the Mothers of Invention: Don Preston, Ray Collins, and Buzz Gardner. This expanded version of Geronimo Black is the group that for all intents and purposes evolved into the controversial Grandmothers, the group of former Mothers of Invention members who re-formed in the early '80s to play new material and Frank Zappa covers, much to Zappa's displeasure.


A Chiricahua Apache religious and military leader, Geronimo was born in the 1820s, perhaps near present Clifton, Arizona. His Apache name was Goyahkla (One Who Yawns). He achieved a reputation as a spiritual leader and tenacious fighter against those who threatened his people's ways of life. Later he was called Geronimo (Spanish for Jerome), most likely because of the way he fought in battle against Mexican soldiers who frantically called upon St. Jerome for help. He willingly accepted the name. Geronimo's hatred toward Mexicans intensified when Mexican troops killed his mother, wife, and children in 1850. In addition, after the United States–Mexican War ended and the United States entered the Southwest, Geronimo faced another enemy that threatened his tribe's existence.

During the Apache wars Geronimo fought alongside Cochise and other tribe leaders. Their guerrilla-like raids and attacks forced the United States to negotiate treaties that confined Geronimo and his band to the San Carlos Reservation in the 1870s. Finding reservation life unacceptable, Geronimo escaped and resumed his raiding activities in Mexico and in the United States. Gen. George Crook and later Gen. Nelson A. Miles pursued the Apache leader for the next several years. Geronimo finally surrendered to Miles in September 1886.

As prisoners of war Geronimo and his followers were exiled, being sent first to Florida, then to Alabama, and finally to Fort Sill, Oklahoma Territory, in 1894. Still highly regarded as a leader by his people, Geronimo engaged in farming at Fort Sill. His fame grew, and he appeared at national events such as the 1898 Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition in Omaha, the 1901 Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo, and the 1904 Louisiana Purchase Exposition in St. Louis. In 1905 he rode in Pres. Theodore Roosevelt's inauguration parade. Geronimo received money for his appearances at such events and even sold autographed items and photos of himself.

Geronimo failed to convince the federal government to allow his people to return to their Arizona homeland. He died at Fort Sill on February 17, 1909, and was buried in the fort's Apache cemetery.


Alexander B. Adams, Geronimo: A Biography (New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1971).

S. M. Barrett, ed., Geronimo's Story of His Life (New York: Duffield and Company, 1906).

Angie Debo, Geronimo: The Man, His Time, His Place (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1976).

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