The Appealing Adonis Who Enthralled Many Ancient Civilizations

The Appealing Adonis Who Enthralled Many Ancient Civilizations

In Greek mythology, Adonis is declared as an extremely good looking man. This character is best known as being one of Aphrodite’s lovers. Although the figure of Adonis and the myth surrounding him have become an established part of Greek mythology, its origins are not to be found in Greece itself. Rather, this figure is believed to have been imported from the East. The Greeks adopted the mythical man from the Canaanites, who worshipped Adonis or, more accurately, Adon, as a god. Additionally, the story of Adonis is well-known amongst other ancient civilizations of the Near East, including the ancient Egyptians and Mesopotamians.

Ovid’s Metamorphosis

In Greek mythology, there are several versions of the Adonis story. Perhaps the most widely known of these is the version found in Ovid’s Metamorphosis. In this account of the tale, Adonis is depicted as the product of an incestuous relationship between Cinyras, a king of Cyprus, and his daughter Myrrha. Having committed incest with her father, Myrrha prayed to the gods thus:

“O Gods, if you will listen to my prayer, I do not shun a dreadful punishment deserved; but now because my life offends the living, and dying I offend the dead, drive me from both conditions; change me, and refuse my flesh both life and death!”

Title page of a 1556 edition of Ovid’s Metamorphosis, published by Joannes Gryphius (decorative border added subsequently). Hayden White Rare Book Collection, University of California, Santa Cruz.

Myrrha’s prayer was answered, and she was transformed into a tree. It was as a tree that Myrrha, aided by her nurse Lucina, eventually gave birth to Adonis.

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Adonis grew into an exceptionally handsome man, and won the love of Aphrodite, as a result of an accident. According to Ovid,

“He wins the love of Venus (the Roman version of Aphrodite) and so avenges his own mother's passion. For while the goddess' son with quiver held on shoulder, once was kissing his loved mother, it chanced unwittingly he grazed her breast with a projecting arrow. Instantly the wounded goddess pushed her son away; but the scratch had pierced her deeper than she thought and even Venus was at first deceived.”

Monument of Ovid by Ettore Ferrari. (CC BY-SA 3.0 RO )

Baby’s Beauty Myth

In another popular version of the myth, Aphrodite is said to have been present at Adonis’ birth. Amazed by the baby’s beauty, Aphrodite decided to hide Adonis from the rest of the goddesses, and entrusted him to Persephone, the wife of Hades, and the goddess of the Underworld.

When Adonis grew up, Persephone was so attracted by his good looks that she refused to give him back to Aphrodite. A dispute rose between the two goddesses, and finally Zeus had to intervene. He decided that Adonis should spend a third of the year with Persephone, another third with Aphrodite, and the remaining third with anyone he pleased. Adonis chose to spend this remainder with Aphrodite.

As a result of her obsession for Adonis, Aphrodite forsakes everything else. As Ovid puts it,

“Delighted with the beauty of the youth, she does not think of her Cytherian shores and does not care for Paphos, which is girt by the deep sea, nor Cnidos, haunts of fish, nor Amathus far-famed for precious ores. Venus, neglecting heaven, prefers Adonis to heaven, and so she holds close to his ways as his companion, and forgets to rest at noon-day in the shade, neglecting care of her sweet beauty.”

Adonis’ Life & Death

Adonis is portrayed in the myths as a great hunter. Although warned by Aphrodite to avoid ferocious beasts such as lions and wolves, Adonis ignored her warning.

Aphrodite and Adonis, Attic red-figure aryballos-shaped lekythos by Aison, ca. 410 BC, Louvre.

During one of Adonis’ hunting trips, he encountered a boar, who would bring about his death. In some accounts, the boar is said to have been Ares, who was another of Aphrodite’s lovers, jealous of the attention Adonis was getting from the goddess. Ovid, however, did not state whether the boar was connected to Ares or not,

“As he (the boar) rushed out from his forest lair, Adonis pierced him with a glancing stroke. Infuriated, the fierce boar's curved snout first struck the spear-shaft from his bleeding side; and, while the trembling youth was seeking where to find a safe retreat, the savage beast raced after him, until at last he sank his deadly tusk deep in Adonis' groin; and stretched him dying on the yellow sand.”

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Adonis’ death is not quite the end of the myth. As Adonis lay dying, Aphrodite turned his blood into flowers,

“She sprinkled his blood with sweet-smelling nectar, and his blood as soon as touched by it began to effervesce, just as transparent bubbles always rise in rainy weather. Nor was there a pause more than an hour, when from Adonis, blood, exactly of its color, a loved flower sprang up, such as pomegranates give to us, small trees which later hide their seeds beneath a tough rind. But the joy it gives to man is short-lived, for the winds which give the flower its name, Anemone, shake it right down, because its slender hold, always so weak, lets it fall to the ground from its frail stem.”

Death of Adonis, by Luca Giordano.

The Cult of Adonis

In the mythology of the Canaanites, Adonis is known as Adon, which means ‘The Lord’. Adonis and Adon share certain similarities as well as differences. For example, whilst Adonis is a mortal, Adon is a god, specifically of beauty, fertility, and renewal.

Adonis and Adon are both connected with goddesses of love, Aphrodite for the former, and her Canaanite counterpart, Astarte, for the latter. Additionally, in both the Greek and Canaanite versions of the myth, Adonis / Adon experiences death. Nevertheless, there is a difference in what occurred after his death. Whilst Adonis’ blood is turned into flowers, Adon is resurrected, an event celebrated in his cult. In The Syrian Goddess , which is traditionally attributed to Lucian, the author wrote that he had witnessed the secret rites of the cult of Adonis at Byblos, and that

“In memory of this calamity (i.e. the death of Adonis) they beat their breasts and wail every year, and perform their secret ritual amid signs of mourning through the whole countryside. When they have finished their mourning and wailing, they sacrifice in the first place to Adonis, as to one who has departed this life: after this they allege that he is alive again, and exhibit his effigy to the sky.”

Featured image: The Death of Adonis - Museo Gregoriano Etrusco (Vatican). Photo source: ( CC BY-SA 3.0 )


Vikings Appreciated Art

Modern people often think of ancient humans as less intelligent individuals who led boring lives. As the misconception goes, these people had simple lifestyles and spent their whole lives hunting, farming and gathering food, with little time left for recreation, entertainment or creativity.

In reality, the Vikings were very creative. Ornate jewelry made with precious metals has been found in areas where the Vikings lived. Storytelling was also important to them. If that’s not enough, the wildly cool Viking ships are a great reflection of the culture's appreciation for creativity. Bows and sterns on ships often had intricate figureheads, such as dragons and curls.


A Few Words About The Myth’s Protagonists

Venus and Adonis, Paolo Veronese, 1580, Museo del Prado

Venus in Roman or Aphrodite in Greek Mythology was one of the 12 Gods of Olympus. She was the goddess of love, beauty, and procreation. As such, she was the most beautiful amongst the gods and was almost always followed by Cupid (Eros). Venus was born from the severed genitals of God Uranus, after Cronus threw them in the sea near Cyprus. She maintained a series of romances with Greek Gods, the most famous of which were her marriage with Vulcan and her affair with Mars. Nevertheless, none of these love-stories surpassed the intensity with which Venus loved Adonis.

Adonis was the son of Myrrha and Cynyras, another Cypriot deity. The cult of Adonis in Greece was firmly linked with that of Venus. It seems that the Adonis’ true origin was Semitic and the name Adonis could be the Semitic title adon meaning “(my) lord.”

The Canaanite god Adon was just like Adonis, a god of beauty. This means that we can safely assume that Adonis is no more than Adon transferred to Greece with a Hellenisized name. There are also links between Adonis and gods from other civilizations like Osiris in Egypt, Baal in Ugarit, and Tammuz in Babylon. Civilizations from Mesopotamia to Greece all adored gods of beauty with myths similar to Adonis. On top of that in the Mesopotamian mythologies, Adonis appeared as a couple with goddess Astarte. It is evident right away that Astarte in this context can be none other than the equivalent of Venus. Truly the two goddesses have many in common such as being goddesses of fertility and renewal.


The Pagan Origins of Easter

Is Easter Christian? The simple answer is “no.” Despite all its beauty and pageantry, Easter is pagan to the core. It’s symbols and traditions do not honor Christ or His sacrifice. On the contrary, they actually mock it. The apostle Paul, in his epistle to the Galatians, issued a stern warning which every true Christian should take very seriously.

“Be not deceived God is not mocked: for whatsoever a man soweth, that shall he also reap.” (Gal. 6:7).

The God of the Bible takes very seriously the way He is worshiped. Those who believe it is ok to borrow from the traditions of the pagan world and incorporate such things into the worship of God or His Son should consider Jesus’ admonition on this subject: “God is a spirit and those who worship Him must worship Him in spirit and in truth” (Jn. 4:24). It is important to understand that nowhere in the New Testament do we find God’s Church celebrating Easter. God’s people throughout the Bible honored His festivals.

The New Testament Church kept the Passover and the Days of Unleavened Bread (1 Cor. 5:7). They also kept His other festivals which God commanded as holy convocations (Lev. 23:1-2). God’s Holy Days were never abandoned at the cross. On the contrary, they take on greater meaning. Man’s attempt to replace God’s festivals and Holy Days with customs that come directly from the pagan world represents an act of rank arrogance.

Every year, millions of professing Christians around the world participate in a celebration they believe honors the resurrection of Jesus Christ. This celebration is called Easter and it is arguably the most important observance in modern Christianity.

But when did this day originate? And from where did it come? What about its symbols and customs? Are they mentioned in the Bible? Why is Easter celebrated at sunrise? What is the origin of the Easter egg? What about bunnies? What do these symbols have to do with the resurrection of Jesus Christ? What about the traditional foods such as Easter ham or hot cross buns? Why is it called “Easter”? Is this term mentioned in the Bible and what does it mean? Is there a story behind this “most holy” time of the year? Does the God of the Bible respect this observance? This booklet examines the tradition of Easter in light of the historical record and the scriptures. What you read in these pages may surprise you. It might even shock you, but the words are incontrovertible. They express without apology the truth about Easter.

Although most professing Christians believe Easter celebrates the resurrection of Jesus Christ, its roots can be traced to ancient civilizations that existed long before Jesus’ birth, let alone His death and resurrection. The ancient civilizations of Assyria, Babylon, Egypt, and Greece as well as that of Rome itself all embraced religious rites that greatly resemble the holiday we call Easter.

The term Easter does not come from the Bible, but rather from the name of an ancient goddess of spring. Consider the words of Compton’s Pictured Encyclopedia:

“The name Easter comes from the ancient Anglo-Saxon goddess of spring. Eostre or Ostara, in whose honor an annual spring festival was held. Some of our Easter customs have come from this and other pre-Christian spring festivals.” (Vol. 4, p. 140)

The famous historian Alexander Hislop clearly indicates that the term “Easter” is not Christian, but rather Chaldean in origin:

“It is not a Christian name. It bears its Chaldean origin on its very forehead. Easter is nothing else than Astarte, one of the titles of Beltis, the queen of heaven, whose name, as pronounced by the people of Nineveh, was evidently identical with that now in common use in this country. That name, as found by Layard on the Assyrian monuments, is Ishtar.” (The Two Babylons, Hislop, p.103)

The connection between Easter and the celebration of the goddess of spring is undeniable. Other highly credible reference works acknowledge that the roots of Easter are deeply woven into the pagan world. Consider the words of Funk and Wagnalls Standard Reference Encyclopedia:

“Easter embodies traditions of an ancient time antedating the rise of Christianity. The origin of its name is lost in the dim past some scholars believe it probably is derived from Eostre, the Anglo-Saxon name of a Teutonic goddess of spring and fertility.” (Vol. 8, p. 2940)

Tragically, despite having its roots in paganism, Easter was a festival later professing Christian leaders came to embrace as their own. According to Grolier’s Encyclopedia, the leaders of the church became more than willing to adopt ancient pagan customs into their worship.

The name of this holiday and the time it is celebrated have led people to believe that an earlier holiday existed on this day before the Christian observance. For many ancient nations joyously celebrated the end of winter and the resurrection of the sun at this season of the year and some devoted this festival to Eostre, Germanic goddess of spring. The church fathers turned this heathen holiday into the Christian celebration of the resurrection. (1966, Vol. 17)

Many believe that these “church fathers” embraced the symbols of Easter for strategic reasons. In essence, these religious leaders believed the only way they could persuade the pagan world to accept Christianity was by adopting many of the rituals these new “converts” held dear. Consider the words of Reader’s Digest:

“By a stroke of tactical genius, the church, while intolerant of pagan beliefs, was able to harness the powerful emotions generated by pagan worship. Often, churches were sited where temples had stood before, and many heathen festivals were added to the Christians calendar. Easter, for instance, a time of sacrifice and rebirth in the Christian year, takes its name from the Norse goddess Eostre, in whose honour rites where held every spring. She in turn was simply a northern version of the Phoenician earth-mother Astarte, goddess of fertility.” (The Last Two Million Years by the Reader’s Digest Association, 1981, p. 215)

In essence, Christianity has proclaimed as “holy” that which the Bible declares “profane.” God once issued a scathing indictment against the priests of Israel because they did the very same thing. Consider the words of the prophet Ezekiel:

“Her priests have violated My law, and have profaned Mine holy things: they have put no difference between the holy and profane, neither have they shewed difference between the unclean and the clean, and have hid their eyes from My sabbaths, and I am profaned among them. (Ezek. 22:26)

These words should stand as a powerful reminder that God takes very seriously the way in which He is worshiped. When man takes upon himself the right to determine how he will honor God, he assumes a right that he does not have. God alone will determine what honors or dishonors Him.

Throughout the Bible, God specifically outlines the terms and conditions of His worship. Still, man believes that he has a better way and as a result, has created symbols that define a faith that is abhorrent to God and is condemned in the scriptures.

An Ancient Easter Celebration


Today, Easter is regarded as the chief of Christian holidays. However, it is anything but Christian. Many ancient civilizations celebrated festivals centering around the death and resurrection of a man-god. In Assyria, it was Semeramis and Ninus. In Babylon, it was Ishtar and Tammuz. In Syria, it was Astarte and Baal. In Greece, it was Aphrodite and Adonis.

The Interpreter’s Dictionary provides some very interesting insight concerning how ancient civilizations embraced a belief strangely familiar to that of Easter:

“The oldest common feature of the religions of the ancient Near East was the worship of a great mother goddess, the personification of fertility. Associated with her, usually as a consort, was a young god who died and came to life again, like the vegetation which quickly withers but blooms again… His absence produced infertility of the earth, of man, and of beast. His consort mourned and searched for him. His return brought renewed fertility and rejoicing. In Mesopotamia, the divine couple appear as Ishtar and Tammuz, in Egypt, as Isis and Osiris.” (Vol. 2, p. 265)

An Ancient Egyptian Easter


Consider the Easter story as it originated in Egypt. According to tradition, the goddess Isis was married to her brother Osiris. Osiris was killed and pieces of his body were scattered over the land of Egypt. When Isis received word of the death of her brother-husband, she set out on a journey to retrieve the pieces. Once she found them, Isis began casting spells in an attempt to bring Osiris back to life. According to the legend, she partly succeeded and appealed for one last night with Osiris. During that evening, she conceived a son named Horus however, Osiris departed to take his place in the heavens along with his father, Ra, the sun god.

Tradition holds that Osiris was raised from the dead and ascended to heaven during the time of the vernal (spring) equinox. It was at this time that the death and resurrection of pagan gods were claimed to have taken place.

This is only one of several legends concerning the resurrection of a man who had joined the ranks of the gods but it stands as a model which has been used throughout the Christian world. Tragically, such Pagan myths cloud the truly miraculous story of the resurrection of Jesus Christ, especially when their symbols and customs are promoted by professing Christian ministers and their churches.

Easter – It’s Symbols and Customs

The symbols and customs of Easter convey powerful images of this holiday. Consider the Easter egg, bunnies, hot cross buns and sunrise services, just to name a few. These symbols stand as a constant reminder of the Easter season.

Throughout history, religions have used symbols and traditions as a means by which to perpetuate their beliefs. Symbols are designed to add both meaning and appeal to seasons and events. The symbols associated with Easter have great appeal to this holiday’s celebrants.

However, after careful examination of these symbols and traditions, a much different picture emerges. As unbelievable as it may seem, these symbols can be traced to the pagan world and were used extensively in the worship of false gods. Consider the words of Compton’s Encyclopedia:

“Many Easter customs come from the Old World… colored eggs and rabbits have come from pagan antiquity as symbols of new life… Our name “Easter” comes from Eostre, an ancient Anglo-Saxon goddess, originally of the dawn.” (Vol. 4)

The symbols of Easter, as appealing as they may be, have nothing to do with the resurrection of Jesus Christ but rather find their roots in religions that reject the God of the Bible. Consider the following symbols associated with the celebration of Easter.

One of the most prominent symbols associated with Easter is the egg. Every year, unsuspecting children are taught to decorate this symbol with bright colors and designs. Sometimes, the eggs are hidden and everyone is encouraged to seek out these “treasures” and place them in baskets. Even the White House hosts an annual Easter egg hunt. But from where did this custom originate? And what does it have to do with the resurrection of Jesus Christ? It is important to understand that Easter eggs have absolutely nothing to do with biblical Christianity but rather trace their origin to the pagan world. This fact is confirmed by the Encyclopedia Britannica:

“..at Easter, popular customs reflect many ancient pagan survivals connected with spring fertility rites, such as the symbols of the Easter egg and the Easter hare or rabbit.” (Vo. IV, p. 605)

The Encyclopedia of Religion states that the Easter egg was used prominently in pagan fertility rites:

“… the egg is a powerful symbol of fertility, purity and rebirth. It is used in magical rituals to promote fertility and restore virility to look into the future, to bring good weather to encourage the growth of crops and to protect both cattle and children against misfortune. All over the world it represents life and creation, fertility and resurrection… (and) was linked with Easter.” (1987, p. 37)

The egg has been a sacred symbol to numerous pagan civilizations and was used prolifically in religious ceremonies in Egypt. Alexander Hislop, in his book The Two Babylons, relates an interesting chronicle of its use in religious practices.

From Egypt these sacred eggs can be distinctly traced to the banks of the Euphrates. The classic poets are full of the fable of the mystic egg of the Babylonians and thus its tale is told by Hyginus, the Egyptian, the learned keeper of the Palatine Library at Rome, in the time of Augustus, who was skilled in all the wisdom of his native country: “An egg of wondrous size is said to have fallen from heaven into the river Euphrates. The fishes rolled it to the bank, where the doves having settled upon it, hatched it, and out came Venus, who afterwards was called the Syrian Goddess” (Astarte). (p. 109)

In addition to its use in the religious ceremonies in Egypt, the egg was also a powerful religious symbol throughout Asia and Europe:

“The mystic egg of Babylon, hatching the Venus Ishtar, fell from heaven to the Euphrates. Dyed eggs were sacred Easter offerings in Egypt, as they are still in China and Europe. Easter, or spring, was the season of birth, terrestrial and celestial.” (Egyptian Belief and Modern Thought, pp. 211-212).

Tragically, despite knowing of its pagan origin, the church at Rome willingly adopted the egg as its own symbol of the resurrection:

“The church did not oppose this, though many egg customs were pre-Christian in origin, because the egg provided a fresh and powerful symbol of the resurrection and the transformation of death into life.” (The Encyclopedia of Religion, 1987, p. 37)

Hislop, in his work The Two Babylons, explains that it was the normal practice of the Catholic church to integrate paganism into its liturgy. This was done to attract pagan converts:

“To conciliate the pagans to nominal Christianity, Rome, pursuing its usual policy, took measures to get the Christian and Pagan festivals amalgamated, and, by a complicated but skillful adjustment of the calendar, it was found no difficult matter, in general, to get Paganism and Christianity – now sunk far in idolatry – in this as in so many other things, to shake hands.” (p. 105)

It is clear that the church of Rome did not find it difficult to embrace pagan practices and integrate them into their own worship. But God warns against such a practice. The great prophet Jeremiah wrote, “Learn not the way of the heathen” (Jer. 10:2). Even Jesus warned that it was possible to worship God in vain:

“In vain do they worship Me, seeking after doctrines the commandments of men.”(Mk. 7:7)

Jesus went on to say, “You make the law of God of none effect through your tradition” (Mt. 15:6). The point to this is that God never instructed man to gather eggs and decorate them. As fun as this activity may be to children and parents alike, its origins are pagan and this God hates.


The bunny is one of the most cherished symbols of Easter. These cuddly creatures are included in numerous bedtime stories and have endeared themselves to children around the world. But how did the bunny become such an integral part of a holiday designed to celebrate the resurrection of the Savior of the world? This question is answered reluctantly by the Catholic Encyclopedia:

“The custom may have its origin in paganism, for a great many pagan customs, celebrating the return of spring (and therefore directly related to SUN-worship), gravitated to Easter. The egg is the emblem of the germinating life of early spring… the Easter rabbit lays the eggs, for which reason they are hidden in a nest or in the garden. The rabbit is a pagan symbol and has always been an emblem of fertility.” ( p. 227)

Other credible sources openly acknowledge that the Easter bunny has absolutely nothing to do with Christianity but rather the pagan world. That world worshiped fertility and rebirth and the rabbit played a critical part in this worship:

“The Easter bunny had its origins in pre-Christian fertility lore. Hares and rabbits were the most fertile animals our forefathers knew, serving as symbols of abundant new life in the spring season.” (Handbook of Christian Feasts and Customs, 1958, p. 233-6)

The Encyclopedia Britannica indicates that the bunny was associated with the beginning of life and was a symbol of fertility.

Like the Easter egg, the Easter hare came to Christianity from antiquity. The hare is associated with the moon in the legends of ancient Egypt and other peoples… The hare came to be associated with… the beginning of new life in both the young man and young woman, and so is a symbol of fertility and the renewal of life. (“Easter Bunny”)

According to Reader’s Digest, the rabbit has been depicted in Christian art as representing fertility and lust because they are so prolific:

Children’s stories in many countries tell how Easter eggs are brought not by a chicken but by hares and rabbits. These long-eared hopping mammals have represented fertility in many cultures because they breed so quickly. In traditional Christian art the hare represents lust, and paintings sometimes show a hare at the Virgin Mary’s feet to signify her triumph over temptations of the flesh. Yet as a symbol of life reawakening in the spring – often portrayed as the innocent and cuddly Easter bunny – the rabbit co-exists in many places with the solemn Christian rites of Easter. (Readers’ Digest Book of Facts, 1987, p. 122).

It is interesting to note that rabbits do not lay eggs. This fact escapes children because they are misled by adults more committed to perpetuating a tradition than to teaching God’s truth.


Hot cross buns have been a long-standing tradition during the Easter season. But from where did this tradition originate? According to Alexander Hislop, this traditional food is also inextricably linked to the pagan world:

“The hot cross buns of Good Friday, and the dyed eggs of Pasch or Easter Sunday, figured in the Chaldean (Babylonian) rites just as they do now. The “buns” known too by that identical name, were used in the worship of the queen of heaven, the goddess Easter, as early as the days of Cecrops, the founder of Athens – that is, 1500 years before the Christian era. One species of sacred bread which used to be offered to the gods, was of great antiquity, and called Boun.” (Hislop, The Two Babylons, p. 108).

Hislop later explains that the sign of the cross placed on these pastries has nothing to do with Christianity or the resurrection but rather was prominent in the Babylonian Mysteries:

“…the so-called “sign of the cross” and the worship bestowed on it, never came from Jesus or His apostles. The same sign of the cross that Rome now worships was used in the Babylonian Mysteries… That which is now called the Christian Cross was originally no Christian emblem at all, but was the mystic Tau of the Chaldeans and Egyptians.” (ibid, p. 199-200)

The great prophet Jeremiah was inspired to write a scathing indictment against the nation of Judah. In this indictment, God warned His people that their ongoing practice of pagan rites would not go unpunished. Notice these abominations included the making of this special bread to the queen of heaven:

“Seest thou not what they do in the cities of Judah and in the streets of Jerusalem? The children gather wood, and the fathers kindle the fire, and the women knead their dough, to make cakes to the queen of heaven, and to pour out drink offerings unto other gods, that they may provoke Me to anger. Do they provoke Me to anger? saith the Lord: do they not provoke themselves to the confusion of their own faces? Therefore, thus saith the Lord God Behold, Mine anger and My fury shall be poured out upon this place, upon man, and upon beast, and upon the trees of the field, and upon the fruit of the ground and it shall burn, and shall not be quenched.” (Jeremiah 7:17-20)

With these words, God is declaring that He is serious about idolatry. No matter how well intended this practice may seem, God condemns it.


One of the most prominent symbols associated with Easter is the lily. This beautiful flower adorns the altars of virtually thousands of Christian churches every Easter. But what does this symbol have to do with the resurrection of Jesus Christ and when did the custom of using this flower as an ornament of faith originate? As surprising as it may seem, this too has its roots in the pagan world. According to Grolier’s Encyclopedia, the Easter lily is a symbol of spring, when everything becomes new:

“On Easter people go to church services and delight in the sight of great masses of Easter lilies that decorate the altars. For the Chinese the peony is the king of flowers and symbol of spring. But to the people in church on Easter Day, the fragrant lily with its trumpet shaped blossoms is the symbol of purity and the welcome harbinger of spring.” (1966, Vol. 17)

But from where did this symbol come and when was it embraced as a symbol of worship? Unger’s Bible Dictionary provides some extraordinary insight concerning this question. It characterizes this symbol as typical of that which was embraced by pagan worshipers in the Canaanite world:

“Characteristically Canaanite, the lily symbolizes grace and sex appeal and the serpent fecundity.” (p. 412).

It is important to understand that this flower has no place in the worship of the risen Christ. It was borrowed from the pagan world. Despite its beauty, it is a symbol embraced by a God-rejecting culture and its image of sex and fertility have no place in the worship of the Savior of the world.

One of the most common practices associated with Easter is the sunrise service. Every year, millions of professing Christians come together before sunrise and participate in what they believe is the worship of the risen Christ. Generally, Easter sunrise services are filled with great pageantry and drama. Choirs provide beautiful music declaring “He is risen” while ministers give moving messages about the atoning sacrifice of Jesus Christ. To many, sunrise services are regarded as a religious experience and many well-intended Christians find participation in these services inspiring.

Most believe the Easter sunrise service has its origin in the scriptures. The common belief is that Jesus was risen before dawn on “Easter Sunday.” This, however, is not true as will be explained later in this booklet. Further, it is important to understand that nowhere in the scriptures are Christians instructed to worship at sunrise in celebration of the risen Christ. However, the Bible does describe an event in which 25 men turned their back towards God’s temple and worshiped the sunrise. God called this act of sun worship an abomination that would be dealt with in His fury:

“He said also unto me, Turn thee yet again, and thou shalt see greater abominations that they do. Then he brought me to the door of the gate of the Lord’s house which was toward the north and behold, there sat women weeping for Tammuz. Then said he unto me, Hast thou seen this, O son of man? Turn thee yet again, and thou shalt see greater abominations than these. And he brought me into the inner court of the Lord’s house, and behold, at the door of the temple of the Lord, between the porch and the altar, were about five and twenty men, with their backs toward the temple of the Lord, and their faces toward the east and they worshipped the sun toward the east. Then he said unto me, Hast thou seen this, O son of man? Is it a light thing to the house of Judah that they commit the abominations which they commit here? For they have filled the land with violence, and have returned to provoke me to anger: and lo, they put the branch to their nose. Therefore will I also deal in fury: mine eye shall not spare, neither will I have pity: and though they cry in mine ears with a loud voice, yet will I not hear them.” (Ezk. 8:13-18)


The most common belief concerning Easter centers around the day of Jesus’ crucifixion and that of His resurrection. The popular view is that Jesus was crucified on “Good Friday” and rose on “Easter Sunday” at dawn. Virtually all major Protestant denominations as well as the Catholic church embrace this belief. But is it the truth? Or, is this just another fable that has gone unchecked by millions of professing Christians?

The gospel of Matthew describes an event in which Jesus was challenged by the religious leaders of His day to give a sign that would prove He was the Messiah.

Then certain of the scribes and of the Pharisees answered, saying, Master, we would see a sign from thee. (Mt. 12:38)

Jesus responded to these religious leaders by providing the only sign He said would be given:

“But he answered and said unto them, An evil and adulterous generation seeketh after a sign and there shall no sign be given to it, but the sign of the prophet Jonas: For as Jonas was three days and three nights in the whale’s belly so shall the Son of man be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth.” (Mt. 12:39-40)

Notice that Jesus Himself clearly stated that the only sign He would give to prove He was the promised Messiah was that He would be in the grave “three days and three nights.” With this understanding, how could Jesus have been crucified on “Good Friday” and resurrected on “Easter Sunday”? It is virtually impossible to get three days and three nights between Friday afternoon and Sunday at dawn.

Furthermore, how could Jesus have been raised at sunrise when He died near sunset? Once again, if Jesus was buried toward the end of the day as virtually all authorities admit, and He was in the grave three days and three nights, then He would have risen toward the end of the day, 72 hours, or three days later. Otherwise, His words are false and He is not the Messiah.

If Jesus’ words are true, then the vast majority of professing Christians are worshiping Him in vain because He was not resurrected early Easter Sunday as so many believe. Some argue that the Bible says Jesus was raised Sunday morning before daylight. This is based on the gospels’ account of certain women visiting Jesus’ tomb “early on the first day of the week” (Mk. 16:1-4). However, when they arrived, the tomb was empty. They were then informed by an angel, “He is risen” (Mk. 16:6). Notice, however, the angel did not say when Jesus rose, only that He had risen. Consider for a moment: if the women had not visited the tomb until Monday or Tuesday, the angel’s declaration would have been no different: “He is risen.” This angelic being is only announcing what has taken place, not when it took place. Remember Jesus Himself already said how long He would be in the grave: “three days and three nights,” exactly 72 hours (Mt. 12:40).

Three Days and Three Nights Not an Idiom


There are some who contend that Jesus’ words in Matthew 12:40 are a Hebrew idiom and can mean “any part of a day.” Therefore, a late Friday burial and an early Sunday resurrection would be consistent with the scriptures. However, this argument is simply not true.

Although the Bible does contain idiomatic phrases, this is not one. Virtually all credible scholars acknowledge that when the number of nights is included as well as the number of days, it is no longer an idiom but a statement of fact. Consider the words of E. W. Bullinger:

“The fact that “three days” is used by Hebrew idiom for any part of three days and three nights is not disputed because that was the common way of reckoning… But, when the number of “nights” is stated as well as the number of “days,” then the expression ceases to be an idiom, and becomes a literal statement of fact.” (The Companion Bible, Appendix 144)

The plain truth is that Jesus was never crucified on “Good Friday” and resurrected on “Easter Sunday.” This belief is not driven by the scriptures but rather by the traditions of men.

When Was Jesus Crucified?

Every year, millions of Christians honor the crucifixion of Jesus Christ on what has come to be known as “Good Friday.” On this day, many cultures actually re-enact the crucifixion. But how could Jesus have been crucified on a Friday when the scriptures declare he was resurrected before the women visited His tomb Sunday morning? Remember Jesus’ own words that state how long He would be in the grave. “For as Jonas was three days and three nights in the whale’s belly so shall the Son of man be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth”. (Mt. 12:39-40).

The following verses will serve to show that Jesus died on the Passover. It states in Mark (15:42-45) that on the evening of the preparation day, which is the day before the Sabbath, Joseph a counseller asked for the body of Jesus. Once Pilate determined Jesus was dead, he gave him the body.

Mark (15:42) And now when the even was come, because it was the preparation day, that is, the day before the Sabbath,

(43) Joseph of Aarimathaea, an honourable counseller, which also waited for the kingdom of God, came, and went in boldly unto Pilate, and craved the body of Jesus.

The above scriptures are where the problem lied with the early church trying to interpret the events of the bible. One should take note, that what the majority of modern day Christians practice or follow come directly from the Roman Catholic Church. You had non spiritual people trying to decipher events that were spiritual. Since the scriptures stated, that the preparation day, was the day before the Sabbath, they automatically assumed this event took place on a Friday, because they knew the Lord’s Sabbath was from Friday evening to Saturday evening. That is how they came up with the concept that Jesus died on Friday and He rose early Sunday morning.

What they failed to take into account were the Lord’s Holy Days or as they are also called High Sabbaths. There are seven yearly Sabbaths, and they, with the exception of Pentecost, can fall on any day of the week.

At the beginning of this lesson, it was explained in Leviticus (23:4) that the Passover which is the 14th of the month, is the day before the feast of Unleavened Bread, which is a Holy Day or A High Sabbath. The Passover is sometimes referred as the preparation day because they used this day to prepare for the feast. The Feast of Unleavened Bread is the Sabbath which was being refereed to in Mark 15:42) when it was stated that Joseph craved the body of Jesus. Jesus had been crucified on the Passover and the next day was the Feast of Unleavened Bread.

Jesus foretold when His death would occur.

Matthew 26:1) And it came to pass, when Jesus had finished all these sayings, he said unto his disciples,

(2) Ye know that after two days is the feast of the passover, and the Son of man is betrayed to be
crucified.

Now remember God’s days start at evening and end the next evening. Keep that in mind as you view the next set of scriptures. Jesus had been betrayed by Judas the evening of the Passover. John 13 tells how Jesus and His disciples, that evening, were sharing the Passover meal. John (18:3) shows that same evening Jesus was betrayed and taken away. It was still nighttime when they took Jesus, because the men that came and took and bound Him had lanterns and torches.

Jesus was crucified the next day but it was still the Passover. Remember God’s days run from sundown to sundown. Jesus had been taken into custody the night of the Passover and the next morning which is the day of the Passover, He was condemned and crucified. The following verses deomonstrate how Pilate was willing to release Jesus the morning after he had been taken in to custody. It was still the Passover. We all know the Jews refused and Jesus was crucified.

(John 18:39) But ye have a custom, that I should release unto you one at the passover: will ye therefore that I release unto you the King of the Jews?

(40) Then cried they all again, saying, Not this man, but Barabbas. Now Barabbas was a robber.

Remember Mark (15:42) Joseph craved the body of Jesus the evening of the Passover. Now one can see that this was towards the end of the Passover.


The scriptures explain how Jesus was in the earth 3 days and 3 nights just as He had foretold.

In looking at the previous scriptures one should now have a better understanding, as to what took place. Remember Mary did not come to the Grave site until the first day of the week which is Sunday. (John 20:1) “The first day of the week cometh Mary Magdalene early, when it was yet dark, unto the sepulcher”, And it was early in the morning and it was still dark. But Jesus had already risen. That’s because Jesus went into His grave right before the end of the Passover or Wednesday evening. The passing of the Passover brought in the Feast of the Unleavened Bread. So Jesus would Have been in the Grave Wednesday night, Thursday daytime and Thursday night, Friday daytime, Friday night, Saturday daytime and Jesus rose right before the sun went down on Saturday. Hence one has the 3 days and 3 nights which Jesus prophesied.

His death Wednesday night is consistent with the comment of the prophet Daniel, stating the Messiah would be cut off (killed) in the midst of the week:

26 And after threescore and two weeks shall Messiah be cut off, but not for himself: and the people of the prince that shall come shall destroy the city and the sanctuary and the end thereof shall be with a flood, and unto the end of the war desolations are determined.

27 And he shall confirm the covenant with many for one week: and in the midst of the week (Wednesday is the middle of the week) he shall cause the sacrifice and the oblation to cease (Remember, Jesus is the sacrificial Passover Lamb).

It is inevitable that there will remain those who feel that there is nothing wrong in observing Easter, because they believe that it is the spirit in which one does something that is important. Again my purpose is not to antagonize. It is only to cause you, to carefully examine the doctrine and practices, which you are following. By researching the scriptures one can ensure, that their doctrine lines up with the word of God. Having said that, Jesus told us to worship in spirit and the Lord gave everyone specific instructions how to do that. Those instructions are contained in the Holy Bible, for it contains the word of God. If any one follows a doctrine or operates in a spirit that is contrary to the scriptures, that doctrine and spirit they are following, are contrary to God.

In I John (4:1) it tells you to try the spirits. How does one try the spirits? By the word of God. By operating in the so called spirit of things, people worship God in ways that can not be supported or substantiated by the bible. They do this while still not observing God’s commandments.

Observing the Passover is a commandment from God Leviticus (23:5). People world wide observe so called religious holidays in the name of Christ but none of these are supported by the bible. This lesson hopefully showed that one of them, Easter, is no more than a tradition established by man. Again try the spirits, for if one can follow practices not supported by the bible, yet not do what is written in scripture, they are operating under a strong spirit. And that spirit is contrary the word of God.

Peace to all who seek the truth in Jesus name.

For a video lesson on this topic by a True Bible believing Church, watch:

The above information was extracted from the following sources:

The Truth About Easter, By David Fischer and Art Braidic:

Easter, A Pagan Holiday, NOT Christian, By the Israel of God Bible Study Class:


JESUS, MAN OF HISTORY

Professional historians do not believe the New Testament account is merely a retelling of an ancient myth. Though not endorsing every detail of the Gospel records (most academics reject the supernatural elements for philosophic reasons), scholars, both liberal and conservative, overwhelmingly agree that Jesus of Nazareth was a man of history.

Will Durant, the Pulitzer Prize winning historian, co-authored with his wife the most successful work of history in history, the 11 volume The Story of Civilization. In &ldquoCaesar and Christ,&rdquo in spite of the &ldquomany suspicious resemblances to the legends of pagan gods,&rdquo Durant concludes:

Despite the prejudices and theological preconceptions of the evangelists, they record many incidents that many inventors would have concealed. No one reading these scenes can doubt the reality of the figure behind them. That a few simple men should in one generation have invented so powerful and appealing a personality, so lofty an ethic, and so inspiring a vision of human brotherhood, would be a miracle far more incredible than any recorded in the Gospels. After two centuries of higher criticism , the outlines of the life, character and teachings of Christ remain reasonably clear and constitute the most fascinating feature in the history of Western man. xv

The challenge in Zeitgeist is why we should consider the stories of Mithras, Horus, Attis, and the other pagan mystery saviors as fables, yet treat as factual a similar story told of a Jewish carpenter.

The answer is simple: There is no good evidence for the authenticity of any ancient mythological characters and their deeds, but there is an abundance of such evidence for Jesus. And if the historical documentation for the man from Nazareth is compelling, then it doesn&rsquot matter how many ancient myths share similarities.

The Apostle Paul readily acknowledged that if Jesus&rsquo resurrection was a myth and the witnesses were trading in lies, then Christians were a pitiful lot (1 Corinthians 15:19). And fools too, I might add, because it cost many of them their lives. Nothing in the Zeitgeist recycled redeemer theory, however, suggests Christians have misplaced their confidence. The skeptics&rsquo facts are unreliable and their thinking is unsound, so their challenge is doubly dead.

According to their own testimony, the New Testament writers were not following &ldquocleverly devised tales when we made known to you the power and coming of our Lord Jesus Christ, but we were eyewitnesses of His majesty&rdquo (2 Peter 1:16). They were testifying not to myths, but to &ldquosober truth&rdquo about events that had &ldquonot been done in a corner&rdquo (Acts 26:25-26):

What we have heard, what we have seen with our eyes, what we have looked at and touched with our hands, concerning the Word of Life &ndash and the life was manifested, and we have seen and testify and proclaim to you the eternal life, which was with the Father and was manifested to us &ndash what we have seen and heard we proclaim to you also (1 John 1:-3).

This article used with permission. Greg Koukl, "Jesus, the Recycled Redeemer," Solid Ground (Stand to Reason, September/October 2009): 1-5. Visit Stand to Reason's website

i. Lee Strobel, The Case for the Real Jesus (Grand Rapids, Zondervan: 2007), 163, 177-8.

ii. Ronald Nash, The Gospel and the Greeks &ndash Did the New Testament Borrow from Pagan Thought?, 2nd ed. (Phillipsburg, N.J.: P&R Publishing, 2003), 134, 137.

xi. Tryggve Mettinger, The Riddle of Resurrection &ndash &ldquoDying and Rising Gods&rdquo in the Ancient Near East (Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell International: 2001), 221.

xiv. C.S. Lewis, God in the Dock (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1970), 272-3.

xv. Will Durant, Caesar and Christ, vol. 3 of The Story of Civilization (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1972), 557.

This article is provided by a third-party source. Providing a third-party article on amazingdiscoveries.org indicates that we stand behind the content of that particular article, but it is not an endorsement by Amazing Discoveries of the author's opinion, lifestyle or work published elsewhere.

The contents of this article and website are not intended to accuse individuals. There are many priests and faithful believers in Roman Catholicism who serve God to the best of their ability and are seen by God as His children. The information contained herein is directed only towards the Roman Catholic religio-political system that has reigned in varying degrees of power for nearly two millennia. It is our sincere desire to lay the clear Word of God before you, the truth-seeking reader, so you may decide for yourself what is truth and what is error. If you find herein anything contrary to the Word of God, you need not accept it. But if you desire to seek for Truth as for hidden treasure, and find herein something of that quality, we encourage you to make all haste to accept that Truth which is revealed to you by the Holy Spirit.


Loeb Classical Library

&ldquoHere is 1,400 years of human culture, all the texts that survive from one of the greatest civilizations human beings have ever built&mdashand it can all fit in a bookcase or two. To capture all the fugitive texts of the ancient world, some of which survived the Dark Ages in just a single moldering copy in some monastic library, and turn them into affordable, clear, sturdy accurate books, is one of the greatest accomplishments of modern scholarship&mdashand one of the most democratic.&rdquo &mdashAdam Kirsch

The Loeb Classical Library ® is the only existing series of books which, through original text and English translation, gives access to all that is important in Greek and Latin literature. Epic and lyric poetry tragedy and comedy history, travel, philosophy, and oratory the great medical writers and mathematicians those Church fathers who made particular use of pagan culture&mdashin short, our entire classical heritage is represented here in convenient and well-printed pocket volumes in which an up-to-date text and accurate and literate English translation face each other page by page. The editors provide substantive introductions as well as essential critical and explanatory notes and selective bibliographies.

In honor of the 100 th anniversary of the Loeb Classical Library, celebrated in 2011, Adam Kirsch wrote a three-part essay in the Barnes & Noble Review . Read parts one, two, and three.

And, in the pages of Buried History , G. H. R. Horsley, Professor of Classics at the University of New England in New South Wales, Australia, and a Loeb Classical Library translator, assessed the library&rsquos achievements, innovations, and shifts in emphasis across its first hundred years. Download the article [PDF, 4 MB].

Now Available: The digital Loeb Classical Library (loebclassics.com) extends the founding mission of James Loeb with an interconnected, fully searchable, perpetually growing virtual library of all that is important in Greek and Latin literature. Read more about the site&rsquos features »

The Loeb Classical Library ® is published and distributed by Harvard University Press. It is a registered trademark of the President and Fellows of Harvard College. All rights reserved.

Below is a list of in-print works in this collection, presented in series order or publication order as applicable.

This selection of lapidary nuggets drawn from 33 of antiquity&rsquos major authors includes poetry, dialogue, philosophical writing, history, descriptive reporting, satire, and fiction&mdashgiving a glimpse at the wide range of arts and sciences, thought and styles, of Greco-Roman culture.

The digital Loeb Classical Library&rsquos modern, elegant interface allows readers to browse, search, bookmark, annotate, and share content across more than 530 volumes of Latin, Greek, and English texts, anywhere in the world. The entire Classical Greek and Latin heritage is represented here with up-to-date texts and accurate English translations.

Apollonius Rhodius
Race, William H.

Apollonius Rhodius&rsquo Argonautica, composed in the third century BCE, is an epic retelling of Jason&rsquos quest for the golden fleece. It greatly influenced Roman authors such as Catullus, Virgil, and Ovid, and was imitated by Valerius Flaccus.

Appian (ca. AD 95&ndash161) is a principal source for the history of the Roman Republic. His theme is the process by which Rome achieved her contemporary prosperity, and his method is to trace in individual books the story of each nation&rsquos wars with Rome up through her own civil wars. This Loeb edition replaces the original (1912&ndash13) by Horace White.

Appian (ca. AD 95&ndash161) is a principal source for the history of the Roman Republic. His theme is the process by which Rome achieved her contemporary prosperity, and his method is to trace in individual books the story of each nation&rsquos wars with Rome up through her own civil wars. This Loeb edition replaces the original (1912&ndash13) by Horace White.

Appian (ca. AD 95&ndash161) is a principal source for the history of the Roman Republic. His theme is the process by which Rome achieved her contemporary prosperity, and his method is to trace in individual books the story of each nation&rsquos wars with Rome up through her own civil wars. This Loeb edition replaces the original (1912&ndash13) by Horace White.

Appian (ca. AD 95&ndash161) is a principal source for the history of the Roman Republic. His theme is the process by which Rome achieved her contemporary prosperity, and his method is to trace in individual books the story of each nation&rsquos wars with Rome up through her own civil wars. This Loeb edition replaces the original (1912&ndash13) by Horace White.

Catullus
Tibullus
Cornish, F. W.
Postgate, J. P.
Mackail, J. W.

Catullus (84&ndash54 BCE) couples consummate poetic artistry with intensity of feeling. Tibullus (c. 54&ndash19 BCE) proclaims love for Delia and Nemesis in elegy. The beautiful verse of the Pervigilium Veneris (fourth century CE?) celebrates a spring festival in honour of the goddess of love.

Cicero
Shackleton Bailey, D. R.

In letters to his friend Atticus, Cicero (106&ndash43 BCE) reveals himself as to no other of his correspondents except, perhaps, his brother, and vividly depicts a momentous period in Roman history, marked by the rise of Julius Caesar and the downfall of the Republic.

Cicero
Shackleton Bailey, D. R.

In letters to his friend Atticus, Cicero (106&ndash43 BCE) reveals himself as to no other of his correspondents except, perhaps, his brother, and vividly depicts a momentous period in Roman history, marked by the rise of Julius Caesar and the downfall of the Republic.

Euripides (c. 485&ndash406 BCE) has been prized in every age for his emotional and intellectual drama. Eighteen of his ninety or so plays survive complete, including Medea, Hippolytus, and Bacchae, one of the great masterpieces of the tragic genre. Fragments of his lost plays also survive.

Euripides (c. 485&ndash406 BCE) has been prized in every age for his emotional and intellectual drama. Eighteen of his ninety or so plays survive complete, including Medea, Hippolytus, and Bacchae, one of the great masterpieces of the tragic genre. Fragments of his lost plays also survive.

Euripides (c. 485&ndash406 BCE) has been prized in every age for his emotional and intellectual drama. Eighteen of his ninety or so plays survive complete, including Medea, Hippolytus, and Bacchae, one of the great masterpieces of the tragic genre. Fragments of his lost plays also survive.

Euripides (c. 485&ndash406 BCE) has been prized in every age for his emotional and intellectual drama. Eighteen of his ninety or so plays survive complete, including Medea, Hippolytus, and Bacchae, one of the great masterpieces of the tragic genre. Fragments of his lost plays also survive.

The surviving works of the Roman Emperor Julian &ldquothe Apostate&rdquo (331 or 332&ndash363 CE) include eight Orations Misopogon (Beard-Hater), assailing the morals of the people of Antioch more than eighty Letters and fragments of Against the Galileans, written mainly to show that the Old Testament lacks evidence for the idea of Christianity.

Lucian (c. 120&ndash190 CE), apprentice sculptor then traveling rhetorician, settled in Athens and developed an original brand of satire. Notable for the Attic purity and elegance of his Greek and for literary versatility, he is famous chiefly for the lively, cynical wit of the dialogues in which he satirizes human folly, superstition, and hypocrisy.

Petronius
Seneca
Schmeling, Gareth

The Satyrica, traditionally attributed to the Neronian courtier Petronius, is a comic-picaresque fiction recalling the narrator&rsquos adventures in the early imperial demimonde, including Trimalchio&rsquos banquet. Apocolocyntosis (Pumpkinification) is a satirical pamphlet lampooning the death and deification of the emperor Claudius.

Philostratus
Jones, Christopher P.

In his Life of Apollonius, Philostratus (second to third century CE) portrays a first-century CE teacher, religious reformer, and perceived rival to Jesus. Apollonius&rsquos letters, ancient reports about him, and a letter by Eusebius (fourth century CE) that is now central to the history of Philostratus&rsquos work add to the portrait.

Philostratus
Jones, Christopher P.

In his Life of Apollonius, Philostratus (second to third century CE) portrays a first-century CE teacher, religious reformer, and perceived rival to Jesus. Apollonius&rsquos letters, ancient reports about him, and a letter by Eusebius (fourth century CE) that is now central to the history of Philostratus&rsquos work add to the portrait.

The passionate and dramatic elegies of Propertius (c. 50&ndashsoon after 16 BCE) gained him a reputation as one of Rome&rsquos finest love poets. He portrays the uneven course of his love affair with Cynthia and also tells us much about the society of his time, then in later poems turns to the legends of ancient Rome.

Quintus Smyrnaeus
Hopkinson, Neil

Quintus Smyrnaeus&rsquo Posthomerica, composed between the late second and mid-fourth centuries AD, boldly adapts Homeric diction and style to fill in the story of the Trojan expedition between the end of the Iliad and the beginning of the Odyssey. This edition replaces the earlier Loeb Classical Library edition by A. S. Way (1913).

Sophocles
Lloyd-Jones, Hugh

Sophocles (497/6&ndash406 BCE), considered one of the world&rsquos greatest poets, forged tragedy from the heroic excess of myth and legend. Seven complete plays are extant, including Oedipus Tyrannus, Ajax, Antigone, and Philoctetes. Among many fragments that also survive is a substantial portion of the satyr drama The Searchers.

Sophocles
Lloyd-Jones, Hugh

Sophocles (497/6&ndash406 BCE), considered one of the world&rsquos greatest poets, forged tragedy from the heroic excess of myth and legend. Seven complete plays are extant, including Oedipus Tyrannus, Ajax, Antigone, and Philoctetes. Among many fragments that also survive is a substantial portion of the satyr drama The Searchers.

The six plays by Terence (died 159 BCE), all extant, imaginatively reformulate Greek New Comedy in realistic scenes and refined Latin. They include Phormio, a comedy of intrigue and trickery The Brothers, which explores parental education of sons and The Eunuch, which presents the most sympathetically drawn courtesan in Roman comedy.

The six plays by Terence (died 159 BCE), all extant, imaginatively reformulate Greek New Comedy in realistic scenes and refined Latin. They include Phormio, a comedy of intrigue and trickery The Brothers, which explores parental education of sons and The Eunuch, which presents the most sympathetically drawn courtesan in Roman comedy.

The writings of the Apostolic Fathers (first and second centuries CE) give a rich and diverse picture of Christian life and thought in the period immediately after New Testament times. Some were accorded almost Scriptural authority in the early Church.

The writings of the Apostolic Fathers (first and second centuries CE) give a rich and diverse picture of Christian life and thought in the period immediately after New Testament times. Some were accorded almost Scriptural authority in the early Church.

Augustine
Hammond, Carolyn J.-B.

Confessions is a spiritual autobiography of Augustine&rsquos early life, family, associations, and explorations of alternative religious and theological viewpoints as he moved toward his conversion. Cast as a prayer addressed to God, it offers a gripping personal story and a philosophical exploration destined to have broad and lasting impact.

Augustine
Hammond, Carolyn J.-B.

Confessions is a spiritual autobiography of Augustine&rsquos early life, family, associations, and explorations of alternative religious and theological viewpoints as he moved toward his conversion. Cast as a prayer addressed to God, it offers a gripping personal story and a philosophical exploration destined to have broad and lasting impact.

Theocritus
Moschus
Bion
Hopkinson, Neil

Theocritus (early third century BCE) was the inventor of the bucolic genre, also known as pastoral. The present edition of his work, along with that of his successors Moschus (fl. mid-second century BCE) and Bion (fl. around 100 BCE), replaces the earlier Loeb Classical Library volume of Greek Bucolic Poets by J. M. Edmonds (1912).

The surviving works of the Roman Emperor Julian &ldquothe Apostate&rdquo (331 or 332&ndash363 CE) include eight Orations Misopogon (Beard-Hater), assailing the morals of the people of Antioch more than eighty Letters and fragments of Against the Galileans, written mainly to show that the Old Testament lacks evidence for the idea of Christianity.

We know more of Marcus Tullius Cicero (106&ndash43 BCE), lawyer, orator, politician and philosopher, than of any other Roman. Besides much else, his work conveys the turmoil of his time, and the part he played in a period that saw the rise and fall of Julius Caesar in a tottering republic.

Enriched by anecdotes, gossip, and details of character and personal appearance, Lives of the Caesars by Suetonius (born c. 70 CE) is a valuable and colorful source of information about the first twelve Roman emperors, Roman imperial politics, and Roman imperial society. Part of Suetonius&rsquos Lives of Illustrious Men (of letters) also survives.

Dio Cassius (Cassius Dio), c. 150&ndash235 CE, was born in Bithynia. Little of his Roman History survives, but missing portions are partly supplied from elsewhere and there are many excerpts. Dio&rsquos work is a vital source for the last years of the Roman republic and the first four Roman emperors.

The poetry of Horace (born 65 BCE) is richly varied, its focus moving between public and private concerns, urban and rural settings, Stoic and Epicurean thought. His Odes cover a wide range of moods and topics. Love and political concerns are frequent themes of the Epodes.

John Damascene
Woodward, G. R.
Mattingly, Harold

Barlaam and Ioasaph, a hagiographic novel in which an Indian prince becomes aware of the world&rsquos miseries and is converted to Christianity by a monk, is a Christianized version of the legend of the Buddha. Though often attributed to John Damascene (c. 676&ndash749 CE), it was probably translated from Georgian into Greek in the eleventh century CE.

Tacitus
Hutton, M.
Peterson, W.

Tacitus (c. 55&ndashc. 120 CE), renowned for concision and psychology, is paramount as a historian of the early Roman empire. Agricola includes Agricola&rsquos career in Britain. Germania is a description of German tribes as known to the Romans. Dialogus concerns the decline of oratory and education.

Plato
Emlyn-Jones, Christopher
Preddy, William

Works in this volume recount the circumstances of Socrates&rsquo trial and execution in 399 BC. Euthyphro attempts to define holiness Apology is Socrates&rsquo defense speech in Crito he discusses justice and defends his refusal to be rescued from prison Phaedo offers arguments for the immortality of the soul.

Dio Cassius (Cassius Dio), c. 150&ndash235 CE, was born in Bithynia. Little of his Roman History survives, but missing portions are partly supplied from elsewhere and there are many excerpts. Dio&rsquos work is a vital source for the last years of the Roman republic and the first four Roman emperors.

Enriched by anecdotes, gossip, and details of character and personal appearance, Lives of the Caesars by Suetonius (born c. 70 CE) is a valuable and colorful source of information about the first twelve Roman emperors, Roman imperial politics, and Roman imperial society. Part of Suetonius&rsquos Lives of Illustrious Men (of letters) also survives.

Civil War provides a vigorous, direct, clear, third-personal, impassioned account of Caesar&rsquos campaigns during the civil war of 49­&ndash48 BC, drawn from his three books of commentarii.

We know more of Marcus Tullius Cicero (106&ndash43 BCE), lawyer, orator, politician and philosopher, than of any other Roman. Besides much else, his work conveys the turmoil of his time, and the part he played in a period that saw the rise and fall of Julius Caesar in a tottering republic.

In Heroides, Ovid (43 BCE&ndash17 CE) allows legendary women to narrate their memories and express their emotions in verse letters to absent husbands and lovers. Ovid&rsquos Amores are three books of elegies ostensibly about the poet&rsquos love affair with his mistress Corinna.

In his most influential work, the Metamorphoses, Ovid (43 BCE&ndash17 CE) weaves a hexametric whole from a huge range of myths, which are connected by the theme of change and ingeniously linked as the narrative proceeds from earliest creation to transformation in Ovid&rsquos own time.

In his most influential work, the Metamorphoses, Ovid (43 BCE&ndash17 CE) weaves a hexametric whole from a huge range of myths, which are connected by the theme of change and ingeniously linked as the narrative proceeds from earliest creation to transformation in Ovid&rsquos own time.

The Metamorphoses (The Golden Ass) of Apuleius (born c. 125 CE) is a romance combining realism and magic. Lucius wants the sensations of a bird, but by pharmaceutical accident becomes an ass. The bulk of the novel recounts his adventures as an animal, but Lucius also recounts many stories he overhears, including that of Cupid and Psyche.

Achilles Tatius
Gaselee, S.

Leucippe and Clitophon, written in the second century CE, is exceptional among the ancient romances in being a first-person narrative: the adventures of the young couple are recounted by the hero himself. Achilles Tatius&rsquos style is notable for descriptive detail and for his engaging digressions.

Plutarch
Perrin, Bernadotte

Plutarch (c. 45&ndash120 CE) wrote on many subjects. His forty-six Lives are biographies planned to be ethical examples in pairs, one Greek figure and one similar Roman, though the last four lives are single. They not only record careers and illustrious deeds but also offer rounded portraits of statesmen, orators, and military leaders.

Plutarch
Perrin, Bernadotte

Plutarch (c. 45&ndash120 CE) wrote on many subjects. His forty-six Lives are biographies planned to be ethical examples in pairs, one Greek figure and one similar Roman, though the last four lives are single. They not only record careers and illustrious deeds but also offer rounded portraits of statesmen, orators, and military leaders.

History of the Wars by the Byzantine historian Procopius (late fifth century to after 558 CE) consists largely of sixth century CE military history, with much information about peoples, places, and special events. Powerful description complements careful narration. Procopius is just to the empire&rsquos enemies and boldly criticises emperor Justinian.

Strabo
Jones, Horace Leonard

In his seventeen-book Geography, Strabo (c. 64 BCE&ndashc. 25 CE) discusses geographical method, stresses the value of geography, and draws attention to the physical, political, and historical details of separate countries. Geography is a vital source for ancient geography and informative about ancient geographers.

Strabo
Jones, Horace Leonard

In his seventeen-book Geography, Strabo (c. 64 BCE&ndashc. 25 CE) discusses geographical method, stresses the value of geography, and draws attention to the physical, political, and historical details of separate countries. Geography is a vital source for ancient geography and informative about ancient geographers.

Cyropaedia, by Xenophon (c. 430&ndashc. 354 BCE), is a historical romance on the education of the sixth century BCE Persian king Cyrus the Elder that reflects Xenophon&rsquos ideas about rulers and government.

Cyropaedia, by Xenophon (c. 430&ndashc. 354 BCE), is a historical romance on the education of the sixth century BCE Persian king Cyrus the Elder that reflects Xenophon&rsquos ideas about rulers and government.

Dio Cassius (Cassius Dio), c. 150&ndash235 CE, was born in Bithynia. Little of his Roman History survives, but missing portions are partly supplied from elsewhere and there are many excerpts. Dio&rsquos work is a vital source for the last years of the Roman republic and the first four Roman emperors.

Lucian (c. 120&ndash190 CE), apprentice sculptor then traveling rhetorician, settled in Athens and developed an original brand of satire. Notable for the Attic purity and elegance of his Greek and for literary versatility, he is famous chiefly for the lively, cynical wit of the dialogues in which he satirizes human folly, superstition, and hypocrisy.

Pliny the Younger
Radice, Betty

The Letters of Pliny the Younger (c. 61&ndashc. 112 CE), a polished social document of his times, include descriptions of the eruption of Vesuvius in 79 CE and the earliest pagan accounts of Christians. The Panegyricus is an expanded, published version of Pliny&rsquos oration of thanks to the Emperor Trajan in 100 CE.

Pindar (c. 518&ndash438 BCE), highly esteemed as lyric poet by the ancients, commemorates in complex verse the achievements of athletes and powerful rulers at the four great Panhellenic festivals&mdashthe Olympic, Pythian, Nemean, and Isthmian games&mdashagainst a backdrop of divine favor, human failure, heroic legend, and aristocratic Greek ethos.

The two extant poems of Hesiod (eighth or seventh century BC) are Theogony, in which he charts the history of the divine world, and Works and Days, in which he delivers moral precepts and practical advice for the world of men.

Marcus Aurelius
Haines, C. R.

Marcus Aurelius (121&ndash180 CE), philosopher-emperor, wrote the Meditations (his title was &ldquoThe matters addressed to himself&rdquo) in periods of solitude during military campaigns. His ethical, religious, and existential reflections have endured as an expression of Stoicism, a text for students of that philosophy, and a guide to the moral life.

Pliny the Younger
Radice, Betty

The Letters of Pliny the Younger (c. 61&ndashc. 112 CE), a polished social document of his times, include descriptions of the eruption of Vesuvius in 79 CE and the earliest pagan accounts of Christians. The Panegyricus is an expanded, published version of Pliny&rsquos oration of thanks to the Emperor Trajan in 100 CE.

The comedies of Plautus, who brilliantly adapted Greek plays for Roman audiences c. 205&ndash184 BCE, are the earliest Latin works to survive complete and cornerstones of the European theatrical tradition from Shakespeare and Molière to modern times. Twenty-one of his plays are extant.

The comedies of Plautus, who brilliantly adapted Greek plays for Roman audiences c. 205&ndash184 BCE, are the earliest Latin works to survive complete and cornerstones of the European theatrical tradition from Shakespeare and Molière to modern times. Twenty-one of his plays are extant.

Seneca (ca. AD 4&ndash65) authored verse tragedies that strongly influenced Shakespeare and other Renaissance dramatists. Plots are based on myth, but themes reflect imperial Roman politics. John G. Fitch has thoroughly revised his two-volume edition to take account of scholarship that has appeared since its initial publication.

Virgil
Fairclough, H. Rushton

Virgil (70&ndash19 BCE) was a poet of immense virtuosity and influence. His Eclogues deal with bucolic life and love, his Georgics with tillage, trees, cattle, and bees. His Aeneid is an epic on the theme of Rome&rsquos origins. Poems of the Appendix Vergiliana are traditionally, but in most cases probably wrongly, attributed to Virgil.

Virgil
Fairclough, H. Rushton

Virgil (70&ndash19 BCE) was a poet of immense virtuosity and influence. His Eclogues deal with bucolic life and love, his Georgics with tillage, trees, cattle, and bees. His Aeneid is an epic on the theme of Rome&rsquos origins. Poems of the Appendix Vergiliana are traditionally, but in most cases probably wrongly, attributed to Virgil.

Plutarch
Perrin, Bernadotte

Plutarch (c. 45&ndash120 CE) wrote on many subjects. His forty-six Lives are biographies planned to be ethical examples in pairs, one Greek figure and one similar Roman, though the last four lives are single. They not only record careers and illustrious deeds but also offer rounded portraits of statesmen, orators, and military leaders.

Dio Cassius (Cassius Dio), c. 150&ndash235 CE, was born in Bithynia. Little of his Roman History survives, but missing portions are partly supplied from elsewhere and there are many excerpts. Dio&rsquos work is a vital source for the last years of the Roman republic and the first four Roman emperors.

The Greek Anthology contains some 4,500 Greek poems in the sparkling, diverse genre of epigram, written by more than a hundred composers, collected over centuries, and arranged by subject. This Loeb edition replaces the earlier edition by W. R. Paton, with a Greek text and ample notes reflecting current scholarship.

The Greek Anthology (Gathering of Flowers) is a collection over centuries of some 4500 short Greek poems (called epigrams but seldom epigrammatic) by about 300 composers. Meleager of Gadara (first century BCE), an outstanding contributor, also assembled the Stephanus (Garland), a compilation fundamental to the Anthology.

Longus
Xenophon of Ephesus
Henderson, Jeffrey

Longus&rsquos Daphnis and Chloe (second or early third century CE), in which an idealized pastoral environment provides the setting as a boy and girl discover their sexuality, is one of the great works of world literature. Xenophon&rsquos Anthia and Habrocomes (first century CE) is perhaps the earliest extant novel.

Theophrastus
Hort, Arthur F.

Enquiry into Plants and De Causis Plantarum by Theophrastus (c. 370&ndashc. 285 BCE) are a counterpart to Aristotle&rsquos zoological work and the most important botanical work of antiquity now extant. In the former, Theophrastus classifies and describes varieties&mdashcovering trees, plants of particular regions, shrubs, herbaceous plants, and cereals in the last of the nine books he focuses on plant juices and medicinal properties of herbs. His On Odours and Weather Signs are minor treatises.

Galen (129&ndash199 CE) crystallized all the best work of the Greek medical schools which had preceded his own time, including Hippocrates&rsquos foundational work six hundred years earlier. It is in the form of Galenism that Greek medicine was transmitted to later ages.

In his Gallic War and Civil Wars, Caesar (100&ndash44 BCE) provides vigorous, direct, clear, third-personal, and largely unemotional records of his own campaigns.

Nearly all the works Aristotle (384&ndash322 BCE) prepared for publication are lost the priceless ones extant are lecture materials, notes, and memoranda (some are spurious). They can be categorized as: practical logical physical metaphysical on art other or fragments.

Boethius
Stewart, H. F.
Rand, E. K.
Tester, S. J.

The classical and Christian worlds meet in Boethius (c. 480&ndash524 CE), the last writer of purely literary Latin from antiquity. His Tractates examine the Trinity and incarnation in Aristotelian terms. His Consolation of Philosophy, a dialogue between himself and Philosophy, is theistic in tone but draws on Greek, especially Neoplatonist, sources.

In 124 epistles Seneca (c. 4&ndash65 CE) writes to Lucilius, occasionally about technical problems of philosophy, but more often in a relaxed style about moral and ethical questions, relating them to personal experiences. He thus presents a Stoic philosopher&rsquos thoughts about the good life in a contemporary context.

In 124 epistles Seneca (c. 4&ndash65 CE) writes to Lucilius, occasionally about technical problems of philosophy, but more often in a relaxed style about moral and ethical questions, relating them to personal experiences. He thus presents a Stoic philosopher&rsquos thoughts about the good life in a contemporary context.

In 124 epistles Seneca (c. 4&ndash65 CE) writes to Lucilius, occasionally about technical problems of philosophy, but more often in a relaxed style about moral and ethical questions, relating them to personal experiences. He thus presents a Stoic philosopher&rsquos thoughts about the good life in a contemporary context.

Seneca (ca. AD 4&ndash65) authored verse tragedies that strongly influenced Shakespeare and other Renaissance dramatists. Plots are based on myth, but themes reflect imperial Roman politics. John G. Fitch has thoroughly revised his two-volume edition to take account of scholarship that has appeared since its initial publication.

Theophrastus
Hort, Arthur F.

Enquiry into Plants and De Causis Plantarum by Theophrastus (c. 370&ndashc. 285 BCE) are a counterpart to Aristotle&rsquos zoological work and the most important botanical work of antiquity now extant. In the former, Theophrastus classifies and describes varieties&mdashcovering trees, plants of particular regions, shrubs, herbaceous plants, and cereals in the last of the nine books he focuses on plant juices and medicinal properties of herbs. His On Odours and Weather Signs are minor treatises.

Plutarch
Perrin, Bernadotte

Plutarch (c. 45&ndash120 CE) wrote on many subjects. His forty-six Lives are biographies planned to be ethical examples in pairs, one Greek figure and one similar Roman, though the last four lives are single. They not only record careers and illustrious deeds but also offer rounded portraits of statesmen, orators, and military leaders.

History of the Wars by the Byzantine historian Procopius (late fifth century to after 558 CE) consists largely of sixth century CE military history, with much information about peoples, places, and special events. Powerful description complements careful narration. Procopius is just to the empire&rsquos enemies and boldly criticises emperor Justinian.

Dio Cassius (Cassius Dio), c. 150&ndash235 CE, was born in Bithynia. Little of his Roman History survives, but missing portions are partly supplied from elsewhere and there are many excerpts. Dio&rsquos work is a vital source for the last years of the Roman republic and the first four Roman emperors.

Dio Cassius (Cassius Dio), c. 150&ndash235 CE, was born in Bithynia. Little of his Roman History survives, but missing portions are partly supplied from elsewhere and there are many excerpts. Dio&rsquos work is a vital source for the last years of the Roman republic and the first four Roman emperors.

The Greek Anthology (Gathering of Flowers) is a collection over centuries of some 4500 short Greek poems (called epigrams but seldom epigrammatic) by about 300 composers. Meleager of Gadara (first century BCE), an outstanding contributor, also assembled the Stephanus (Garland), a compilation fundamental to the Anthology.

The Greek Anthology (Gathering of Flowers) is a collection over centuries of some 4500 short Greek poems (called epigrams but seldom epigrammatic) by about 300 composers. Meleager of Gadara (first century BCE), an outstanding contributor, also assembled the Stephanus (Garland), a compilation fundamental to the Anthology.

The Greek Anthology (Gathering of Flowers) is a collection over centuries of some 4500 short Greek poems (called epigrams but seldom epigrammatic) by about 300 composers. Meleager of Gadara (first century BCE), an outstanding contributor, also assembled the Stephanus (Garland), a compilation fundamental to the Anthology.

Plutarch
Perrin, Bernadotte

Plutarch (c. 45&ndash120 CE) wrote on many subjects. His forty-six Lives are biographies planned to be ethical examples in pairs, one Greek figure and one similar Roman, though the last four lives are single. They not only record careers and illustrious deeds but also offer rounded portraits of statesmen, orators, and military leaders.

Xenophon
Brownson, Carleton L.

Hellenica by Xenophon (c. 430&ndashc. 354 BCE) is a history of Greek affairs from 411&ndash362 BCE that begins as a continuation of Thucydides&rsquos account.

Xenophon
Brownson, Carleton L.

Hellenica by Xenophon (c. 430&ndashc. 354 BCE) is a history of Greek affairs from 411&ndash362 BCE that begins as a continuation of Thucydides&rsquos account.

Xenophon
Brownson, Carleton L.

The Anabasis by Xenophon (c. 430&ndashc. 354 BCE) is an eyewitness account of Greek mercenaries&rsquo challenging &ldquoMarch Up-Country&rdquo from Babylon back to the coast of Asia Minor under Xenophon&rsquos guidance in 401 BCE, after their leader Cyrus the Younger fell in a failed campaign against his brother.

Juvenal
Persius
Braund, Susanna Morton

Bite and wit characterize two seminal and stellar authors in the history of satirical writing, Persius (34&ndash62 CE) and Juvenal (writing about sixty years later). The latter especially had a lasting influence on English writers of the Renaissance and succeeding centuries.

Clement of Alexandria
Butterworth, G. W.

Born probably 150 CE in Athens, Clement was a key figure in early Christianity with wide knowledge of Greek literature and culture. His Exhortation to the Greeks to give up their gods and turn to Christ shows familiarity with the mystery cults. The Rich Man&rsquos Salvation is a homily that offers a glimpse of Clement&rsquos public teaching.

Pausanias (fl. 150 CE), one of the Roman world&rsquos great travelers, sketches in Description of Greece the history, geography, landmarks, legends, and religious cults of all the important Greek cities. He shares his enthusiasm for great sites, describing them with care and an accuracy confirmed by comparison with monuments that still stand today.

Martial
Shackleton Bailey, D. R.

In his epigrams, Martial (c. 40&ndashc. 103 CE) is a keen, sharp-tongued observer of Roman scenes and events, including the new Colosseum, country life, a debauchee&rsquos banquet, and the eruption of Vesuvius. His poems are sometimes obscene, in the tradition of the genre, sometimes affectionate or amusing, and always pointed.

Martial
Shackleton Bailey, D. R.

In his epigrams, Martial (c. 40&ndashc. 103 CE) is a keen, sharp-tongued observer of Roman scenes and events, including the new Colosseum, country life, a debauchee&rsquos banquet, and the eruption of Vesuvius. His poems are sometimes obscene, in the tradition of the genre, sometimes affectionate or amusing, and always pointed.

Ausonius
Evelyn-White, Hugh Gerard

The surviving works of Ausonius (c. 310&ndashc. 395 CE) include much poetry, notably &ldquoThe Daily Round&rdquo and &ldquoThe Moselle.&rdquo In Volume II, there is also an address of thanks to Gratian for the consulship the stated aim of Eucharisticus by Paulinus Pellaeus (376&ndashafter 459 CE) is to give thanks for the guidance of providence in its author&rsquos life.

Cicero
Shackleton Bailey, D. R.

In letters to his friend Atticus, Cicero (106&ndash43 BCE) reveals himself as to no other of his correspondents except, perhaps, his brother, and vividly depicts a momentous period in Roman history, marked by the rise of Julius Caesar and the downfall of the Republic.

Plutarch
Perrin, Bernadotte

Plutarch (c. 45&ndash120 CE) wrote on many subjects. His forty-six Lives are biographies planned to be ethical examples in pairs, one Greek figure and one similar Roman, though the last four lives are single. They not only record careers and illustrious deeds but also offer rounded portraits of statesmen, orators, and military leaders.

Plutarch
Perrin, Bernadotte

Plutarch (c. 45&ndash120 CE) wrote on many subjects. His forty-six Lives are biographies planned to be ethical examples in pairs, one Greek figure and one similar Roman, though the last four lives are single. They not only record careers and illustrious deeds but also offer rounded portraits of statesmen, orators, and military leaders.

Plutarch
Perrin, Bernadotte

Plutarch (c. 45&ndash120 CE) wrote on many subjects. His forty-six Lives are biographies planned to be ethical examples in pairs, one Greek figure and one similar Roman, though the last four lives are single. They not only record careers and illustrious deeds but also offer rounded portraits of statesmen, orators, and military leaders.

Plutarch
Perrin, Bernadotte

Plutarch (c. 45&ndash120 CE) wrote on many subjects. His forty-six Lives are biographies planned to be ethical examples in pairs, one Greek figure and one similar Roman, though the last four lives are single. They not only record careers and illustrious deeds but also offer rounded portraits of statesmen, orators, and military leaders.

Plutarch
Perrin, Bernadotte

Plutarch (c. 45&ndash120 CE) wrote on many subjects. His forty-six Lives are biographies planned to be ethical examples in pairs, one Greek figure and one similar Roman, though the last four lives are single. They not only record careers and illustrious deeds but also offer rounded portraits of statesmen, orators, and military leaders.

Plutarch
Perrin, Bernadotte

Plutarch (c. 45&ndash120 CE) wrote on many subjects. His forty-six Lives are biographies planned to be ethical examples in pairs, one Greek figure and one similar Roman, though the last four lives are single. They not only record careers and illustrious deeds but also offer rounded portraits of statesmen, orators, and military leaders.

The Iliad and the Odyssey of Homer (eighth century BCE) are the two oldest European epic poems. The latter tells of Odysseus&rsquos journey home from the Trojan War and the temptations, delays, and dangers he faced at every turn.

The Iliad and the Odyssey of Homer (eighth century BCE) are the two oldest European epic poems. The latter tells of Odysseus&rsquos journey home from the Trojan War and the temptations, delays, and dangers he faced at every turn.

As examples of Greek oratory the speeches of Aeschines (390 or 389&ndash314 BCE) rank next to those of Demosthenes, and are important documents for the study of Athenian diplomacy and inner politics. Aeschines&rsquos powerful speeches include Against Timarchus, On the False Embassy, and Against Ctesiphon.

History of the Wars by the Byzantine historian Procopius (late fifth century to after 558 CE) consists largely of sixth century CE military history, with much information about peoples, places, and special events. Powerful description complements careful narration. Procopius is just to the empire&rsquos enemies and boldly criticises emperor Justinian.

The Peloponnesian War was really three conflicts (431&ndash421, 415&ndash413, and 413&ndash404 BCE) that Thucydides was still unifying into one account when he died some time before 396 BCE. Although unfinished and as a whole unrevised, in brilliance of description and depth of insight this history has no superior.

The Peloponnesian War was really three conflicts (431&ndash421, 415&ndash413, and 413&ndash404 BCE) that Thucydides was still unifying into one account when he died some time before 396 BCE. Although unfinished and as a whole unrevised, in brilliance of description and depth of insight this history has no superior.

The Peloponnesian War was really three conflicts (431&ndash421, 415&ndash413, and 413&ndash404 BCE) that Thucydides was still unifying into one account when he died some time before 396 BCE. Although unfinished and as a whole unrevised, in brilliance of description and depth of insight this history has no superior.

Tacitus (c. 55&ndashc. 120 CE), renowned for concision and psychology, is paramount as a historian of the early Roman empire. What survives of Histories covers the dramatic years 69&ndash70. What survives of Annals tells an often terrible tale of 14&ndash28, 31&ndash37, and, partially, 47&ndash66.

Fronto (c. 100&ndash176 CE), a much admired orator and rhetorician, was befriended by the emperor Antoninus Pius and taught his adopted sons Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus. His correspondence offers an invaluable picture of aristocratic life and literary culture in the second century.

Fronto (c. 100&ndash176 CE), a much admired orator and rhetorician, was befriended by the emperor Antoninus Pius and teacher of his adopted sons Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus. His correspondence offers an invaluable picture of aristocratic life and literary culture in the 2nd century.

The only extant work by Livy (64 or 59 BCE &ndash12 or 17 CE) is part of his history of Rome from the foundation of the city to 9 BCE. Of its 142 books 1&ndash10, 21&ndash45 (except parts of 41 and 43&ndash45), fragments, and short summaries remain. Livy&rsquos history is a source for the De Prodigiis of Julius Obsequens (fourth century CE).

Ausonius
Evelyn-White, Hugh Gerard
Paulinus Pellaeus

The surviving works of Ausonius (c. 310&ndashc. 395 CE) include much poetry, notably &ldquoThe Daily Round&rdquo and &ldquoThe Moselle.&rdquo In Volume II, there is also an address of thanks to Gratian for the consulship the stated aim of Eucharisticus by Paulinus Pellaeus (376&ndashafter 459 CE) is to give thanks for the guidance of providence in its author&rsquos life.

Sallust&rsquos two extant monographs take as their theme the moral and political decline of Rome, one on the conspiracy of Catiline and the other on the war with Jugurtha. Although Sallust is decidedly unsubtle and partisan in analyzing people and events, his works are important and significantly influenced later historians, notably Tacitus.

After personal inquiry and study of hearsay and other evidence, Herodotus (born c. 484 BCE) gives us in his famous history of warfare between the Greeks and the Persians a not uncritical estimate of the best that he could find.

After personal inquiry and study of hearsay and other evidence, Herodotus (born c. 484 BCE) gives us in his famous history of warfare between the Greeks and the Persians a not uncritical estimate of the best that he could find.

After personal inquiry and study of hearsay and other evidence, Herodotus (born c. 484 BCE) gives us in his famous history of warfare between the Greeks and the Persians a not uncritical estimate of the best that he could find.

After personal inquiry and study of hearsay and other evidence, Herodotus (born c. 484 BCE) gives us in his famous history of warfare between the Greeks and the Persians a not uncritical estimate of the best that he could find.

Apollodorus
Frazer, James G.

Attributed to Apollodorus of Athens (born c. 180 BCE), but probably composed in the first or second century BCE, The Library provides a grand summary of Greek myths and heroic legends about the origin and early history of the world and of the Hellenic people.

Apollodorus
Frazer, James G.

Attributed to Apollodorus of Athens (born c. 180 BCE), but probably composed in the first or second century BCE, The Library provides a grand summary of Greek myths and heroic legends about the origin and early history of the world and of the Hellenic people.

Plato
Fowler, Harold North

The great Athenian philosopher Plato was born in 427 BCE and lived to be eighty. Acknowledged masterpieces among his works are the Symposium, which explores love in its many aspects, from physical desire to pursuit of the beautiful and the good, and the Republic, which concerns righteousness and also treats education, gender, society, and slavery.

Quintilian
Russell, Donald A.

Quintilian, born in Spain about 35 CE, became a renowned and successful teacher of rhetoric in Rome. In The Orator&rsquos Education (Institutio Oratoria), a comprehensive training program in twelve books, he draws on his own rich experience. It provides not only insights on oratory, but also a picture of Roman education and social attitudes.

Quintilian
Russell, Donald A.

Quintilian, born in Spain about 35 CE, became a renowned and successful teacher of rhetoric in Rome. In The Orator&rsquos Education (Institutio Oratoria), a comprehensive training program in twelve books, he draws on his own rich experience. It provides not only insights on oratory, but also a picture of Roman education and social attitudes.

Quintilian
Russell, Donald A.

Quintilian, born in Spain about 35 CE, became a renowned and successful teacher of rhetoric in Rome. In The Orator&rsquos Education (Institutio Oratoria), a comprehensive training program in twelve books, he draws on his own rich experience. It provides not only insights on oratory, but also a picture of Roman education and social attitudes.

Quintilian
Russell, Donald A.

Quintilian, born in Spain about 35 CE, became a renowned and successful teacher of rhetoric in Rome. In The Orator&rsquos Education (Institutio Oratoria), a comprehensive training program in twelve books, he draws on his own rich experience. It provides not only insights on oratory, but also a picture of Roman education and social attitudes.

In his history, Polybius (c. 200&ndash118 BCE) is centrally concerned with how and why Roman power spread. The main part of the work, a vital achievement despite the incomplete state in which all but the first five books of an original forty survive, describes the rise of Rome, its destruction of Carthage, and its eventual domination of the Greek world.

Callimachus
Lycophron
Aratus
Mair, A. W.
Mair, G. R.

Callimachus (third century BCE) authored hymns and epigrams. The monodrama Alexandra is attributed to his contemporary, Lycophron. Phaenomena, a poem on star constellations and weather signs by Aratus (c. 315&ndash245 BCE), was among the most widely read in antiquity and one of the few Greek poems translated into Arabic.

Lucian (c. 120&ndash190 CE), apprentice sculptor then traveling rhetorician, settled in Athens and developed an original brand of satire. Notable for the Attic purity and elegance of his Greek and for literary versatility, he is famous chiefly for the lively, cynical wit of the dialogues in which he satirizes human folly, superstition, and hypocrisy.

Unlike his predecessors, Epictetus (c. 50&ndash120 CE), who grew up as a slave, taught Stoicism not for the select few but for the many. A student, the historian Arrian, recorded Epictetus&rsquos lectures and, in the Encheiridion, a handbook, summarized his thought.

Menander
Arnott, William Geoffrey

Menander (?344/3&ndash292/1 BCE), the dominant figure in New Comedy, wrote over 100 plays, of which one complete play, substantial portions of six others, and smaller but interesting fragments have been recovered. The complete play, Dyskolos (The Peevish Fellow), won first prize in Athens in 317 BCE.

The only extant work by Livy (64 or 59 BCE &ndash12 or 17 CE) is part of his history of Rome from the foundation of the city to 9 BCE. Of its 142 books 1&ndash10, 21&ndash45 (except parts of 41 and 43&ndash45), fragments, and short summaries remain. Livy&rsquos history is a source for the De Prodigiis of Julius Obsequens (fourth century CE).

Philostratus
Eunapius
Wright, Wilmer C.

In Lives of the Sophists, Philostratus (second to third century CE) depicts the widespread influence of Sophistic in the second and third centuries CE. Lives of Philosophers and Sophists by Eunapius (born 347 CE) is our only source concerning Neo-Platonism in the latter part of the fourth century CE.

Claudius Claudianus (c. 370&ndashc. 410 CE) gives us important knowledge of Honorius&rsquos time and displays poetic as well as rhetorical skill, command of language, and diversity. A panegyric on the brothers Probinus and Olybrius (consuls together in 395 CE) was followed mostly by epics in hexameters, but also by elegiacs, epistles, epigrams, and idylls.

Claudius Claudianus (c. 370&ndashc. 410 CE) gives us important knowledge of Honorius&rsquos time and displays poetic as well as rhetorical skill, command of language, and diversity. A panegyric on the brothers Probinus and Olybrius (consuls together in 395 CE) was followed mostly by epics in hexameters, but also by elegiacs, epistles, epigrams, and idylls.

In his history, Polybius (c. 200&ndash118 BCE) is centrally concerned with how and why Roman power spread. The main part of the work, a vital achievement despite the incomplete state in which all but the first five books of an original forty survive, describes the rise of Rome, its destruction of Carthage, and its eventual domination of the Greek world.

In his history, Polybius (c. 200&ndash118 BCE) is centrally concerned with how and why Roman power spread. The main part of the work, a vital achievement despite the incomplete state in which all but the first five books of an original forty survive, describes the rise of Rome, its destruction of Carthage, and its eventual domination of the Greek world.

The Historia Augusta (or Scriptores Historiae Augustae) is a series of biographies of Roman emperors, heirs, and claimants from Hadrian to Numerianus (117&ndash284 CE) modeled on Suetonius&rsquos Lives of the Caesars (second century CE). Of uncertain reliability and authorship, it is now attributed by many authorities to one late fourth century CE author.

The Historia Augusta (or Scriptores Historiae Augustae) is a series of biographies of Roman emperors, heirs, and claimants from Hadrian to Numerianus (117&ndash284 CE) modeled on Suetonius&rsquos Lives of the Caesars (second century CE). Of uncertain reliability and authorship, it is now attributed by many authorities to one late fourth century CE author.

We know more of Marcus Tullius Cicero (106&ndash43 BCE), lawyer, orator, politician and philosopher, than of any other Roman. Besides much else, his work conveys the turmoil of his time, and the part he played in a period that saw the rise and fall of Julius Caesar in a tottering republic.

Sappho
Alcaeus
Campbell, David A.

Sappho, the most famous woman poet of antiquity, whose main theme was love, and Alcaeus, poet of wine, war, and politics, were two illustrious singers of sixth-century BCE Lesbos.

Anacreon
Campbell, David A.

Anacreon (c. 570&ndash485 BCE) was a composer of solo song. The Anacreonta were composed over several centuries. Notable among the earliest writers of choral poetry are the seventh-century BCE Spartans Alcman and Terpander.

Dithyrambic poets of the new school were active from the mid-fifth to mid-fourth century BCE. Anonymous poems include drinking songs, children&rsquos ditties, and cult hymns.

Aeschylus
Sommerstein, Alan H.

Aeschylus (c. 525&ndash456 BCE) is the dramatist who made Athenian tragedy one of the world&rsquos great art forms. Seven of his eighty or so plays survive complete, including the Oresteia trilogy and the Persians, the only extant Greek historical drama. Fragments of his lost plays also survive.

Aeschylus
Sommerstein, Alan H.

Aeschylus (c. 525&ndash456 BCE) is the dramatist who made Athenian tragedy one of the world&rsquos great art forms. Seven of his eighty or so plays survive complete, including the Oresteia trilogy and the Persians, the only extant Greek historical drama. Fragments of his lost plays also survive.

Of the roughly seventy treatises in the Hippocratic Collection, many are not by Hippocrates (said to have been born in Cos in or before 460 BCE), but they are essential sources of information about the practice of medicine in antiquity and about Greek theories concerning the human body, and he was undeniably the &ldquoFather of Medicine.&rdquo

Of the roughly seventy treatises in the Hippocratic Collection, many are not by Hippocrates (said to have been born in Cos in or before 460 BCE), but they are essential sources of information about the practice of medicine in antiquity and about Greek theories concerning the human body, and he was undeniably the &ldquoFather of Medicine.&rdquo

Hippocrates
Withington, E. T.

Of the roughly seventy treatises in the Hippocratic Collection, many are not by Hippocrates (said to have been born in Cos in or before 460 BCE), but they are essential sources of information about the practice of medicine in antiquity and about Greek theories concerning the human body, and he was undeniably the &ldquoFather of Medicine.&rdquo

Hippocrates
Jones, W. H. S.
Heracleitus

Of the roughly seventy treatises in the Hippocratic Collection, many are not by Hippocrates (said to have been born in Cos in or before 460 BCE), but they are essential sources of information about the practice of medicine in antiquity and about Greek theories concerning the human body, and he was undeniably the &ldquoFather of Medicine.&rdquo

In the melancholy elegies of the Tristia and the Ex Ponto, Ovid (43 BCE&ndash17 CE) writes from exile in Tomis on the Black Sea, appealing to such people as his wife and the emperor.

Velleius Paterculus
Shipley, Frederick W.

Velleius Paterculus lived in the reigns of Augustus and Tiberius (30 BCE&ndash37 CE) and wrote a summary of Roman history from the fall of Troy to 29 CE. In 13&ndash14 CE, Emperor Augustus wrote an account of his public life, Res Gestae Divi Augusti, the best preserved copy of which was engraved on the walls of his temple at Ancyra (Ankara).

Eusebius, Bishop of Caesarea from about 315 CE, was the most important writer in the age of Constantine. His history of the Christian church from the ministry of Jesus to 324 CE is a treasury of information, especially on the Eastern centers.

We know more of Marcus Tullius Cicero (106&ndash43 BCE), lawyer, orator, politician and philosopher, than of any other Roman. Besides much else, his work conveys the turmoil of his time, and the part he played in a period that saw the rise and fall of Julius Caesar in a tottering republic.

Demosthenes
Vince, C. A.
Vince, J. H.

Demosthenes (384&ndash322 BCE), orator at Athens, was a pleader in law courts who also became a champion of Athenian greatness and Greek resistance to Philip of Macedon. His steadfastness, pungent argument, and control of language gained him early reputation as the best of Greek orators, and his works provide vivid pictures of contemporary life.

Aeneas Tacticus
Asclepiodotus
Onasander
Illinois Greek Club

The surviving work of Aeneas (fourth century BCE) is on defense against siege. Asclepiodotus (first century BCE) wrote a work on tactics as though for the lecture room, based on earlier manuals, not personal experience. Onasander&rsquos &ldquoThe General&rdquo (first century CE) deals with the qualities expected of a general.

The surviving works of the Roman Emperor Julian &ldquothe Apostate&rdquo (331 or 332&ndash363 CE) include eight Orations Misopogon (Beard-Hater), assailing the morals of the people of Antioch more than eighty Letters and fragments of Against the Galileans, written mainly to show that the Old Testament lacks evidence for the idea of Christianity.

We know more of Marcus Tullius Cicero (106&ndash43 BCE), lawyer, orator, politician and philosopher, than of any other Roman. Besides much else, his work conveys the turmoil of his time, and the part he played in a period that saw the rise and fall of Julius Caesar in a tottering republic.

In his history, Polybius (c. 200&ndash118 BCE) is centrally concerned with how and why Roman power spread. The main part of the work, a vital achievement despite the incomplete state in which all but the first five books of an original forty survive, describes the rise of Rome, its destruction of Carthage, and its eventual domination of the Greek world.

Polybius&rsquos theme is how and why the Romans spread their power as they did. The main part of his history covers the years 264&ndash146 BC, describing the rise of Rome, the destruction of Carthage, and the eventual domination of the Greek world. It is a vital achievement despite the incomplete survival of all but the first five of forty books.

Polybius
Paton, W. R.
Olson, S. Douglas

For this six-volume edition of The Histories, W. R. Paton&rsquos 1922 translation has been thoroughly revised, the Büttner-Wobst Greek text corrected, and explanatory notes and a new introduction added. All but the first five of forty volumes survive in an incomplete state. Volume VI includes fragments unattributed to particular books of The Histories.

Lucian (c. 120&ndash190 CE), apprentice sculptor then travelling rhetorician, settled in Athens and developed an original brand of satire. Notable for the Attic purity and elegance of his Greek and for literary versatility, he is famous chiefly for the lively, cynical wit of the dialogues in which he satirizes human folly, superstition, and hypocrisy.

The comedies of Plautus, who brilliantly adapted Greek plays for Roman audiences c. 205&ndash184 BCE, are the earliest Latin works to survive complete and cornerstones of the European theatrical tradition from Shakespeare and Molière to modern times. Twenty-one of his plays are extant.

Plato
Fowler, Harold North
Lamb, W. R. M.

The great Athenian philosopher Plato was born in 427 BCE and lived to be eighty. Acknowledged masterpieces among his works are the Symposium, which explores love in its many aspects, from physical desire to pursuit of the beautiful and the good, and the Republic, which concerns righteousness and also treats education, gender, society, and slavery.

The great Athenian philosopher Plato was born in 427 BCE and lived to be eighty. Acknowledged masterpieces among his works are the Symposium, which explores love in its many aspects, from physical desire to pursuit of the beautiful and the good, and the Republic, which concerns righteousness and also treats education, gender, society, and slavery.

The great Athenian philosopher Plato was born in 427 BCE and lived to be eighty. Acknowledged masterpieces among his works are the Symposium, which explores love in its many aspects, from physical desire to pursuit of the beautiful and the good, and the Republic, which concerns righteousness and also treats education, gender, society, and slavery.

Plato
Fowler, Harold North

The great Athenian philosopher Plato was born in 427 BCE and lived to be eighty. Acknowledged masterpieces among his works are the Symposium, which explores love in its many aspects, from physical desire to pursuit of the beautiful and the good, and the Republic, which concerns righteousness and also treats education, gender, society, and slavery.

Xenophon
Marchant, E. C.
Todd, O. J.

In Memorabilia and in Oeconomicus, a dialogue about household management, we see the philosopher Socrates through the eyes of his associate, Xenophon. In the Symposium, we obtain insight on life in Athens. Xenophon&rsquos Apology is an interesting complement to Plato&rsquos account of Socrates&rsquos defense at his trial.

The Peloponnesian War was really three conflicts (431&ndash421, 415&ndash413, and 413&ndash404 BCE) that Thucydides was still unifying into one account when he died some time before 396 BCE. Although unfinished and as a whole unrevised, in brilliance of description and depth of insight this history has no superior.

The Iliad and the Odyssey of Homer (eighth century BCE) are the two oldest European epic poems. The former tells of Achilles&rsquos anger over an insult to his honour during the Trojan War, and of its consequences for the Achaeans, the Trojans, and Achilles himself.

The Iliad and the Odyssey of Homer (eighth century BCE) are the two oldest European epic poems. The former tells of Achilles&rsquos anger over an insult to his honour during the Trojan War, and of its consequences for the Achaeans, the Trojans, and Achilles himself.

The only extant work by Livy (64 or 59 BCE &ndash12 or 17 CE) is part of his history of Rome from the foundation of the city to 9 BCE. Of its 142 books 1&ndash10, 21&ndash45 (except parts of 41 and 43&ndash45), fragments, and short summaries remain. Livy&rsquos history is a source for the De Prodigiis of Julius Obsequens (fourth century CE).

History of the Wars by the Byzantine historian Procopius (late fifth century to after 558 CE) consists largely of sixth century CE military history, with much information about peoples, places, and special events. Powerful description complements careful narration. Procopius is just to the empire&rsquos enemies and boldly criticises emperor Justinian.

Frontinus
Bennett, Charles E.
McElwain, Mary B.

Frontinus&rsquos Stratagems, written after 84 CE, gives examples of military stratagems and discipline from Greek and Roman history, for the instruction of Roman officers. The Aqueducts of Rome, written in 97&ndash98, gives some historical details and a description of the aqueducts for the water supply of the city, with laws relating to them.

Dio Cassius (Cassius Dio), c. 150&ndash235 CE, was born in Bithynia. Little of his Roman History survives, but missing portions are partly supplied from elsewhere and there are many excerpts. Dio&rsquos work is a vital source for the last years of the Roman republic and the first four Roman emperors.

Dio Cassius (Cassius Dio), c. 150&ndash235 CE, was born in Bithynia. Little of his Roman History survives, but missing portions are partly supplied from elsewhere and there are many excerpts. Dio&rsquos work is a vital source for the last years of the Roman republic and the first four Roman emperors.

Dio Cassius (Cassius Dio), c. 150&ndash235 CE, was born in Bithynia. Little of his Roman History survives, but missing portions are partly supplied from elsewhere and there are many excerpts. Dio&rsquos work is a vital source for the last years of the Roman republic and the first four Roman emperors.

Aristophanes
Henderson, Jeffrey

Aristophanes (c. 450&ndashc. 386 BCE) has been admired since antiquity for his wit, fantasy, language, and satire. In Acharnians a small landowner, tired of the Peloponnesian War, magically arranges a personal peace treaty Knights is perhaps the most biting satire of a political figure (Cleon) ever written.

Aristophanes
Henderson, Jeffrey

Aristophanes (c. 450&ndashc. 386 BCE) has been admired since antiquity for his wit, fantasy, language, and satire. The protagonists of Birds create a utopian counter-Athens. In Lysistrata wives go on conjugal strike until their husbands end war. Women in Women at the Thesmophoria punish Euripides for portraying them as wicked.

Aristophanes
Henderson, Jeffrey

Aristophanes (c. 450&ndashc. 386 BCE) has been admired since antiquity for his wit, fantasy, language, and satire. Traditional Aeschylus and modern Euripides compete in Frogs. In Assemblywomen, Athenian women plot against male misgovernance. The humor and morality of Wealth made it the most popular of Aristophanes&rsquos plays until the Renaissance.

Lucretius lived ca. 99&ndashca. 55 BCE, but the details of his career are unknown. In his didactic poem De Rerum Natura (On the Nature of Things) he expounds Epicurean philosophy so as to dispel fear of the gods and death, and promote spiritual tranquility.

Strabo
Jones, Horace Leonard

In his seventeen-book Geography, Strabo (c. 64 BCE&ndashc. 25 CE) discusses geographical method, stresses the value of geography, and draws attention to the physical, political, and historical details of separate countries. Geography is a vital source for ancient geography and informative about ancient geographers.

Xenophon
Marchant, E. C.
Bowersock, G. W.

Minor works by Xenophon (c. 430&ndashc. 354 BCE) include Hiero, a dialogue on government Agesilaus, in praise of that king Constitution of Lacedaemon, on the Spartan system Ways and Means, on the finances of Athens and a manual of Horsemanship. The Constitution of the Athenians, though not by Xenophon, is an interesting document on Athenian politics.

Diogenes Laertius
Hicks, R. D.

Diogenes Laertius (probably early third century BCE) compiled his compendium on the lives and doctrines of the ancient philosophers from hundreds of sources. It ranges over three centuries, from Thales to Epicurus, portraying 45 important figures, and is enriched by numerous quotations.

Diogenes Laertius
Hicks, R. D.

Diogenes Laertius (probably early third century BCE) compiled his compendium on the lives and doctrines of the ancient philosophers from hundreds of sources. It ranges over three centuries, from Thales to Epicurus, portraying 45 important figures, and is enriched by numerous quotations.

Josephus
Thackeray, H. St. J.

The major works of Josephus (c. 37&ndashafter 97 CE) are History of the Jewish War, from 170 BCE to his own time, and Jewish Antiquities, from creation to 66 CE. Also by him are an autobiographical Life and a treatise Against Apion.

The great Athenian philosopher Plato was born in 427 BCE and lived to be eighty. Acknowledged masterpieces among his works are the Symposium, which explores love in its many aspects, from physical desire to pursuit of the beautiful and the good, and the Republic, which concerns righteousness and also treats education, gender, society, and slavery.

Pausanias
Jones, W. H. S.
Ormerod, H. A.

Pausanias (fl. 150 CE), one of the Roman world&rsquos great travelers, sketches in Description of Greece the history, geography, landmarks, legends, and religious cults of all the important Greek cities. He shares his enthusiasm for great sites, describing them with care and an accuracy confirmed by comparison with monuments that still stand today.

Cicero
Shackleton Bailey, D. R.

We know more of Marcus Tullius Cicero (106&ndash43 BCE), lawyer, orator, politician and philosopher, than of any other Roman. Besides much else, his work conveys the turmoil of his time, and the part he played in a period that saw the rise and fall of Julius Caesar in a tottering republic.

Basil the Great was born into a family noted for piety. About 360 he founded a convent in Pontus and in 370 succeeded Eusebius in the archbishopric of Caesarea. His reform of monastic life in the east is the basis of modern Greek and Slavonic monasteries.

The only extant work by Livy (64 or 59 BCE &ndash12 or 17 CE) is part of his history of Rome from the foundation of the city to 9 BCE. Of its 142 books 1&ndash10, 21&ndash45 (except parts of 41 and 43&ndash45), fragments, and short summaries remain. Livy&rsquos history is a source for the De Prodigiis of Julius Obsequens (fourth century CE).

The great Athenian philosopher Plato was born in 427 BCE and lived to be eighty. Acknowledged masterpieces among his works are the Symposium, which explores love in its many aspects, from physical desire to pursuit of the beautiful and the good, and the Republic, which concerns righteousness and also treats education, gender, society, and slavery.

Aristotle (384&ndash322 BC), the great Greek thinker, researcher, and educator, ranks among the most important and influential figures in the history of philosophy, theology, and science. Rhetoric, probably composed while he was still a member of Plato&rsquos Academy, is the first systematic approach to persuasive public speaking and a classic of its kind.

Horace
Fairclough, H. Rushton

The poetry of Horace (born 65 BCE) is richly varied, its focus moving between public and private concerns, urban and rural settings, Stoic and Epicurean thought. In the Satires Horace mocks himself as well as the world. His verse epistles include the Art of Poetry, in which he famously expounds his literary theory.

Aulus Gellius (ca. 123&ndash170 CE) offers in Attic Nights (Gellius began to write these pieces during stays in Athens) a collection of short chapters about notable events, words and questions of literary style, lives of historical figures, legal points, and philosophical issues that served as instructive light reading for cultivated Romans.

Strabo
Jones, Horace Leonard

In his seventeen-book Geography, Strabo (c. 64 BCE&ndashc. 25 CE) discusses geographical method, stresses the value of geography, and draws attention to the physical, political, and historical details of separate countries. Geography is a vital source for ancient geography and informative about ancient geographers.

Plutarch
Babbitt, Frank Cole

Plutarch (c. 45&ndash120 CE) wrote on many subjects. His extant works other than the Parallel Lives are varied, about sixty in number, and known as the Moralia (Moral Essays). They reflect his philosophy about living a good life, and provide a treasury of information concerning Greco-Roman society, traditions, ideals, ethics, and religion.

We know more of Marcus Tullius Cicero (106&ndash43 BCE), lawyer, orator, politician and philosopher, than of any other Roman. Besides much else, his work conveys the turmoil of his time, and the part he played in a period that saw the rise and fall of Julius Caesar in a tottering republic.

Aristotle
Halliwell, Stephen
Longinus
Fyfe, W. Hamilton
Demetrius
Innes, Doreen C.
Rhys Roberts, W.

In Poetics, Aristotle (384&ndash322 BCE) treats Greek tragedy and epic. The subject of On the Sublime, attributed to an (unidentifiable) Longinus and probably composed in the first century CE, is greatness in writing. On Style, attributed to an (unidentifiable) Demetrius and perhaps composed in the second century BCE, analyzes four literary styles.

Aulus Gellius (ca. 123&ndash170 CE) offers in Attic Nights (Gellius began to write these pieces during stays in Athens) a collection of short chapters about notable events, words and questions of literary style, lives of historical figures, legal points, and philosophical issues that served as instructive light reading for cultivated Romans.

The great Athenian philosopher Plato was born in 427 BCE and lived to be eighty. Acknowledged masterpieces among his works are the Symposium, which explores love in its many aspects, from physical desire to pursuit of the beautiful and the good, and the Republic, which concerns righteousness and also treats education, gender, society, and slavery.

Isaeus (c. 420&ndash350 BCE) composed speeches for others. He shares with Lysias pure Attic and lucidity of style, but his more aggressive and flexible presentation undoubtedly influenced Demosthenes. Of at least fifty attributed orations, there survive eleven on legacy cases and a large fragment dealing with a claim of citizenship.

Josephus
Thackeray, H. St. J.

The major works of Josephus (c. 37&ndashafter 97 CE) are History of the Jewish War, from 170 BCE to his own time, and Jewish Antiquities, from creation to 66 CE. Also by him are an autobiographical Life and a treatise Against Apion.

Athenaeus
Olson, S. Douglas

In The Learned Banqueters (late-2nd century CE), Athenaeus describes a series of dinner parties at which the guests quote extensively from Greek literature. The work provides quotations from works now lost, and preserves information about wide range of information about Greek culture.

Cicero
Shackleton Bailey, D. R.

Cicero&rsquos letters to friends span the period from 62 BCE, when his political career was at its peak, to 43 BCE, when he was put to death by the victorious Triumvirs.

Statius
Shackleton Bailey, D. R.

Statius&rsquos Silvae, thirty-two occasional poems, were written probably between 89 and 96 CE. The verse is light in touch, with a distinct pictorial quality. D. R. Shackleton Bailey&rsquos edition, which replaced the earlier Loeb Classical Library edition by J. H. Mozley, is now reissued with corrections by Christopher A. Parrott.

Statius
Shackleton Bailey, D. R.

Greek literary education and Roman political reality are evident in the poetry of Statius (c. 50&ndash96 CE). His Silvae are thirty-two occasional poems. His masterpiece, the epic Thebaid, recounts the struggle for kingship between the two sons of Oedipus. The extant portion of his Achilleid begins an account of Achilles&rsquos life.

Athenaeus
Olson, S. Douglas

In The Learned Banqueters (late-2nd century CE), Athenaeus describes a series of dinner parties at which the guests quote extensively from Greek literature. The work provides quotations from works now lost, and preserves information about wide range of information about Greek culture.

The importance of Isocrates (436&ndash338 BCE) for the study of Greek civilization of the fourth century BCE is indisputable. Twenty-one discourses by Isocrates survive these include political essays, treatises on education and on ethics, and speeches for legal cases. Nine letters, more on public than private matters, are also extant.

Josephus
Thackeray, H. St. J.

The major works of Josephus (c. 37&ndashafter 97 CE) are History of the Jewish War, from 170 BCE to his own time, and Jewish Antiquities, from creation to 66 CE. Also by him are an autobiographical Life and a treatise Against Apion.

Strabo
Jones, Horace Leonard

In his seventeen-book Geography, Strabo (c. 64 BCE&ndashc. 25 CE) discusses geographical method, stresses the value of geography, and draws attention to the physical, political, and historical details of separate countries. Geography is a vital source for ancient geography and informative about ancient geographers.

Aulus Gellius (ca. 123&ndash170 CE) offers in Attic Nights (Gellius began to write these pieces during stays in Athens) a collection of short chapters about notable events, words and questions of literary style, lives of historical figures, legal points, and philosophical issues that served as instructive light reading for cultivated Romans.

We know more of Marcus Tullius Cicero (106&ndash43 BCE), lawyer, orator, politician and philosopher, than of any other Roman. Besides much else, his work conveys the turmoil of his time, and the part he played in a period that saw the rise and fall of Julius Caesar in a tottering republic.

In Moral Essays, Seneca (c. 4&ndash65 CE) expresses his Stoic philosophy on providence, steadfastness, anger, forgiveness, consolation, the happy life, leisure, tranquility, the brevity of life, and gift-giving.

Basil the Great was born into a family noted for piety. About 360 he founded a convent in Pontus and in 370 succeeded Eusebius in the archbishopric of Caesarea. His reform of monastic life in the east is the basis of modern Greek and Slavonic monasteries.

Cicero
Shackleton Bailey, D. R.

Cicero&rsquos letters to friends span the period from 62 BCE, when his political career was at its peak, to 43 BCE, when he was put to death by the victorious Triumvirs.

History of the Wars by the Byzantine historian Procopius (late fifth century to after 558 CE) consists largely of sixth century CE military history, with much information about peoples, places, and special events. Powerful description complements careful narration. Procopius is just to the empire&rsquos enemies and boldly criticises emperor Justinian.

Unlike his predecessors, Epictetus (c. 50&ndash120 CE), who grew up as a slave, taught Stoicism not for the select few but for the many. A student, the historian Arrian, recorded Epictetus&rsquos lectures and, in the Encheiridion, a handbook, summarized his thought.

Oppian
Colluthus
Tryphiodorus
Mair, A. W.

In Fishing, Oppian of Cilicia, who flourished in the latter half of the second century CE, discusses fish and gives angling instructions. The Chase, on hunting, may be the work of a Syrian imitator. Colluthus and Tryphiodorus (properly &ldquoTriphiodorus&rdquo), epic poets of Egypt, wrote in the second half of the fifth century CE.

In his epic The Civil War, Lucan (39&ndash65 CE) carries us from Caesar&rsquos fateful crossing of the Rubicon, through the Battle of Pharsalus, Pompey&rsquos death, and Cato&rsquos leadership in Africa, to Caesar victorious in Egypt. The poem is also called Pharsalia.

We know more of Marcus Tullius Cicero (106&ndash43 BCE), lawyer, orator, politician and philosopher, than of any other Roman. Besides much else, his work conveys the turmoil of his time, and the part he played in a period that saw the rise and fall of Julius Caesar in a tottering republic.

Plutarch
Babbitt, Frank Cole

Plutarch (c. 45&ndash120 CE) wrote on many subjects. His extant works other than the Parallel Lives are varied, about sixty in number, and known as the Moralia (Moral Essays). They reflect his philosophy about living a good life, and provide a treasury of information concerning Greco-Roman society, traditions, ideals, ethics, and religion.

Strabo
Jones, Horace Leonard

In his seventeen-book Geography, Strabo (c. 64 BCE&ndashc. 25 CE) discusses geographical method, stresses the value of geography, and draws attention to the physical, political, and historical details of separate countries. Geography is a vital source for ancient geography and informative about ancient geographers.

Athenaeus
Olson, S. Douglas

In The Learned Banqueters (late-2nd century CE), Athenaeus describes a series of dinner parties at which the guests quote extensively from Greek literature. The work provides quotations from works now lost, and preserves information about wide range of information about Greek culture.

Theophrastus
Herodas
Sophron
Rusten, Jeffrey
Cunningham, I. C.

Fictionalized faults are the focus of Characters by Theophrastus (c. 370&ndashc. 285 BCE). The Hellenistic poet Herodas wrote mimes in which everyday life is portrayed and character&mdashas opposed to plot&mdashdepicted. Mimes by Sophron (fifth century BCE) and anonymous mime fragments also represent that genre.

Philo
Colson, F. H.
Whitaker, G. H.

The philosopher Philo, born about 20 BCE to a prominent Jewish family in Alexandria, was trained in Greek as well as Jewish learning. In attempting to reconcile biblical teachings with Greek philosophy he developed ideas that had wide influence on Christian and Jewish religious thought.

Philo
Colson, F. H.
Whitaker, G. H.

The philosopher Philo, born about 20 BCE to a prominent Jewish family in Alexandria, was trained in Greek as well as Jewish learning. In attempting to reconcile biblical teachings with Greek philosophy he developed ideas that had wide influence on Christian and Jewish religious thought.

Aristotle
Wicksteed, P. H.
Cornford, F. M.

Nearly all the works Aristotle (384&ndash322 BCE) prepared for publication are lost the priceless ones extant are lecture materials, notes, and memoranda (some are spurious). They can be categorized as: practical logical physical metaphysical on art other or fragments.

The importance of Isocrates (436&ndash338 BCE) for the study of Greek civilization of the fourth century BCE is indisputable. Twenty-one discourses by Isocrates survive these include political essays, treatises on education and on ethics, and speeches for legal cases. Nine letters, more on public than private matters, are also extant.

Cicero
Shackleton Bailey, D. R.

Cicero&rsquos letters to friends span the period from 62 BCE, when his political career was at its peak, to 43 BCE, when he was put to death by the victorious Triumvirs.

Florus (second century CE) wrote, in brief pointed rhetorical style, a two-book summary of Roman history (especially military) in order to show the greatness and decline of Roman morals. Based chiefly on Livy and perhaps planned to reach Florus&rsquos own times, the extant work ends with Augustus&rsquos reign (30 BCE&ndash14 CE).

In the didactic poetry of Medicamina Faciei Femineae (Face Cosmetics), Ars Amatoria (Art of Love), and Remedia Amoris (Remedies for Love), Ovid (43 BCE&ndash17 CE) demonstrates abstrusity and wit. His Ibis is an elegiac curse-poem. Nux (Walnut-tree), Halieutica (Sea-Fishing), and Consolatio ad Liviam (Poem of Consolation) are poems now judged not to be by Ovid.

Livy (Titus Livius, 64 or 59 BC&ndashAD 12 or 17), the great Roman historian, presents a vivid narrative of Rome&rsquos rise from the traditional foundation of the city in 753 or 751 BC to 9 BC and illustrates the collective and individual virtues necessary to maintain such greatness. The third decad (21&ndash30) chronicles the Second Punic War of 220&ndash205 BC. This Loeb edition replaces the original (1929) by B. O. Foster.

The great Athenian philosopher Plato was born in 427 BCE and lived to be eighty. Acknowledged masterpieces among his works are the Symposium, which explores love in its many aspects, from physical desire to pursuit of the beautiful and the good, and the Republic, which concerns righteousness and also treats education, gender, society, and slavery.

Athenaeus
Olson, S. Douglas

In The Learned Banqueters (late-2nd century CE), Athenaeus describes a series of dinner parties at which the guests quote extensively from Greek literature. The work provides quotations from works now lost, and preserves information about wide range of information about Greek culture.

The Anabasis of Alexander by Arrian (ca. 95&ndash175 BCE) is the best extant account of Alexander the Great&rsquos adult life. A description of India, and of Nearchus&rsquo voyage thence, was to be a supplement.

Plato
Emlyn-Jones, Christopher
Preddy, William

The great Athenian philosopher Plato was born in 427 BCE and lived to be eighty. Acknowledged masterpieces among his works are the Symposium, which explores love in its many aspects, from physical desire to pursuit of the beautiful and the good, and the Republic, which concerns righteousness and also treats education, gender, society, and slavery.

Demosthenes (384&ndash322 BCE), orator at Athens, was a pleader in law courts who also became a champion of Athenian greatness and Greek resistance to Philip of Macedon. His steadfastness, pungent argument, and control of language gained him early reputation as the best of Greek orators, and his works provide vivid pictures of contemporary life.

Augustine
Baxter, James Houston

The Letters of Augustine (354&ndash430 CE) are important for the study of ecclesiastical history and Augustine&rsquos relations with other theologians.

We know more of Marcus Tullius Cicero (106&ndash43 BCE), lawyer, orator, politician and philosopher, than of any other Roman. Besides much else, his work conveys the turmoil of his time, and the part he played in a period that saw the rise and fall of Julius Caesar in a tottering republic.

Strabo
Jones, Horace Leonard

In his seventeen-book Geography, Strabo (c. 64 BCE&ndashc. 25 CE) discusses geographical method, stresses the value of geography, and draws attention to the physical, political, and historical details of separate countries. Geography is a vital source for ancient geography and informative about ancient geographers.

Josephus
Thackeray, H. St. J.

The major works of Josephus (c. 37&ndashafter 97 CE) are History of the Jewish War, from 170 BCE to his own time, and Jewish Antiquities, from creation to 66 CE. Also by him are an autobiographical Life and a treatise Against Apion.

Basil the Great was born into a family noted for piety. About 360 he founded a convent in Pontus and in 370 succeeded Eusebius in the archbishopric of Caesarea. His reform of monastic life in the east is the basis of modern Greek and Slavonic monasteries.

Lysias (c. 458&ndashc. 380 BCE) took the side of democracy against the Thirty Tyrants in 404 BCE. Of a much larger number about thirty complete speeches by him survive. Fluent, simple, and graceful in style yet vivid in description, they suggest a passionate partisan who was also a gentle, humorous man.

Plutarch
Babbitt, Frank Cole

Plutarch (c. 45&ndash120 CE) wrote on many subjects. His extant works other than the Parallel Lives are varied, about sixty in number, and known as the Moralia (Moral Essays). They reflect his philosophy about living a good life, and provide a treasury of information concerning Greco-Roman society, traditions, ideals, ethics, and religion.

Historical works by Bede (672 or 673&ndash735 CE) include his Ecclesiastical History of the English Nation, Lives of the Abbots of Bede&rsquos monastery, accounts of Cuthbert, and the Letter to Egbert, Bede&rsquos pupil.

Philo
Colson, F. H.
Whitaker, G. H.

The philosopher Philo, born about 20 BCE to a prominent Jewish family in Alexandria, was trained in Greek as well as Jewish learning. In attempting to reconcile biblical teachings with Greek philosophy he developed ideas that had wide influence on Christian and Jewish religious thought.

Historical works by Bede (672 or 673&ndash735 CE) include his Ecclesiastical History of the English Nation, Lives of the Abbots of Bede&rsquos monastery, accounts of Cuthbert, and the Letter to Egbert, Bede&rsquos pupil.

Tacitus (c. 55&ndashc. 120 CE), renowned for concision and psychology, is paramount as a historian of the early Roman empire. What survives of Histories covers the dramatic years 69&ndash70. What survives of Annals tells an often terrible tale of 14&ndash28, 31&ndash37, and, partially, 47&ndash66.

Tertullian
Minucius Felix
Glover, T. R.
Rendall, Gerald H.

Tertullian (c. 150&ndash222 CE) founded a Christian Latin language and literature, strove to unite the demands of the Bible with Church practice, defended Christianity, attacked heresy, and pondered morality. Octavius by Minucius, an early Christian writer of unknown date, is a debate between belief and unbelief that depicts Roman religion and society.

On Architecture, completed by Vitruvius sometime before 27 CE and the only work of its kind to survive antiquity, serves not professionals but readers who want to understand architecture. Topics include town planning, building materials, temples, the architectural orders, houses, pavements, mosaics, water supply, measurements, and machines.

We know more of Marcus Tullius Cicero (106&ndash43 BCE), lawyer, orator, politician and philosopher, than of any other Roman. Besides much else, his work conveys the turmoil of his time, and the part he played in a period that saw the rise and fall of Julius Caesar in a tottering republic.

In Fasti, Ovid (43 BCE&ndash17 CE) sets forth explanations of the festivals and sacred rites that were noted on the Roman calendar, and relates in graphic detail the legends attached to specific dates. The poem is an invaluable source of information about religious practices.

In Moral Essays, Seneca (c. 4&ndash65 CE) expresses his Stoic philosophy on providence, steadfastness, anger, forgiveness, consolation, the happy life, leisure, tranquility, the brevity of life, and gift-giving.

Aristotle
Wicksteed, P. H.
Cornford, F. M.

Nearly all the works Aristotle (384&ndash322 BCE) prepared for publication are lost the priceless ones extant are lecture materials, notes, and memoranda (some are spurious). They can be categorized as: practical logical physical metaphysical on art other or fragments.

Philostratus the Elder
Philostratus the Younger
Callistratus
Fairbanks, Arthur

Sixty-five descriptions, ostensibly of paintings in a gallery at Naples, are credited to an Elder Philostratus (born c. 190 CE) to a Younger Philostratus, apparently his grandson, seventeen similar descriptions. Fourteen descriptions of statues in stone or bronze attributed to Callistratus were probably written in the fourth century CE.

Dio Chrysostom
Cohoon, J. W.

Dio Chrysostomus (c. 40&ndashc. 120 CE) was a rhetorician hostile to philosophers, whose Discourses (or Orations) reflect political or moral concerns. What survives of his works make him prominent in the revival of Greek literature in the late first and early second century CE.

Gerber, Douglas E.
Tyrtaeus
Solon
Theognis
Mimnermus

The Greek poetry of the seventh to the fifth century BCE that we call elegy was composed primarily for banquets and convivial gatherings. Its subject matter consists of almost any topic, excluding only the scurrilous and obscene. Most substantial in this volume is the collection of elegiac verses to which Theognis&rsquos name is attached (the Theognidea).

Gerber, Douglas E.
Archilochus
Semonides
Hipponax

The poetry of the seventh to the fifth centuries BCE that the Greeks called iambic seems connected with cult songs used in religious festivals, but its purpose is unclear.

The comedies of Plautus, who brilliantly adapted Greek plays for Roman audiences c. 205&ndash184 BCE, are the earliest Latin works to survive complete and cornerstones of the European theatrical tradition from Shakespeare and Molière to modern times. Twenty-one of his plays are extant.

Philo
Colson, F. H.
Whitaker, G. H.

The philosopher Philo, born about 20 BCE to a prominent Jewish family in Alexandria, was trained in Greek as well as Jewish learning. In attempting to reconcile biblical teachings with Greek philosophy he developed ideas that had wide influence on Christian and Jewish religious thought.

The letters of Saint Jerome (c. 345&ndash420 CE) are an essential source for our knowledge of Christian life in the fourth and fifth centuries CE they also provide insight into one of the most striking and complex personalities of the time.

The Historia Augusta (or Scriptores Historiae Augustae) is a series of biographies of Roman emperors, heirs, and claimants from Hadrian to Numerianus (117&ndash284 CE) modeled on Suetonius&rsquos Lives of the Caesars (second century CE). Of uncertain reliability and authorship, it is now attributed by many authorities to one late fourth century CE author.

Nearly all the works Aristotle (384&ndash322 BCE) prepared for publication are lost the priceless ones extant are lecture materials, notes, and memoranda (some are spurious). They can be categorized as: practical logical physical metaphysical on art other or fragments.

Eusebius, Bishop of Caesarea from about 315 CE, was the most important writer in the age of Constantine. His history of the Christian church from the ministry of Jesus to 324 CE is a treasury of information, especially on the Eastern centers.

This is the first of two volumes giving a selection of Greek papyri relating to private and public business. They cover a period from before 300 BCE to the eighth century CE. Most were found in rubbish heaps or remains of ancient houses or in tombs in Egypt. From such papyri we get much information about administration and social and economic conditions in Egypt, and about native Egyptian, Greek, Roman and Byzantine law, as well as glimpses of ordinary life. This volume contains: Agreements (71 examples) these concern marriage, divorce, adoption, apprenticeship, sales, leases, employment of labourers. Receipts (10). Wills (6). Deed of disownment. Personal letters from men and women, young and old (82). Memoranda (2). Invitations (5). Orders for payment (2). Agenda (2). Accounts and inventories (12). Questions of oracles (3). Christian prayers (2). A Gnostic charm. Horoscopes (2).

Strabo
Jones, Horace Leonard

In his seventeen-book Geography, Strabo (c. 64 BCE&ndashc. 25 CE) discusses geographical method, stresses the value of geography, and draws attention to the physical, political, and historical details of separate countries. Geography is a vital source for ancient geography and informative about ancient geographers.

We know more of Marcus Tullius Cicero (106&ndash43 BCE), lawyer, orator, politician and philosopher, than of any other Roman. Besides much else, his work conveys the turmoil of his time, and the part he played in a period that saw the rise and fall of Julius Caesar in a tottering republic.

The Anabasis of Alexander by Arrian (ca. 95&ndash175 BCE) is the best extant account of Alexander the Great&rsquos adult life. A description of India, and of Nearchus&rsquos voyage thence, was to be a supplement.

Basil
Deferrari, Roy J.
McGuire, M. R. P.

Basil the Great was born into a family noted for piety. About 360 he founded a convent in Pontus and in 370 succeeded Eusebius in the archbishopric of Caesarea. His reform of monastic life in the east is the basis of modern Greek and Slavonic monasteries.

Aristotle
Tredennick, Hugh

Nearly all the works Aristotle (384&ndash322 BCE) prepared for publication are lost the priceless ones extant are lecture materials, notes, and memoranda (some are spurious). They can be categorized as: practical logical physical metaphysical on art other or fragments.

Pausanias (fl. 150 CE), one of the Roman world&rsquos great travelers, sketches in Description of Greece the history, geography, landmarks, legends, and religious cults of all the important Greek cities. He shares his enthusiasm for great sites, describing them with care and an accuracy confirmed by comparison with monuments that still stand today.

Sextus Empiricus
Bury, R. G.

The three surviving works by Sextus Empiricus (c. 160&ndash210 CE) are Outlines of Pyrrhonism, Against Dogmatists, and Against Professors. Their value as a source for the history of thought is especially that they represent development and formulation of former skeptic doctrines.

Athenaeus
Olson, S. Douglas

In The Learned Banqueters (late-2nd century CE), Athenaeus describes a series of dinner parties at which the guests quote extensively from Greek literature. The work provides quotations from works now lost, and preserves information about wide range of information about Greek culture.

Philo
Colson, F. H.
Whitaker, G. H.

The philosopher Philo, born about 20 BCE to a prominent Jewish family in Alexandria, was trained in Greek as well as Jewish learning. In attempting to reconcile biblical teachings with Greek philosophy he developed ideas that had wide influence on Christian and Jewish religious thought.

Plato
Emlyn-Jones, Christopher
Preddy, William

The great Athenian philosopher Plato was born in 427 BCE and lived to be eighty. Acknowledged masterpieces among his works are the Symposium, which explores love in its many aspects, from physical desire to pursuit of the beautiful and the good, and the Republic, which concerns righteousness and also treats education, gender, society, and slavery.

Silius Italicus (25&ndash101 CE) composed an epic Punica in 17 books on the Second Punic War (218&ndash202 BCE). Silius&rsquos poem relies largely on Livy&rsquos prose for facts. It also echoes poets, especially Virgil, and employs techniques traditional in Latin epic.

Silius Italicus (25&ndash101 CE) composed an epic Punica in 17 books on the Second Punic War (218&ndash202 BCE). Silius&rsquos poem relies largely on Livy&rsquos prose for facts. It also echoes poets, especially Virgil, and employs techniques traditional in Latin epic.

Diodorus Siculus
Oldfather, C. H.

Diodorus&rsquos Library of History, written in the first century BCE, is the most extensively preserved history by an ancient Greek author. The work is in three parts: mythical history to the Trojan War history to Alexander&rsquos death (323 BCE) and history to 54 BCE. Books 1&ndash5 and 11&ndash20 survive complete, the rest in fragments.

On Architecture, completed by Vitruvius sometime before 27 CE and the only work of its kind to survive antiquity, serves not professionals but readers who want to understand architecture. Topics include town planning, building materials, temples, the architectural orders, houses, pavements, mosaics, water supply, measurements, and machines.

The major works of Josephus (c. 37&ndashafter 97 CE) are History of the Jewish War, from 170 BCE to his own time, and Jewish Antiquities, from creation to 66 CE. Also by him are an autobiographical Life and a treatise Against Apion.

Greek papyri relating to private and public business in Egypt from before 300 BCE to the eighth century CE inform us about administration social and economic conditions in Egypt Egyptian, Greek, Roman, and Byzantine law. They also offer glimpses of ordinary life.

Cato
Varro
Hooper, W. D.
Ash, Harrison Boyd

Cato&rsquos second century BCE De Agricultura is our earliest complete Latin prose text, recommends farming for its security and profitability, and advises on management of labor and resources. Varro&rsquos Res rustica (37 BCE) is not a practical treatise but instruction, in dialogue form, about agricultural life meant for prosperous country gentlemen.

Duff, J. Wight
Duff, Arnold M.
Aetna
Calpurnius Siculus
Publilius Syrus
Laus Pisonis
Grattius

Works such as those of the mime-writer Publilius Syrus, who flourished c. 45 BCE, and Rutilius Namatianus, who gave a graphic account of his voyage from Rome to Gaul in 416 CE, represent the wide variety of theme that lends interest to Latin poetry produced during a period of four and a half centuries.

Nearly all the works Aristotle (384&ndash322 BCE) prepared for publication are lost the priceless ones extant are lecture materials, notes, and memoranda (some are spurious). They can be categorized as: practical logical physical metaphysical on art other or fragments.

Valerius Flaccus
Mozley, J. H.

Gaius Valerius Flaccus flourished c. 70&ndash90 BCE and composed an incomplete epic Argonautica in eight books, on the quest for the Golden Fleece. Valerius effectively rehandles the story already told by Apollonius Rhodius, recalls Virgilian language and thought, displays learning, and alludes to contemporary Rome.

Aristotle
Tredennick, Hugh
Armstrong, G. Cyril

Nearly all the works Aristotle (384&ndash322 BCE) prepared for publication are lost the priceless ones extant are lecture materials, notes, and memoranda (some are spurious). They can be categorized as: practical logical physical metaphysical on art other or fragments.

Aristotle
Hett, Walter Stanley

Nearly all the works Aristotle (384&ndash322 BCE) prepared for publication are lost the priceless ones extant are lecture materials, notes, and memoranda (some are spurious). They can be categorized as: practical logical physical metaphysical on art other or fragments.

The philosopher Philo, born about 20 BCE to a prominent Jewish family in Alexandria, was trained in Greek as well as Jewish learning. In attempting to reconcile biblical teachings with Greek philosophy he developed ideas that had wide influence on Christian and Jewish religious thought.

In Secret History, the Byzantine historian Procopius (late fifth century to after 558 CE) attacks the sixth century CE emperor Justinian and empress Theodora and alleges their ruinous effect on the Roman empire. Procopius&rsquos pen is particularly sharp in portraying Theodora&rsquos lewdness, duplicity, cruelty, spite, vanity and pride.

Sextus Empiricus
Bury, R. G.

The three surviving works by Sextus Empiricus (c. 160&ndash210 CE) are Outlines of Pyrrhonism, Against Dogmatists, and Against Professors. Their value as a source for the history of thought is especially that they represent development and formulation of former skeptic doctrines.

Celsus, a layman, provides in On Medicine more information about the condition of medical science up to his own time (probably first century CE) than any other author. Book 1 is on Greek schools of medicine and dietetics Book 2 on prognosis, diagnosis, and general therapeutics Book 3 on internal ailments Book 4 on local bodily diseases.

We know more of Marcus Tullius Cicero (106&ndash43 BCE), lawyer, orator, politician and philosopher, than of any other Roman. Besides much else, his work conveys the turmoil of his time, and the part he played in a period that saw the rise and fall of Julius Caesar in a tottering republic.

Ennius
Goldberg, Sander M.
Manuwald, Gesine

Quintus Ennius (239&ndash169), widely regarded as the father of Roman literature, was instrumental in creating a new Roman literary identity, domesticating the Greek forms of epic and drama, and pursuing a range of other literary and intellectual pursuits. He inspired major developments in Roman religion, social organization, and popular culture.

Livy (Titus Livius, 64 or 59 BC&ndashAD 12 or 17), the great Roman historian, presents a vivid narrative of Rome&rsquos rise from the traditional foundation of the city in 753 or 751 BC to 9 BC and illustrates the collective and individual virtues necessary to maintain such greatness. The fourth decad (31&ndash40) focuses on Rome&rsquos growing hegemony in the East.

Extant works by Sidonius (born c. 430 CE) are three long panegyrics in verse, poems addressed to or concerned with friends, and nine books of letters.

Pausanias (fl. 150 CE), one of the Roman world&rsquos great travelers, sketches in Description of Greece the history, geography, landmarks, legends, and religious cults of all the important Greek cities. He shares his enthusiasm for great sites, describing them with care and an accuracy confirmed by comparison with monuments that still stand today.

Pausanias (fl. 150 CE), one of the Roman world&rsquos great travelers, sketches in Description of Greece the history, geography, landmarks, legends, and religious cults of all the important Greek cities. He shares his enthusiasm for great sites, describing them with care and an accuracy confirmed by comparison with monuments that still stand today.

Demosthenes (384&ndash322 BCE), orator at Athens, was a pleader in law courts who also became a champion of Athenian greatness and Greek resistance to Philip of Macedon. His steadfastness, pungent argument, and control of language gained him early reputation as the best of Greek orators, and his works provide vivid pictures of contemporary life.

Ammianus Marcellinus
Rolfe, J. C.

Ammianus (c. 325&ndashc. 395 CE), a Greek from Antioch, served many years as an officer in the Roman army, then settled in Rome, where he wrote a Latin history of the Roman Empire. The portion that survives covers twenty-five years in the historian&rsquos own lifetime: the reigns of Constantius, Julian, Jovian, Valentinian I, and Valens.

Livy (Titus Livius, 64 or 59 BC&ndashAD 12 or 17), the Roman historian, presents a vivid narrative of Rome&rsquos rise from the traditional foundation of the city in 753 or 751 BC to 9 BC and illustrates the virtues necessary to achieve such greatness. The books of the fourth decad (31&ndash40) focus on Rome&rsquos growing hegemony in the East in the years 200&ndash180.

Lucian (c. 120&ndash190 CE), apprentice sculptor then traveling rhetorician, settled in Athens and developed an original brand of satire. Notable for the Attic purity and elegance of his Greek and for literary versatility, he is famous chiefly for the lively, cynical wit of the dialogues in which he satirizes human folly, superstition, and hypocrisy.

Diodorus Siculus
Oldfather, C. H.

Diodorus&rsquos Library of History, written in the first century BCE, is the most extensively preserved history by an ancient Greek author. The work is in three parts: mythical history to the Trojan War history to Alexander&rsquos death (323 BCE) and history to 54 BCE. Books 1&ndash5 and 11&ndash20 survive complete, the rest in fragments.

Celsus, a layman, provides in On Medicine more information about the condition of medical science up to his own time (probably first century CE) than any other author. Book 5 is on treatment by drugs of general diseases, Book 6 on treatment by drugs of local diseases.

Plutarch
Babbitt, Frank Cole

Plutarch (c. 45&ndash120 CE) wrote on many subjects. His extant works other than the Parallel Lives are varied, about sixty in number, and known as the Moralia (Moral Essays). They reflect his philosophy about living a good life, and provide a treasury of information concerning Greco-Roman society, traditions, ideals, ethics, and religion.

Plutarch
Babbitt, Frank Cole

Plutarch (c. 45&ndash120 CE) wrote on many subjects. His extant works other than the Parallel Lives are varied, about sixty in number, and known as the Moralia (Moral Essays). They reflect his philosophy about living a good life, and provide a treasury of information concerning Greco-Roman society, traditions, ideals, ethics, and religion.

Aristotle
Hett, Walter Stanley

Nearly all the works Aristotle (384&ndash322 BCE) prepared for publication are lost the priceless ones extant are lecture materials, notes, and memoranda (some are spurious). They can be categorized as: practical logical physical metaphysical on art other or fragments.

Maidment, K. J.
Antiphon
Andocides

Antiphon of Athens, born c. 480 BCE, disliked democracy and was an ardent oligarch. Of his fifteen extant works three concern real murder cases. The others are academic exercises. Andocides of Athens, born c. 440 BCE, disliked the extremes of democracy and oligarchy. Of his four extant speeches, Against Alcibiades is doubtful.

We know more of Marcus Tullius Cicero (106&ndash43 BCE), lawyer, orator, politician and philosopher, than of any other Roman. Besides much else, his work conveys the turmoil of his time, and the part he played in a period that saw the rise and fall of Julius Caesar in a tottering republic.

In Moral Essays, Seneca (c. 4&ndash65 CE) expresses his Stoic philosophy on providence, steadfastness, anger, forgiveness, consolation, the happy life, leisure, tranquility, the brevity of life, and gift-giving.

Sextus Empiricus
Bury, R. G.

The three surviving works by Sextus Empiricus (c. 160&ndash210 CE) are Outlines of Pyrrhonism, Against Dogmatists, and Against Professors. Their value as a source for the history of thought is especially that they represent development and formulation of former skeptic doctrines.

Tacitus (c. 55&ndashc. 120 CE), renowned for concision and psychology, is paramount as a historian of the early Roman empire. What survives of Histories covers the dramatic years 69&ndash70. What survives of Annals tells an often terrible tale of 14&ndash28, 31&ndash37, and, partially, 47&ndash66.

Livy (Titus Livius, 64 or 59 BC&ndashAD 12 or 17), the Roman historian, presents a vivid narrative of Rome&rsquos rise from the traditional foundation of the city in 753 or 751 BC to 9 BC and illustrates the collective and individual virtues necessary to maintain such greatness. The fourth decad (31&ndash40) focuses on Rome&rsquos growing hegemony in the East.

Warmington, Eric Herbert
Livius Andronicus
Naevius
Pacuvius
Accius

Extant early Latin writings from the seventh or sixth to the first century BCE include epic, drama, satire, translation and paraphrase, hymns, stage history and practice, and other works by Ennius, Caecilius, Livius Andronicus, Naevius, Pacuvius, Accius, Lucilius, and other anonymous authors the Twelve Tables of Roman law archaic inscriptions.

Ammianus Marcellinus
Rolfe, J. C.

Ammianus (c. 325&ndashc. 395 CE), a Greek from Antioch, served many years as an officer in the Roman army, then settled in Rome, where he wrote a Latin history of the Roman Empire. The portion that survives covers twenty-five years in the historian&rsquos own lifetime: the reigns of Constantius, Julian, Jovian, Valentinian I, and Valens.

Although Problems is an accretion of multiple authorship over several centuries, it offers a fascinating technical view of Peripatetic method and thought.

Aristotle
Mayhew, Robert
Mirhady, David C.

Although Problems is an accretion of multiple authorship over several centuries, it offers a fascinating technical view of Peripatetic method and thought. Rhetoric to Alexander provides practical advice to orators and was likely composed during the period of Aristotle&rsquos tutorship of Alexander, perhaps by Anaximenes, another of Alexander&rsquos tutors.

Demosthenes (384&ndash322 BCE), orator at Athens, was a pleader in law courts who also became a champion of Athenian greatness and Greek resistance to Philip of Macedon. His steadfastness, pungent argument, and control of language gained him early reputation as the best of Greek orators, and his works provide vivid pictures of contemporary life.

Dionysius of Halicarnassus
Cary, Earnest

The main aim of Dionysius of Halicarnassus&rsquos Roman Antiquities, which began to appear in 7 BCE, was to reconcile Greeks to Roman rule. Of the twenty books (from the earliest times to 264 BCE) we have the first nine complete most of 10 and 11 extracts and an epitome of the whole.

The philosopher Philo, born about 20 BCE to a prominent Jewish family in Alexandria, was trained in Greek as well as Jewish learning. In attempting to reconcile biblical teachings with Greek philosophy he developed ideas that had wide influence on Christian and Jewish religious thought.

Plutarch
Fowler, Harold North

Plutarch (c. 45&ndash120 CE) wrote on many subjects. His extant works other than the Parallel Lives are varied, about sixty in number, and known as the Moralia (Moral Essays). They reflect his philosophy about living a good life, and provide a treasury of information concerning Greco-Roman society, traditions, ideals, ethics, and religion.

Tacitus (c. 55&ndashc. 120 CE), renowned for concision and psychology, is paramount as a historian of the early Roman empire. What survives of Histories covers the dramatic years 69&ndash70. What survives of Annals tells an often terrible tale of 14&ndash28, 31&ndash37, and, partially, 47&ndash66.

Aristotle
Peck, A. L.
Forster, E. S.

Nearly all the works Aristotle (384&ndash322 BCE) prepared for publication are lost the priceless ones extant are lecture materials, notes, and memoranda (some are spurious). They can be categorized as: practical logical physical metaphysical on art other or fragments.

We know more of Marcus Tullius Cicero (106&ndash43 BCE), lawyer, orator, politician and philosopher, than of any other Roman. Besides much else, his work conveys the turmoil of his time, and the part he played in a period that saw the rise and fall of Julius Caesar in a tottering republic.

Aristotle
Cooke, Harold Percy
Tredennick, Hugh

Nearly all the works Aristotle (384&ndash322 BCE) prepared for publication are lost the priceless ones extant are lecture materials, notes, and memoranda (some are spurious). They can be categorized as: practical logical physical metaphysical on art other or fragments.

The major works of Josephus (c. 37&ndashafter 97 CE) are History of the Jewish War, from 170 BCE to his own time, and Jewish Antiquities, from creation to 66 CE. Also by him are an autobiographical Life and a treatise Against Apion.

Athenaeus
Olson, S. Douglas

In The Learned Banqueters (late-2nd century CE), Athenaeus describes a series of dinner parties at which the guests quote extensively from Greek literature. The work provides quotations from works now lost, and preserves information about wide range of information about Greek culture.

The comedies of Plautus, who brilliantly adapted Greek plays for Roman audiences c. 205&ndash184 BCE, are the earliest Latin works to survive complete and cornerstones of the European theatrical tradition from Shakespeare and Molière to modern times. Twenty-one of his plays are extant.

Warmington, Eric Herbert
Lucilius

Extant early Latin writings from the seventh or sixth to the first century BCE include epic, drama, satire, translation and paraphrase, hymns, stage history and practice, and other works by Ennius, Caecilius, Livius Andronicus, Naevius, Pacuvius, Accius, Lucilius, and other anonymous authors the Twelve Tables of Roman law archaic inscriptions.

Pliny the Elder (23&ndash79 CE) produced in his Natural History a vast compendium of Roman knowledge. Topics included are the mathematics and metrology of the universe world geography and ethnography human anthropology and physiology zoology botany, agriculture, and horticulture medicine minerals, fine arts, and gemstones.

Ammianus Marcellinus
Rolfe, J. C.

Ammianus (c. 325&ndashc. 395 CE), a Greek from Antioch, served many years as an officer in the Roman army, then settled in Rome, where he wrote a Latin history of the Roman Empire. The portion that survives covers twenty-five years in the historian&rsquos own lifetime: the reigns of Constantius, Julian, Jovian, Valentinian I, and Valens.

Livy
Sage, Evan T.
Schlesinger, Alfred Cary

The only extant work by Livy (64 or 59 BCE &ndash12 or 17 CE) is part of his history of Rome from the foundation of the city to 9 BCE. Of its 142 books 1&ndash10, 21&ndash45 (except parts of 41 and 43&ndash45), fragments, and short summaries remain. Livy&rsquos history is a source for the De Prodigiis of Julius Obsequens (fourth century CE).

Of more than seventy works by Varro (116&ndash27 BCE) we have only his treatise On Agriculture and part of his De Lingua Latina (On the Latin Language), a work typical of its author&rsquos interest not only in antiquarian matters but also in the collection of scientific facts, and containing much of very great value to the study of the Latin language.

Of more than seventy works by Varro (116&ndash27 BCE) we have only his treatise On Agriculture and part of his De Lingua Latina (On the Latin Language), a work typical of its author&rsquos interest not only in antiquarian matters but also in the collection of scientific facts, and containing much of very great value to the study of the Latin language.

Greek mathematics from the sixth century BCE to the fourth century CE is represented by the work of, e.g., Pythagoras Proclus Thales Democritus Hippocrates of Chios Theaetetus Plato Eudoxus of Cnidus Aristotle Euclid Eratosthenes Apollonius Ptolemy Heron of Alexandria Diophantus and Pappus.

Celsus, a layman, provides in On Medicine more information about the condition of medical science up to his own time (probably first century CE) than any other author. Books VII and Book VIII deal with surgery and present accounts of many operations, including amputation.

Plutarch (c. 45&ndash120 CE) wrote on many subjects. His extant works other than the Parallel Lives are varied, about sixty in number, and known as the Moralia (Moral Essays). They reflect his philosophy about living a good life, and provide a treasury of information concerning Greco-Roman society, traditions, ideals, ethics, and religion.

Nearly all the works Aristotle (384&ndash322 BCE) prepared for publication are lost the priceless ones extant are lecture materials, notes, and memoranda (some are spurious). They can be categorized as: practical logical physical metaphysical on art other or fragments.

Dio Chrysostom
Cohoon, J. W.

Dio Chrysostomus (c. 40&ndashc. 120 CE) was a rhetorician hostile to philosophers, whose Discourses (or Orations) reflect political or moral concerns. What survives of his works make him prominent in the revival of Greek literature in the late first and early second century CE.

Diodorus Siculus
Oldfather, C. H.

Diodorus&rsquos Library of History, written in the first century BCE, is the most extensively preserved history by an ancient Greek author. The work is in three parts: mythical history to the Trojan War history to Alexander&rsquos death (323 BCE) and history to 54 BCE. Books 1&ndash5 and 11&ndash20 survive complete, the rest in fragments.

The philosopher Philo, born about 20 BCE to a prominent Jewish family in Alexandria, was trained in Greek as well as Jewish learning. In attempting to reconcile biblical teachings with Greek philosophy he developed ideas that had wide influence on Christian and Jewish religious thought.

Cicero
Hendrickson, G. L.
Hubbell, H. M.

We know more of Marcus Tullius Cicero (106&ndash43 BCE), lawyer, orator, politician and philosopher, than of any other Roman. Besides much else, his work conveys the turmoil of his time, and the part he played in a period that saw the rise and fall of Julius Caesar in a tottering republic.

Procopius
Dewing, H. B.
Downey, Glanville

In On Buildings, the Byzantine historian Procopius (late fifth century to after 558 CE) describes the churches, public buildings, fortifications, and bridges Justinian erected throughout his empire, from the Church of St. Sophia in Constantinople to city walls at Carthage. The work is richly informative about architecture of the sixth century CE.

The epic Dionysiaca by Nonnos of Panopolis in Egypt (fifth century CE) concerns Dionysus&rsquo earthly career from birth at Thebes to reception on Olympus. In a poem full of mythology, astrology, and magic, Nonnos relates the god&rsquos conquest of the East and also, sensually and explicitly, his amorous adventures.

Athenaeus
Olson, S. Douglas

In The Learned Banqueters (late-2nd century CE), Athenaeus describes a series of dinner parties at which the guests quote extensively from Greek literature. The work provides quotations from works now lost, and preserves information about wide range of information about Greek culture.

Demosthenes (384&ndash322 BCE), orator at Athens, was a pleader in law courts who also became a champion of Athenian greatness and Greek resistance to Philip of Macedon. His steadfastness, pungent argument, and control of language gained him early reputation as the best of Greek orators, and his works provide vivid pictures of contemporary life.

Dionysius of Halicarnassus
Cary, Earnest

The main aim of Dionysius of Halicarnassus&rsquos Roman Antiquities, which began to appear in 7 BCE, was to reconcile Greeks to Roman rule. Of the twenty books (from the earliest times to 264 BCE) we have the first nine complete most of 10 and 11 extracts and an epitome of the whole.

Cicero
Sutton, E. W.
Rackham, H.

We know more of Marcus Tullius Cicero (106&ndash43 BCE), lawyer, orator, politician and philosopher, than of any other Roman. Besides much else, his work conveys the turmoil of his time, and the part he played in a period that saw the rise and fall of Julius Caesar in a tottering republic.

We know more of Marcus Tullius Cicero (106&ndash43 BCE), lawyer, orator, politician and philosopher, than of any other Roman. Besides much else, his work conveys the turmoil of his time, and the part he played in a period that saw the rise and fall of Julius Caesar in a tottering republic.

Eight works or parts of works were ascribed to Manetho, a third century BCE Egyptian, all on history and religion and all apparently in Greek. They survive only as quoted by other writers and include the spurious Book of Sôthis. The Kings of Thebes (in Egypt) and the Old Chronicle are doubtful.

Demosthenes (384&ndash322 BCE), orator at Athens, was a pleader in law courts who also became a champion of Athenian greatness and Greek resistance to Philip of Macedon. His steadfastness, pungent argument, and control of language gained him early reputation as the best of Greek orators, and his works provide vivid pictures of contemporary life.

Pliny the Elder (23&ndash79 CE) produced in his Natural History a vast compendium of Roman knowledge. Topics included are the mathematics and metrology of the universe world geography and ethnography human anthropology and physiology zoology botany, agriculture, and horticulture medicine minerals, fine arts, and gemstones.

Pliny the Elder (23&ndash79 CE) produced in his Natural History a vast compendium of Roman knowledge. Topics included are the mathematics and metrology of the universe world geography and ethnography human anthropology and physiology zoology botany, agriculture, and horticulture medicine minerals, fine arts, and gemstones.

The epic Dionysiaca by Nonnos of Panopolis in Egypt (fifth century CE) concerns Dionysus&rsquo earthly career from birth at Thebes to reception on Olympus. In a poem full of mythology, astrology, and magic, Nonnos relates the god&rsquos conquest of the East and also, sensually and explicitly, his amorous adventures.

Livy (Titus Livius, 64 or 59 BC&ndashAD 12 or 17), the great Roman historian, presents a vivid narrative of Rome&rsquos rise from the traditional foundation of the city in 753 or 751 BC to 9 BC and illustrates the collective and individual virtues necessary to maintain such greatness. The third decad (21&ndash30) chronicles the Second Punic War of 220&ndash205 BC.

The epic Dionysiaca by Nonnos of Panopolis in Egypt (fifth century CE) concerns Dionysus&rsquo earthly career from birth at Thebes to reception on Olympus. In a poem full of mythology, astrology, and magic, Nonnos relates the god&rsquos conquest of the East and also, sensually and explicitly, his amorous adventures.

Dionysius of Halicarnassus
Cary, Earnest

The main aim of Dionysius of Halicarnassus&rsquos Roman Antiquities, which began to appear in 7 BCE, was to reconcile Greeks to Roman rule. Of the twenty books (from the earliest times to 264 BCE) we have the first nine complete most of 10 and 11 extracts and an epitome of the whole.

Dio Chrysostom
Cohoon, J. W.
Crosby, H. Lamar

Dio Chrysostomus (c. 40&ndashc. 120 CE) was a rhetorician hostile to philosophers, whose Discourses (or Orations) reflect political or moral concerns. What survives of his works make him prominent in the revival of Greek literature in the late first and early second century CE.

Extant early Latin writings from the seventh or sixth to the first century BCE include epic, drama, satire, translation and paraphrase, hymns, stage history and practice, and other works by Ennius, Caecilius, Livius Andronicus, Naevius, Pacuvius, Accius, Lucilius, and other anonymous authors the Twelve Tables of Roman law archaic inscriptions.

Fragments of ancient literature, from the seventh to the third century BCE, found on papyri in Egypt include examples of tragedy satyr drama Old, Middle, and New Comedy mime lyric, elegiac, iambic, and hexametric poetry.

Columella
Ash, Harrison Boyd

Columella (first century CE) included Cato and Varro among many sources for On Agriculture, but his personal experience was paramount. Written in prose except for the hexameters on horticulture of Book 10, the work is richly informative about country life in first century CE Italy.

Greek mathematics from the sixth century BCE to the fourth century CE is represented by the work of, e.g., Pythagoras Proclus Thales Democritus Hippocrates of Chios Theaetetus Plato Eudoxus of Cnidus Aristotle Euclid Eratosthenes Apollonius Ptolemy Heron of Alexandria Diophantus and Pappus.

The philosopher Philo, born about 20 BCE to a prominent Jewish family in Alexandria, was trained in Greek as well as Jewish learning. In attempting to reconcile biblical teachings with Greek philosophy he developed ideas that had wide influence on Christian and Jewish religious thought.

Dionysius of Halicarnassus
Cary, Earnest

The main aim of Dionysius of Halicarnassus&rsquos Roman Antiquities, which began to appear in 7 BCE, was to reconcile Greeks to Roman rule. Of the twenty books (from the earliest times to 264 BCE) we have the first nine complete most of 10 and 11 extracts and an epitome of the whole.

The major works of Josephus (c. 37&ndashafter 97 CE) are History of the Jewish War, from 170 BCE to his own time, and Jewish Antiquities, from creation to 66 CE. Also by him are an autobiographical Life and a treatise Against Apion.

Nearly all the works Aristotle (384&ndash322 BCE) prepared for publication are lost the priceless ones extant are lecture materials, notes, and memoranda (some are spurious). They can be categorized as: practical logical physical metaphysical on art other or fragments.

Livy (Titus Livius, 64 or 59 BC&ndashAD 12 or 17), the great Roman historian, presents a vivid narrative of Rome&rsquos rise from the traditional foundation of the city in 753 or 751 BC to 9 BC and illustrates the collective and individual virtues necessary to maintain such greatness. The third decad (21&ndash30) chronicles the Second Punic War of 220&ndash205 BC.

Quintus Curtius
Rolfe, J. C.

Quintus Curtius wrote a history of Alexander the Great in the first or second century CE. The first two of ten books have not survived and material is missing from books 5, 6, and 10. Curtius narrates exciting experiences, develops his hero&rsquos character, moralizes, and provides one of the five extant works that are evidence for Alexander&rsquos career.

Quintus Curtius
Rolfe, J. C.

Quintus Curtius wrote a history of Alexander the Great in the first or second century CE. The first two of ten books have not survived and material is missing from books 5, 6, and 10. Curtius narrates exciting experiences, develops his hero&rsquos character, moralizes, and provides one of the five extant works that are evidence for Alexander&rsquos career.

Pliny the Elder (23&ndash79 CE) produced in his Natural History a vast compendium of Roman knowledge. Topics included are the mathematics and metrology of the universe world geography and ethnography human anthropology and physiology zoology botany, agriculture, and horticulture medicine minerals, fine arts, and gemstones.

Pliny the Elder (23&ndash79 CE) produced in his Natural History a vast compendium of Roman knowledge. Topics included are the mathematics and metrology of the universe world geography and ethnography human anthropology and physiology zoology botany, agriculture, and horticulture medicine minerals, fine arts, and gemstones.

Dionysius of Halicarnassus
Cary, Earnest

The main aim of Dionysius of Halicarnassus&rsquos Roman Antiquities, which began to appear in 7 BCE, was to reconcile Greeks to Roman rule. Of the twenty books (from the earliest times to 264 BCE) we have the first nine complete most of 10 and 11 extracts and an epitome of the whole.

Isocrates
Van Hook, La Rue

The importance of Isocrates (436&ndash338 BCE) for the study of Greek civilization of the fourth century BCE is indisputable. Twenty-one discourses by Isocrates survive these include political essays, treatises on education and on ethics, and speeches for legal cases. Nine letters, more on public than private matters, are also extant.

Demosthenes
De Witt, N. W.
De Witt, N. J.

Demosthenes (384&ndash322 BCE), orator at Athens, was a pleader in law courts who also became a champion of Athenian greatness and Greek resistance to Philip of Macedon. His steadfastness, pungent argument, and control of language gained him early reputation as the best of Greek orators, and his works provide vivid pictures of contemporary life.

Diodorus Siculus
Oldfather, C. H.

Diodorus&rsquos Library of History, written in the first century BCE, is the most extensively preserved history by an ancient Greek author. The work is in three parts: mythical history to the Trojan War history to Alexander&rsquos death (323 BCE) and history to 54 BCE. Books 1&ndash5 and 11&ndash20 survive complete, the rest in fragments.

Dio Chrysostom
Crosby, H. Lamar

Dio Chrysostomus (c. 40&ndashc. 120 CE) was a rhetorician hostile to philosophers, whose Discourses (or Orations) reflect political or moral concerns. What survives of his works make him prominent in the revival of Greek literature in the late first and early second century CE.

Diodorus Siculus
Geer, Russel M.

Diodorus&rsquos Library of History, written in the first century BCE, is the most extensively preserved history by an ancient Greek author. The work is in three parts: mythical history to the Trojan War history to Alexander&rsquos death (323 BCE) and history to 54 BCE. Books 1&ndash5 and 11&ndash20 survive complete, the rest in fragments.

Dionysius of Halicarnassus
Cary, Earnest

The main aim of Dionysius of Halicarnassus&rsquos Roman Antiquities, which began to appear in 7 BCE, was to reconcile Greeks to Roman rule. Of the twenty books (from the earliest times to 264 BCE) we have the first nine complete most of 10 and 11 extracts and an epitome of the whole.

The philosopher Philo, born about 20 BCE to a prominent Jewish family in Alexandria, was trained in Greek as well as Jewish learning. In attempting to reconcile biblical teachings with Greek philosophy he developed ideas that had wide influence on Christian and Jewish religious thought.

The philosopher Philo, born about 20 BCE to a prominent Jewish family in Alexandria, was trained in Greek as well as Jewish learning. In attempting to reconcile biblical teachings with Greek philosophy he developed ideas that had wide influence on Christian and Jewish religious thought.

Livy (Titus Livius, 64 or 59 BC&ndashAD 12 or 17), the great Roman historian, presents a vivid narrative of Rome&rsquos rise from the traditional foundation of the city in 753 or 751 BC to 9 BC and illustrates the collective and individual virtues necessary to maintain such greatness. The third decad (21&ndash30) chronicles the Second Punic War of 220&ndash205 BC.

Sextus Empiricus
Bury, R. G.

The three surviving works by Sextus Empiricus (c. 160&ndash210 CE) are Outlines of Pyrrhonism, Against Dogmatists, and Against Professors. Their value as a source for the history of thought is especially that they represent development and formulation of former skeptic doctrines.

Alciphron
Aelian
Philostratus
Benner, A. R.
Fobes, F. H.

The fictitious, highly literary Letters of Alciphron (second century CE) are mostly to invented characters. The Letters of Farmers by Aelian (c. 170&ndash235 CE) portray the country ways of their imagined writers. The Erotic Epistles of Philostratus (perhaps born c. 170 CE) resemble and may have been influenced by those of Alciphron.

Diodorus Siculus
Oldfather, C. H.

Diodorus&rsquos Library of History, written in the first century BCE, is the most extensively preserved history by an ancient Greek author. The work is in three parts: mythical history to the Trojan War history to Alexander&rsquos death (323 BCE) and history to 54 BCE. Books 1&ndash5 and 11&ndash20 survive complete, the rest in fragments.

Dio Chrysostom
Crosby, H. Lamar

Dio Chrysostomus (c. 40&ndashc. 120 CE) was a rhetorician hostile to philosophers, whose Discourses (or Orations) reflect political or moral concerns. What survives of his works make him prominent in the revival of Greek literature in the late first and early second century CE.

We know more of Marcus Tullius Cicero (106&ndash43 BCE), lawyer, orator, politician and philosopher, than of any other Roman. Besides much else, his work conveys the turmoil of his time, and the part he played in a period that saw the rise and fall of Julius Caesar in a tottering republic.

Prudentius (born 348 CE) used allegory and classical Latin verse forms in service of Christianity. His works include the Psychomachia, an allegorical description of the struggle between Christian virtues and pagan vices lyric poetry and inscriptions for biblical scenes on a church&rsquos walls&mdasha valuable source on Christian iconography.

Dionysius of Halicarnassus
Cary, Earnest

The main aim of Dionysius of Halicarnassus&rsquos Roman Antiquities, which began to appear in 7 BCE, was to reconcile Greeks to Roman rule. Of the twenty books (from the earliest times to 264 BCE) we have the first nine complete most of 10 and 11 extracts and an epitome of the whole.

Diodorus Siculus
Sherman, Charles L.

Diodorus&rsquos Library of History, written in the first century BCE, is the most extensively preserved history by an ancient Greek author. The work is in three parts: mythical history to the Trojan War history to Alexander&rsquos death (323 BCE) and history to 54 BCE. Books 1&ndash5 and 11&ndash20 survive complete, the rest in fragments.

Diodorus Siculus
Geer, Russel M.

Diodorus&rsquos Library of History, written in the first century BCE, is the most extensively preserved history by an ancient Greek author. The work is in three parts: mythical history to the Trojan War history to Alexander&rsquos death (323 BCE) and history to 54 BCE. Books 1&ndash5 and 11&ndash20 survive complete, the rest in fragments.

Aristotle
Tredennick, Hugh
Forster, E. S.

Nearly all the works Aristotle (384&ndash322 BCE) prepared for publication are lost the priceless ones extant are lecture materials, notes, and memoranda (some are spurious). They can be categorized as: practical logical physical metaphysical on art other or fragments.

Pliny the Elder (23&ndash79 CE) produced in his Natural History a vast compendium of Roman knowledge. Topics included are the mathematics and metrology of the universe world geography and ethnography human anthropology and physiology zoology botany, agriculture, and horticulture medicine minerals, fine arts, and gemstones.

Pliny the Elder (23&ndash79 CE) produced in his Natural History a vast compendium of Roman knowledge. Topics included are the mathematics and metrology of the universe world geography and ethnography human anthropology and physiology zoology botany, agriculture, and horticulture medicine minerals, fine arts, and gemstones.

Pliny the Elder (23&ndash79 CE) produced in his Natural History a vast compendium of Roman knowledge. Topics included are the mathematics and metrology of the universe world geography and ethnography human anthropology and physiology zoology botany, agriculture, and horticulture medicine minerals, fine arts, and gemstones.

Burtt, J. O.
Lycurgus
Dinarchus
Demades
Hyperides

Fourth century BCE orators were involved in Athenian resistance to Philip of Macedon. Lycurgus was with Demosthenes in the anti-Macedonian faction. Hyperides was also hostile to Philip and led Athenian patriots after 325 BCE. But Dinarchus favored an oligarchy under Macedonian control and Demades supported the Macedonian cause too.

Livy
Schlesinger, Alfred Cary

The only extant work by Livy (64 or 59 BCE &ndash12 or 17 CE) is part of his history of Rome from the foundation of the city to 9 BCE. Of its 142 books 1&ndash10, 21&ndash45 (except parts of 41 and 43&ndash45), fragments, and short summaries remain. Livy&rsquos history is a source for the De Prodigiis of Julius Obsequens (fourth century CE).

Nearly all the works Aristotle (384&ndash322 BCE) prepared for publication are lost the priceless ones extant are lecture materials, notes, and memoranda (some are spurious). They can be categorized as: practical logical physical metaphysical on art other or fragments.

Prudentius (born 348 CE) used allegory and classical Latin verse forms in service of Christianity. His works include the Psychomachia, an allegorical description of the struggle between Christian virtues and pagan vices lyric poetry and inscriptions for biblical scenes on a church&rsquos walls&mdasha valuable source on Christian iconography.

Diodorus Siculus
Oldfather, C. H.

Diodorus&rsquos Library of History, written in the first century BCE, is the most extensively preserved history by an ancient Greek author. The work is in three parts: mythical history to the Trojan War history to Alexander&rsquos death (323 BCE) and history to 54 BCE. Books 1&ndash5 and 11&ndash20 survive complete, the rest in fragments.

Aristotle
Forster, E. S.
Furley, D. J.

Nearly all the works Aristotle (384&ndash322 BCE) prepared for publication are lost the priceless ones extant are lecture materials, notes, and memoranda (some are spurious). They can be categorized as: practical logical physical metaphysical on art other or fragments.

The philosopher Philo, born about 20 BCE to a prominent Jewish family in Alexandria, was trained in Greek as well as Jewish learning. In attempting to reconcile biblical teachings with Greek philosophy he developed ideas that had wide influence on Christian and Jewish religious thought.

Aulus Hirtius, friend of and military subordinate to Caesar (100&ndash44 BCE), may have written the Alexandrian War. African War and Spanish War are detailed accounts clearly by officers who had shared in the campaigns. All three works provide important information on Caesar&rsquos career.

The Rhetorica ad Herrenium was traditionally attributed to Cicero (106&ndash43 BCE), and reflects, as does Cicero&rsquos De Inventione, Hellenistic rhetorical teaching. But most recent editors attribute it to an unknown author.

Livy
Schlesinger, Alfred Cary
Julius Obsequens

The only extant work by Livy (64 or 59 BCE &ndash12 or 17 CE) is part of his history of Rome from the foundation of the city to 9 BCE. Of its 142 books 1&ndash10, 21&ndash45 (except parts of 41 and 43&ndash45), fragments, and short summaries remain. Livy&rsquos history is a source for the De Prodigiis of Julius Obsequens (fourth century CE).

Plutarch
De Lacy, Phillip H.
Einarson, Benedict

Plutarch (c. 45&ndash120 CE) wrote on many subjects. His extant works other than the Parallel Lives are varied, about sixty in number, and known as the Moralia (Moral Essays). They reflect his philosophy about living a good life, and provide a treasury of information concerning Greco-Roman society, traditions, ideals, ethics, and religion.

Plutarch
Cherniss, Harold
Helmbold, W. C.

Plutarch (c. 45&ndash120 CE) wrote on many subjects. His extant works other than the Parallel Lives are varied, about sixty in number, and known as the Moralia (Moral Essays). They reflect his philosophy about living a good life, and provide a treasury of information concerning Greco-Roman society, traditions, ideals, ethics, and religion.

Columella
Forster, E. S.
Heffner, Edward H.

Columella (first century CE) included Cato and Varro among many sources for On Agriculture, but his personal experience was paramount. Written in prose except for the hexameters on horticulture of Book 10, the work is richly informative about country life in first century CE Italy.

Columella
Forster, E. S.
Heffner, Edward H.

Columella (first century CE) included Cato and Varro among many sources for On Agriculture, but his personal experience was paramount. Written in prose except for the hexameters on horticulture of Book 10, the work is richly informative about country life in first century CE Italy.

Diodorus Siculus
Walton, Francis R.

Diodorus&rsquos Library of History, written in the first century BCE, is the most extensively preserved history by an ancient Greek author. The work is in three parts: mythical history to the Trojan War history to Alexander&rsquos death (323 BCE) and history to 54 BCE. Books 1&ndash5 and 11&ndash20 survive complete, the rest in fragments.

Josephus
Marcus, Ralph
Wikgren, Allen

The major works of Josephus (c. 37&ndashafter 97 CE) are History of the Jewish War, from 170 BCE to his own time, and Jewish Antiquities, from creation to 66 CE. Also by him are an autobiographical Life and a treatise Against Apion.

Augustine
McCracken, George E.

City of God by Augustine (354&ndash430 CE) unfolds God&rsquos action in the progress of the world&rsquos history, and propounds the superiority of Christian beliefs over pagan in adversity.

Augustine
Green, William M.

City of God by Augustine (354&ndash430 CE) unfolds God&rsquos action in the progress of the world&rsquos history, and propounds the superiority of Christian beliefs over pagan in adversity.

City of God by Augustine (354&ndash430 CE) unfolds God&rsquos action in the progress of the world&rsquos history, and propounds the superiority of Christian beliefs over pagan in adversity.

City of God by Augustine (354&ndash430 CE) unfolds God&rsquos action in the progress of the world&rsquos history, and propounds the superiority of Christian beliefs over pagan in adversity.

Augustine
Sanford, Eva M.
Green, William M.

City of God by Augustine (354&ndash430 CE) unfolds God&rsquos action in the progress of the world&rsquos history, and propounds the superiority of Christian beliefs over pagan in adversity.

Augustine
Greene, William Chase

City of God by Augustine (354&ndash430 CE) unfolds God&rsquos action in the progress of the world&rsquos history, and propounds the superiority of Christian beliefs over pagan in adversity.

Augustine
Green, William M.

City of God by Augustine (354&ndash430 CE) unfolds God&rsquos action in the progress of the world&rsquos history, and propounds the superiority of Christian beliefs over pagan in adversity.

Pliny the Elder (23&ndash79 CE) produced in his Natural History a vast compendium of Roman knowledge. Topics included are the mathematics and metrology of the universe world geography and ethnography human anthropology and physiology zoology botany, agriculture, and horticulture medicine minerals, fine arts, and gemstones.

Pliny the Elder (23&ndash79 CE) produced in his Natural History a vast compendium of Roman knowledge. Topics included are the mathematics and metrology of the universe world geography and ethnography human anthropology and physiology zoology botany, agriculture, and horticulture medicine minerals, fine arts, and gemstones.

Extant works by Sidonius (born c. 430 CE) are three long panegyrics in verse, poems addressed to or concerned with friends, and nine books of letters.

Callimachus
Musaeus
Trypanis, C. A.
Gelzer, T.
Whitman, Cedric H.

Fragments by Callimachus (third century BCE) include those from the Aetia, Greek aetiological stories a book of Iambi and the epic poem Hecale. Hero and Leander by Musaeus (fifth or sixth century CE) is a short epic poem.

Diodorus Siculus
Welles, C. Bradford

Diodorus&rsquos Library of History, written in the first century BCE, is the most extensively preserved history by an ancient Greek author. The work is in three parts: mythical history to the Trojan War history to Alexander&rsquos death (323 BCE) and history to 54 BCE. Books 1&ndash5 and 11&ndash20 survive complete, the rest in fragments.

Diodorus Siculus
Walton, Francis R.

Diodorus&rsquos Library of History, written in the first century BCE, is the most extensively preserved history by an ancient Greek author. The work is in three parts: mythical history to the Trojan War history to Alexander&rsquos death (323 BCE) and history to 54 BCE. Books 1&ndash5 and 11&ndash20 survive complete, the rest in fragments.

Plutarch
Clement, P. A.
Hoffleit, H. B.

Plutarch (c. 45&ndash120 CE) wrote on many subjects. His extant works other than the Parallel Lives are varied, about sixty in number, and known as the Moralia (Moral Essays). They reflect his philosophy about living a good life, and provide a treasury of information concerning Greco-Roman society, traditions, ideals, ethics, and religion.

Plutarch
Minar, Edwin L.
Sandbach, F. H.
Helmbold, W. C.

Plutarch (c. 45&ndash120 CE) wrote on many subjects. His extant works other than the Parallel Lives are varied, about sixty in number, and known as the Moralia (Moral Essays). They reflect his philosophy about living a good life, and provide a treasury of information concerning Greco-Roman society, traditions, ideals, ethics, and religion.

Plutarch
Pearson, Lionel
Sandbach, F. H.

Plutarch (c. 45&ndash120 CE) wrote on many subjects. His extant works other than the Parallel Lives are varied, about sixty in number, and known as the Moralia (Moral Essays). They reflect his philosophy about living a good life, and provide a treasury of information concerning Greco-Roman society, traditions, ideals, ethics, and religion.

Plutarch (c. 45&ndash120 CE) wrote on many subjects. His extant works other than the Parallel Lives are varied, about sixty in number, and known as the Moralia (Moral Essays). They reflect his philosophy about living a good life, and provide a treasury of information concerning Greco-Roman society, traditions, ideals, ethics, and religion.

Plutarch
Einarson, Benedict
De Lacy, Phillip H.

Plutarch (c. 45&ndash120 CE) wrote on many subjects. His extant works other than the Parallel Lives are varied, about sixty in number, and known as the Moralia (Moral Essays). They reflect his philosophy about living a good life, and provide a treasury of information concerning Greco-Roman society, traditions, ideals, ethics, and religion.

Plutarch (c. 45&ndash120 CE) wrote on many subjects. His extant works other than the Parallel Lives are varied, about sixty in number, and known as the Moralia (Moral Essays). They reflect his philosophy about living a good life, and provide a treasury of information concerning Greco-Roman society, traditions, ideals, ethics, and religion.

Lucian (c. 120&ndash190 CE), apprentice sculptor then travelling rhetorician, settled in Athens and developed an original brand of satire. Notable for the Attic purity and elegance of his Greek and for literary versatility, he is famous chiefly for the lively, cynical wit of the dialogues in which he satirizes human folly, superstition, and hypocrisy.

Lucian (c. 120&ndash190 CE), apprentice sculptor then travelling rhetorician, settled in Athens and developed an original brand of satire. Notable for the Attic purity and elegance of his Greek and for literary versatility, he is famous chiefly for the lively, cynical wit of the dialogues in which he satirizes human folly, superstition, and hypocrisy.

Lucian (c. 120&ndash190 CE), apprentice sculptor then traveling rhetorician, settled in Athens and developed an original brand of satire. Notable for the Attic purity and elegance of his Greek and for literary versatility, he is famous chiefly for the lively, cynical wit of the dialogues in which he satirizes human folly, superstition, and hypocrisy.

The major works of Josephus (c. 37&ndashafter 97 CE) are History of the Jewish War, from 170 BCE to his own time, and Jewish Antiquities, from creation to 66 CE. Also by him are an autobiographical Life and a treatise Against Apion.

Duff, J. Wight
Duff, Arnold M.
Avianus
Hadrian
Florus
Nemesianus
Reposianus
Tiberianus
Phoenix
Rutilius Namatianus

Works such as those of the mime-writer Publilius Syrus, who flourished c. 45 BCE, and Rutilius Namatianus, who gave a graphic account of his voyage from Rome to Gaul in 416 CE, represent the wide variety of theme that lends interest to Latin poetry produced during a period of four and a half centuries.

In Tetrabiblos, a core text in the history of astrology, the preeminent ancient astronomer Ptolemy (c. 100&ndash178 CE) treats the practical use of astronomical knowledge: making predictions about individuals&rsquo lives and the outcome of human affairs.

Babrius
Phaedrus
Perry, Ben Edwin

Babrius&rsquos humorous and pointed fables in Greek verse probably date from the first century CE. From the same period come the lively fables in Latin verse written by Phaedrus, which satirize social and political life in Augustan Rome.

Nearly all the works Aristotle (384&ndash322 BCE) prepared for publication are lost the priceless ones extant are lecture materials, notes, and memoranda (some are spurious). They can be categorized as: practical logical physical metaphysical on art other or fragments.

Nearly all the works Aristotle (384&ndash322 BCE) prepared for publication are lost the priceless ones extant are lecture materials, notes, and memoranda (some are spurious). They can be categorized as: practical logical physical metaphysical on art other or fragments.

Nearly all the works Aristotle (384&ndash322 BCE) prepared for publication are lost the priceless ones extant are lecture materials, notes, and memoranda (some are spurious). They can be categorized as: practical logical physical metaphysical on art other or fragments.

Plotinus (204/5&ndash270 CE) was the first and greatest of Neoplatonic philosophers. His writings were edited by his disciple Porphyry, who published them sometime between 301 and 305 CE in six sets of nine treatises each (Enneads), with a biography of his master in which he also explains his editorial principles.

Plotinus (204/5&ndash270 CE) was the first and greatest of Neoplatonic philosophers. His writings were edited by his disciple Porphyry, who published them sometime between 301 and 305 CE in six sets of nine treatises each (Enneads), with a biography of his master in which he also explains his editorial principles.

Plotinus (204/5&ndash270 CE) was the first and greatest of Neoplatonic philosophers. His writings were edited by his disciple Porphyry, who published them sometime between 301 and 305 CE in six sets of nine treatises each (Enneads), with a biography of his master in which he also explains his editorial principles.

Plotinus (204/5&ndash270 CE) was the first and greatest of Neoplatonic philosophers. His writings were edited by his disciple Porphyry, who published them sometime between 301 and 305 CE in six sets of nine treatises each (Enneads), with a biography of his master in which he also explains his editorial principles.

Plotinus (204/5&ndash270 CE) was the first and greatest of Neoplatonic philosophers. His writings were edited by his disciple Porphyry, who published them sometime between 301 and 305 CE in six sets of nine treatises each (Enneads), with a biography of his master in which he also explains his editorial principles.

Plotinus (204/5&ndash270 CE) was the first and greatest of Neoplatonic philosophers. His writings were edited by his disciple Porphyry, who published them sometime between 301 and 305 CE in six sets of nine treatises each (Enneads), with a biography of his master in which he also explains his editorial principles.

In On the Characteristics of Animals, Aelian (c. 170&ndashafter 230 CE) collects facts and fables about the animal kingdom and invites the reader to ponder contrasts between human and animal behavior.

We know more of Marcus Tullius Cicero (106&ndash43 BCE), lawyer, orator, politician and philosopher, than of any other Roman. Besides much else, his work conveys the turmoil of his time, and the part he played in a period that saw the rise and fall of Julius Caesar in a tottering republic.

In On the Characteristics of Animals, Aelian (c. 170&ndashafter 230 CE) collects facts and fables about the animal kingdom and invites the reader to ponder contrasts between human and animal behavior.

In On the Characteristics of Animals, Aelian (c. 170&ndashafter 230 CE) collects facts and fables about the animal kingdom and invites the reader to ponder contrasts between human and animal behavior.

Seneca (c. 4&ndash65 CE) devotes most of Naturales Quaestiones to celestial phenomena. In Book 1 he discusses fires in the atmosphere in 2, lightning and thunder in 3, bodies of water. Seneca&rsquos method is to survey the theories of major authorities on the subject at hand, so his work is a guide to Greek and Roman thinking about the heavens.

Libanius (314&ndash393 CE), who was one of the last great publicists and teachers of Greek paganism, has much to tell us about the tumultuous world of the fourth century CE. His works include Orations, the first of which is an autobiography, and Letters.

Libanius (314&ndash393 CE), who was one of the last great publicists and teachers of Greek paganism, has much to tell us about the tumultuous world of the fourth century CE. His works include Orations, the first of which is an autobiography, and Letters.

The Metamorphoses (The Golden Ass) of Apuleius (born c. 125 CE) is a romance combining realism and magic. Lucius wants the sensations of a bird, but by pharmaceutical accident becomes an ass. The bulk of the novel recounts his adventures as an animal, but Lucius also recounts many stories he overhears, including that of Cupid and Psyche.

The History of Herodian (born c. 178&ndash179 CE) is one of the few literary historical sources for the period of the Roman empire from the death of the emperor Marcus Aurelius (180 CE) to the accession of Gordian III (238), a period in which we can see turbulence and the onset of revolution.

The History of Herodian (born c. 178&ndash179 CE) is one of the few literary historical sources for the period of the Roman empire from the death of the emperor Marcus Aurelius (180 CE) to the accession of Gordian III (238), a period in which we can see turbulence and the onset of revolution.

The major works of Josephus (c. 37&ndashafter 97 CE) are History of the Jewish War, from 170 BCE to his own time, and Jewish Antiquities, from creation to 66 CE. Also by him are an autobiographical Life and a treatise Against Apion.

Seneca (c. 4&ndash65 CE) devotes most of Naturales Quaestiones to celestial phenomena. In Book 1 he discusses fires in the atmosphere in 2, lightning and thunder in 3, bodies of water. Seneca&rsquos method is to survey the theories of major authorities on the subject at hand, so his work is a guide to Greek and Roman thinking about the heavens.

Philostratus
Jones, Christopher P.

In his Life of Apollonius, Philostratus (second to third century CE) portrays a first-century CE teacher, religious reformer, and perceived rival to Jesus. Apollonius&rsquos letters, ancient reports about him, and a letter by Eusebius (fourth century CE) that is now central to the history of Philostratus&rsquos work add to the portrait.

Menander
Arnott, William Geoffrey

Menander (?344/3&ndash292/1 BCE), the dominant figure in New Comedy, wrote over 100 plays, of which one complete play, substantial portions of six others, and smaller but interesting fragments have been recovered. The complete play, Dyskolos (The Peevish Fellow), won first prize in Athens in 317 BCE.

Menander
Arnott, William Geoffrey

Menander (?344/3&ndash292/1 BCE), the dominant figure in New Comedy, wrote over 100 plays, of which one complete play, substantial portions of six others, and smaller but interesting fragments have been recovered. The complete play, Dyskolos (The Peevish Fellow), won first prize in Athens in 317 BCE.

Bacchylides
Corinna
Campbell, David A.

Bacchylides wrote masterful choral poetry of many types. Other fifth-century BCE lyricists included: Myrtis, Telesilla of Argos, Timocreon of Rhodes, Charixena, Diagoras of Melos, Ion of Chios, and Praxilla of Sicyon. More of Boeotian Corinna&rsquos (third-century BCE?) poetry survives than that of any other Greek woman poet except Sappho.

Cicero
Shackleton Bailey, D. R.

The correspondence of Cicero (106&ndash43 BCE) with his brother, Quintus, and with Brutus is a window onto their world. Two invective speeches linked with Cicero are probably anonymous exercises. The Letter to Octavian likely dates from the third or fourth century CE. The Handbook of Electioneering was said to be written by Quintus to Cicero.

Seneca the Elder
Winterbottom, Michael

Seneca the Elder (?55 BCE&ndash40 CE) collected ten books devoted to controversiae (some only preserved in excerpt) and at least one (surviving) of suasoriae. Extracts from famous declaimers of Seneca&rsquos illuminate influences on the styles of most pagan (and many Christian) writers of the Empire.

Seneca the Elder
Winterbottom, Michael

Seneca the Elder (?55 BCE&ndash40 CE) collected ten books devoted to controversiae (some only preserved in excerpt) and at least one (surviving) of suasoriae. Extracts from famous declaimers of Seneca&rsquos illuminate influences on the styles of most pagan (and many Christian) writers of the Empire.

Dionysius of Halicarnassus
Usher, Stephen

Dionysius of Halicarnassus, born c. 60 BCE, aimed in his critical essays to reassert the primacy of Greek as the literary language of the Mediterranean world. They constitute an important development from the somewhat mechanical techniques of rhetorical handbooks to more sensitive criticism of individual authors.

Dionysius of Halicarnassus
Usher, Stephen

Dionysius of Halicarnassus, born c. 60 BCE, aimed in his critical essays to reassert the primacy of Greek as the literary language of the Mediterranean world. They constitute an important development from the somewhat mechanical techniques of rhetorical handbooks to more sensitive criticism of individual authors.

Cornelius Nepos
Rolfe, J. C.

Cornelius Nepos (c. 99&ndashc. 24 BCE) is the earliest biographer in Latin whose work we have. Extant are parts of his De Viris Illustribus, including biographies of mostly Greek military commanders and of two Latin historians, Cato and Atticus.

Plotinus (204/5&ndash270 CE) was the first and greatest of Neoplatonic philosophers. His writings were edited by his disciple Porphyry, who published them sometime between 301 and 305 CE in six sets of nine treatises each (Enneads), with a biography of his master in which he also explains his editorial principles.

In Astronomica (first century CE), the earliest extant treatise we have on astrology, Manilius provides an account of celestial phenomena and the signs of the Zodiac. He also gives witty character sketches of persons born under particular constellations.

Plutarch (c. 45&ndash120 CE) wrote on many subjects. His extant works other than the Parallel Lives are varied, about sixty in number, and known as the Moralia (Moral Essays). They reflect his philosophy about living a good life, and provide a treasury of information concerning Greco-Roman society, traditions, ideals, ethics, and religion.

Theophrastus
Einarson, Benedict
Link, George K. K.

Enquiry into Plants and De Causis Plantarum by Theophrastus (c. 370&ndashc. 285 BCE) are a counterpart to Aristotle&rsquos zoological work and the most important botanical work of antiquity now extant. In the latter, Theophrastus turns to plant physiology. Books 1 and 2 are concerned with generation, sprouting, flowering and fruiting, and the effects of climate.

Of the roughly seventy treatises in the Hippocratic Collection, many are not by Hippocrates (said to have been born in Cos in or before 460 BCE), but they are essential sources of information about the practice of medicine in antiquity and about Greek theories concerning the human body, and he was undeniably the &ldquoFather of Medicine.&rdquo

Of the roughly seventy treatises in the Hippocratic Collection, many are not by Hippocrates (said to have been born in Cos in or before 460 BCE), but they are essential sources of information about the practice of medicine in antiquity and about Greek theories concerning the human body, and he was undeniably the &ldquoFather of Medicine.&rdquo

Theophrastus
Einarson, Benedict
Link, George K. K.

Enquiry into Plants and De Causis Plantarum by Theophrastus (c. 370&ndashc. 285 BCE) are a counterpart to Aristotle&rsquos zoological work and the most important botanical work of antiquity now extant. In the latter, Theophrastus turns to plant physiology. In Books 3 and 4, Theophrastus studies cultivation and agricultural methods.

Theophrastus
Einarson, Benedict
Link, George K. K.

Enquiry into Plants and De Causis Plantarum by Theophrastus (c. 370&ndashc. 285 BCE) are a counterpart to Aristotle&rsquos zoological work and the most important botanical work of antiquity now extant. In the latter, Theophrastus turns to plant physiology. In Books 5 and 6, he discusses plant breeding diseases and other causes of death and distinctive flavours and odours.

Stesichorus
Ibycus
Simonides
Campbell, David A.

The most important poets writing in Greek in the sixth century BCE came from Sicily and southern Italy. They included Stesichorus, Ibycus, and Simonides, as well as Arion, Lasus, and Pratinas.

Hippocrates
Smith, Wesley D.

Of the roughly seventy treatises in the Hippocratic Collection, many are not by Hippocrates (said to have been born in Cos in or before 460 BCE), but they are essential sources of information about the practice of medicine in antiquity and about Greek theories concerning the human body, and he was undeniably the &ldquoFather of Medicine.&rdquo

Libanius (314&ndash393 CE), who was one of the last great publicists and teachers of Greek paganism, has much to tell us about the tumultuous world of the fourth century CE. His works include Orations, the first of which is an autobiography, and Letters.

Libanius (314&ndash393 CE), who was one of the last great publicists and teachers of Greek paganism, has much to tell us about the tumultuous world of the fourth century CE. His works include Orations, the first of which is an autobiography, and Letters.

Martial
Shackleton Bailey, D. R.

In his epigrams, Martial (c. 40&ndashc. 103 CE) is a keen, sharp-tongued observer of Roman scenes and events, including the new Colosseum, country life, a debauchee&rsquos banquet, and the eruption of Vesuvius. His poems are sometimes obscene, in the tradition of the genre, sometimes affectionate or amusing, and always pointed.

Chariton&rsquos Callirhoe, subtitled &ldquoLove Story in Syracuse,&rdquo is a fast-paced historical romance of the first century CE and the oldest extant novel.

Of the roughly seventy treatises in the Hippocratic Collection, many are not by Hippocrates (said to have been born in Cos in or before 460 BCE), but they are essential sources of information about the practice of medicine in antiquity and about Greek theories concerning the human body, and he was undeniably the &ldquoFather of Medicine.&rdquo

Sophocles
Lloyd-Jones, Hugh

Sophocles (497/6&ndash406 BCE), considered one of the world&rsquos greatest poets, forged tragedy from the heroic excess of myth and legend. Seven complete plays are extant, including Oedipus Tyrannus, Ajax, Antigone, and Philoctetes. Among many fragments that also survive is a substantial portion of the satyr drama The Searchers.

Euripides (c. 485&ndash406 BCE) has been prized in every age for his emotional and intellectual drama. Eighteen of his ninety or so plays survive complete, including Medea, Hippolytus, and Bacchae, one of the great masterpieces of the tragic genre. Fragments of his lost plays also survive.

Pindar (c. 518&ndash438 BCE), highly esteemed as lyric poet by the ancients, commemorates in complex verse the achievements of athletes and powerful rulers at the four great Panhellenic festivals&mdashthe Olympic, Pythian, Nemean, and Isthmian games&mdashagainst a backdrop of divine favor, human failure, heroic legend, and aristocratic Greek ethos.

Aelian&rsquos Historical Miscellany (Varia Historia) is a pleasurable example of light reading for Romans of the early third century. Offering engaging anecdotes about historical figures, retellings of legendary events, and enjoyable descriptive pieces, Aelian&rsquos collection of nuggets and narratives appealed to a wide reading public.

Josephus
Thackeray, H. St. J.

The major works of Josephus (c. 37&ndashafter 97 CE) are History of the Jewish War, from 170 BCE to his own time, and Jewish Antiquities, from creation to 66 CE. Also by him are an autobiographical Life and a treatise Against Apion.

Aristophanes
Henderson, Jeffrey

Aristophanes (c. 450&ndashc. 386 BCE) has been admired since antiquity for his wit, fantasy, language, and satire. Socrates&rsquos &ldquoThinkery&rdquo is at the center of Clouds, which spoofs untraditional techniques for educating young men. Wasps satirizes Athenian enthusiasm for jury service. Peace is a rollicking attack on war-makers.

Josephus
Marcus, Ralph
Wikgren, Allen

The major works of Josephus (c. 37&ndashafter 97 CE) are History of the Jewish War, from 170 BCE to his own time, and Jewish Antiquities, from creation to 66 CE. Also by him are an autobiographical Life and a treatise Against Apion.

Josephus
Thackeray, H. St. J.
Marcus, Ralph

The major works of Josephus (c. 37&ndashafter 97 CE) are History of the Jewish War, from 170 BCE to his own time, and Jewish Antiquities, from creation to 66 CE. Also by him are an autobiographical Life and a treatise Against Apion.

Cicero
Shackleton Bailey, D. R.

In letters to his friend Atticus, Cicero (106&ndash43 BCE) reveals himself as to no other of his correspondents except, perhaps, his brother, and vividly depicts a momentous period in Roman history, marked by the rise of Julius Caesar and the downfall of the Republic.

Valerius Maximus
Shackleton Bailey, D. R.

Valerius Maximus compiled his handbook of notable deeds and sayings in the reign of Tiberius (14&ndash37 CE). Valerius&rsquos professedly practical work contains a clear moral element and is informative about first-century CE Roman attitudes toward religion and morality.

Valerius Maximus
Shackleton Bailey, D. R.

Valerius Maximus compiled his handbook of notable deeds and sayings in the reign of Tiberius (14&ndash37 CE). Valerius&rsquos professedly practical work contains a clear moral element and is informative about first-century CE Roman attitudes toward religion and morality.

Quintilian
Russell, Donald A.

Quintilian, born in Spain about 35 CE, became a renowned and successful teacher of rhetoric in Rome. In The Orator&rsquos Education (Institutio Oratoria), a comprehensive training program in twelve books, he draws on his own rich experience. It provides not only insights on oratory, but also a picture of Roman education and social attitudes.

Euripides (c. 485&ndash406 BCE) has been prized in every age for his emotional and intellectual drama. Eighteen of his ninety or so plays survive complete, including Medea, Hippolytus, and Bacchae, one of the great masterpieces of the tragic genre. Fragments of his lost plays also survive.

The earliest poems extant under the title Homeric Hymns date from the seventh century BCE. Comic poems in the Homeric Apocrypha include the Battle of Frogs and Mice (probably not earlier than first century CE). Lives of Homer include a version of The Contest of Homer and Hesiod that dates from the second century BCE.

Heroic epic of the eighth to the fifth century BCE includes poems about Hercules and Theseus, as well as the Theban Cycle and the Trojan Cycle. Genealogical epic of that archaic era includes poems that create prehistories for Corinth and Samos. These works are an important source of mythological record.

Statius
Shackleton Bailey, D. R.

Greek literary education and Roman political reality are evident in the poetry of Statius (c. 50&ndash96 CE). His Silvae are thirty-two occasional poems. His masterpiece, the epic Thebaid, recounts the struggle for kingship between the two sons of Oedipus. The extant portion of his Achilleid begins an account of Achilles&rsquos life.

Plutarch (c. 45&ndash120 CE) wrote on many subjects. His extant works other than the Parallel Lives are varied, about sixty in number, and known as the Moralia (Moral Essays). They reflect his philosophy about living a good life, and provide a treasury of information concerning Greco-Roman society, traditions, ideals, ethics, and religion.

Quintilian
Shackleton Bailey, D. R.

The Lesser Declamations perhaps date from the second century CE and are perhaps derived from Quintilian. The collection originally consisted of 388 sample cases for legal training. 145 survive. Comments and suggestions the instructor adds to his model speeches for fictitious court cases offer insight into Roman law and education.

Quintilian
Shackleton Bailey, D. R.

The Lesser Declamations perhaps date from the second century CE and are perhaps derived from Quintilian. The collection originally consisted of 388 sample cases for legal training. 145 survive. Comments and suggestions the instructor adds to his model speeches for fictitious court cases offer insight into Roman law and education.

Aristophanes
Henderson, Jeffrey

Aristophanes (c. 450&ndashc. 386 BCE) has been admired since antiquity for his wit, fantasy, language, and satire. Over forty of his plays were read in antiquity, from which nearly a thousand fragments survive. These provide a fuller picture of the poet&rsquos comic vitality and a wealth of information and insights about his world.

Though attributed to Hesiod (eighth or seventh century BC) in antiquity, the Catalogue of Women, a presentation of legendary Greek heroes and episodes according to maternal genealogy The Shield, a counterpoint to the Iliadic shield of Achilles and certain poems that survive as fragments were likely not composed by Hesiod himself.

Euripides
Collard, Christopher
Cropp, Martin

Euripides (c. 485&ndash406 BCE) has been prized in every age for his emotional and intellectual drama. Eighteen of his ninety or so plays survive complete, including Medea, Hippolytus, and Bacchae, one of the great masterpieces of the tragic genre. Fragments of his lost plays also survive.

Aeschylus
Sommerstein, Alan H.

Aeschylus (c. 525&ndash456 BCE) is the dramatist who made Athenian tragedy one of the world&rsquos great art forms. Seven of his eighty or so plays survive complete, including the Oresteia trilogy and the Persians, the only extant Greek historical drama. Fragments of his lost plays also survive.

Euripides
Collard, Christopher
Cropp, Martin

Euripides (c. 485&ndash406 BCE) has been prized in every age for his emotional and intellectual drama. Eighteen of his ninety or so plays survive complete, including Medea, Hippolytus, and Bacchae, one of the great masterpieces of the tragic genre. Fragments of his lost plays also survive.

Cicero
Shackleton Bailey, D. R.

We know more of Marcus Tullius Cicero (106&ndash43 BCE), lawyer, orator, politician and philosopher, than of any other Roman. Besides much else, his work conveys the turmoil of his time, and the part he played in a period that saw the rise and fall of Julius Caesar in a tottering republic.

Works by authors such as Philitas of Cos, Alexander of Aetolia, Hermesianax of Colophon, Euphorion of Chalcis and, especially, Parthenius of Nicaea, who composed the mythograpical Sufferings in Love, represent rich inventiveness in Hellenistic prose and poetry from the fourth to the first century BCE.

Of the roughly seventy treatises in the Hippocratic Collection, many are not by Hippocrates (said to have been born in Cos in or before 460 BCE), but they are essential sources of information about the practice of medicine in antiquity and about Greek theories concerning the human body, and he was undeniably the &ldquoFather of Medicine.&rdquo

Macrobius
Kaster, Robert A.

Macrobius&rsquos Saturnalia, an encyclopedic celebration of Roman culture written in the early fifth century CE, has been prized since the Renaissance as a treasure trove of otherwise unattested lore. Cast in the form of a dialogue it treats diverse topics while showcasing Virgil as master of all human knowledge, from diction to religion.

Macrobius
Kaster, Robert A.

Macrobius&rsquos Saturnalia, an encyclopedic celebration of Roman culture written in the early fifth century CE, has been prized since the Renaissance as a treasure trove of otherwise unattested lore. Cast in the form of a dialogue, it treats diverse topics while showcasing Virgil as master of all human knowledge, from diction to religion.

Macrobius
Kaster, Robert A.

Macrobius&rsquos Saturnalia, an encyclopedic celebration of Roman culture written in the early fifth century CE, has been prized since the Renaissance as a treasure trove of otherwise unattested lore. Cast in the form of a dialogue, it treats diverse topics while showcasing Virgil as master of all human knowledge, from diction to religion.

The era of Old Comedy (c. 485&ndashc. 380 BCE), when theatrical comedy was created and established, is best known through the extant plays of Aristophanes. But the work of many other poets, including Cratinus and Eupolis, the other members, with Aristophanes, of the canonical Old Comic Triad, survives in fragments.

The era of Old Comedy (c. 485&ndashc. 380 BCE), when theatrical comedy was created and established, is best known through the extant plays of Aristophanes. But the work of many other poets, including Cratinus and Eupolis, the other members, with Aristophanes, of the canonical Old Comic Triad, survives in fragments.

The era of Old Comedy (c. 485&ndashc. 380 BCE), when theatrical comedy was created and established, is best known through the extant plays of Aristophanes. But the work of many other poets, including Cratinus and Eupolis, the other members, with Aristophanes, of the canonical Old Comic Triad, survives in fragments.

Galen
Johnston, Ian
Horsley, G. H. R.

In Method of Medicine, Galen (129&ndash199 CE) provides a comprehensive and influential account of the principles of treating injury and disease. Enlivening the detailed case studies are many theoretical and polemical discussions, acute social commentary, and personal reflections.

Galen
Johnston, Ian
Horsley, G. H. R.

In Method of Medicine, Galen (129&ndash199 CE) provides a comprehensive and influential account of the principles of treating injury and disease. Enlivening the detailed case studies are many theoretical and polemical discussions, acute social commentary, and personal reflections.

Galen
Johnston, Ian
Horsley, G. H. R.

In Method of Medicine, Galen (129&ndash199 CE) provides a comprehensive and influential account of the principles of treating injury and disease. Enlivening the detailed case studies are many theoretical and polemical discussions, acute social commentary, and personal reflections.

Athenaeus
Olson, S. Douglas

In The Learned Banqueters, Athenaeus describes a series of dinner parties at which the guests quote extensively from Greek literature. The work (which dates to the very end of the second century AD) is amusing reading and of extraordinary value as a treasury of quotations from works now lost.

This volume, the tenth of Hippocrates&rsquo invaluable texts on the practice of medicine in antiquity, provides essential information about human reproduction and reproductive disorders and expounds a general theory of physiology and pathology, in five Greek treatises presented with facing English translation.

Philostratus
Rusten, Jeffrey
König, Jason

Philostratus&rsquos writings embody the height of the renaissance of Greek literature in the second century CE. Heroicus is a vineyard conversation about the beauty, continuing powers, and worship of the Homeric heroes. Gymnasticus is the sole surviving ancient treatise on sports, which reshapes conventional ideas about the athletic body.

The Histories of Sallust (86&ndash35 BCE), while fragmentary, provide invaluable information about a crucial period of history from 78 to around 67 BCE. In this volume, John T. Ramsey has freshly edited the Histories and the two pseudo-Sallustian Letters to Caesar, completing the Loeb Classical Library edition of his works.

In the three works in this volume, On the Constitution of the Art of Medicine, The Art of Medicine, and A Method of Medicine to Glaucon, the physician, philosopher, scientist, and medical historian Galen of Pergamum covers fundamental aspects of his practice in a lucid and engaging style.

Volume I of the nine-volume Loeb edition of Early Greek Philosophy presents the editors&rsquo preface and introductory notes along with essential reference materials including abbreviations, bibliography, concordances, indexes, and glossary.

Volume II of the nine-volume Loeb edition of Early Greek Philosophy presents preliminary chapters on ancient doxography, the cosmological and moral background, and includes the early Ionian thinkers Pherecydes, Thales, Anaximander, and Anaximenes.

Volume III of the nine-volume Loeb edition of Early Greek Philosophy includes the early Ionian thinkers Xenophanes and Heraclitus.

Volume IV of the nine-volume Loeb edition of Early Greek Philosophy presents Pythagoras and the Pythagorean School, including Hippasus, Philolaus, Eurytus, Archytas, Hicetas, and Ecphantus, along with chapters on doctrines not attributed by name and reception.

Volume V of the nine-volume Loeb edition of Early Greek Philosophy includes the western Greek thinkers Parmenides, Zeno, Melissus, Empedocles, Alcmaeon, and Hippo.

Volume VI of the nine-volume Loeb edition of Early Greek Philosophy includes the later Ionian and Athenian thinkers Anaxagoras, Archelaus, and Diogenes of Apollonia, along with chapters on early Greek medicine and the Derveni Papyrus.

Volume VII of the nine-volume Loeb edition of Early Greek Philosophy includes the atomists Leucippus and Democritus.

Volume VIII of the nine-volume Loeb edition of Early Greek Philosophy includes the so-called sophists Protagoras, Gorgias, Prodicus, Thrasymachus, and Hippias, along with testimonia relating to the life, views, and argumentative style of Socrates.

Volume IX of the nine-volume Loeb edition of Early Greek Philosophy includes the so-called sophists Antiphon, Lycophron, and Xeniades, along with the Anonymous of Iamblichus, the Dissoi Logoi, a chapter on characterizations of the &lsquosophists&rsquo as a group, and an appendix on philosophy and philosophers in Greek drama.

Aristides, Aelius
Trapp, Michael

Aelius Aristides (117&ndashafter 180), among the most versatile authors of the Second Sophistic and an important figure in the transmission of Hellenism, produced speeches and lectures, declamations on historical themes, polemical works, prose hymns, and essays on a wide variety of subjects.

Apuleius
Jones, Christopher P.

Apuleius (born ca. 125 AD), one of the great stylists of Latin literature, was a prominent figure in Roman Africa best known for his picaresque novel Metamorphoses or The Golden Ass. This edition, new to the Loeb Classical Library, contains Apuleius&rsquo other surviving works that are considered genuine.

In his treatises Hygiene, Thrasybulus, and On Exercise with a Small Ball, Galen of Pergamum addresses topics of preventive medicine, health, and wellness that continue to resonate with practices of modern doctors and physical therapists.

In his treatises Hygiene, Thrasybulus, and On Exercise with a Small Ball, Galen of Pergamum addresses topics of preventive medicine, health, and wellness that continue to resonate with practices of modern doctors and physical therapists.

Ennius
Goldberg, Sander M.
Manuwald, Gesine

Quintus Ennius (239&ndash169), widely regarded as the father of Roman literature, was instrumental in creating a new Roman literary identity, domesticating the Greek forms of epic and drama, and pursuing a range of other literary and intellectual pursuits. He inspired major developments in Roman religion, social organization, and popular culture.

This eleventh and final volume in the Loeb Classical Library&rsquos complete edition of Hippocrates&rsquo invaluable texts contains Diseases of Women 1 and 2, focusing on reproductive life, the pathological conditions affecting the reproductive organs, and their proper terminology and recommended treatments. A lexicon of therapeutic agents is included.

Rhetor, Menander
Dionysius of Halicarnassus
Race, William H.

The instructional treatises of Menander Rhetor and the Ars Rhetorica, deriving from the schools of rhetoric that flourished in the Greek East from the 2nd through 4th centuries AD, provide a window into the literary culture, educational practices, and social concerns of these Greeks under Roman rule, in both public and private life.

Based on the critical edition of Malcovati, this three-volume Loeb edition of Roman Republican oratory begins with Ap. Claudius Caecus (340&ndash273 BC) and with the exceptions of Cato the Elder and Cicero includes all individuals for whom speech-making is attested and for whose speeches quotations, testimonia, or historiographic recreations survive.

Based on the critical edition of Malcovati, this three-volume Loeb edition of Roman Republican oratory begins with Ap. Claudius Caecus (340&ndash273 BC) and with the exceptions of Cato the Elder and Cicero includes all individuals for whom speech-making is attested and for whose speeches quotations, testimonia, or historiographic recreations survive.

Based on the critical edition of Malcovati, this three-volume Loeb edition of Roman Republican oratory begins with Ap. Claudius Caecus (340&ndash273 BC) and with the exceptions of Cato the Elder and Cicero includes all individuals for whom speech-making is attested and for whose speeches quotations, testimonia, or historiographic recreations survive.

Appian (ca. AD 95&ndash161) is a principal source for the history of the Roman Republic. His theme is the process by which Rome achieved her contemporary prosperity, and his method is to trace in individual books the story of each nation&rsquos wars with Rome up through her own civil wars. This Loeb edition replaces the original (1912&ndash13) by Horace White.

Appian (ca. AD 95&ndash161) is a principal source for the history of the Roman Republic. His theme is the process by which Rome achieved her contemporary prosperity, and his method is to trace in individual books the story of each nation&rsquos wars with Rome up through her own civil wars. This Loeb edition replaces the original (1912&ndash13) by Horace White.

Aristides, Aelius
Trapp, Michael

Aelius Aristides (117&ndashafter 180), among the most versatile authors of the Second Sophistic and an important figure in the transmission of Hellenism, produced speeches and lectures, declamations on historical themes, polemical works, prose hymns, and essays on a wide variety of subjects.

In On Temperaments, Galen of Pergamum sets out his concept of the combination of the four elemental qualities (hot, cold, wet, and dry), which is fundamental to his account of the structure and function of human, animal, and plant bodies. Two related works explore disturbances in this combination and their consequences.

Quintilian
Stramaglia, Antonio
Winterbottom, Michael

The Major Declamations, attributed to Quintilian in antiquity, exemplify the final stage of Greco-Roman rhetorical training, in which students delivered speeches for the prosecution and defense at imaginary trials. A wide variety of fascinating ethical, social, and legal details animate the fictional world conjured up by these oratorical exercises.

Quintilian
Stramaglia, Antonio
Winterbottom, Michael

The Major Declamations, attributed to Quintilian in antiquity, exemplify the final stage of Greco-Roman rhetorical training, in which students delivered speeches for the prosecution and defense at imaginary trials. A wide variety of fascinating ethical, social, and legal details animate the fictional world conjured up by these oratorical exercises.

Quintilian
Stramaglia, Antonio
Winterbottom, Michael

The Major Declamations, attributed to Quintilian in antiquity, exemplify the final stage of Greco-Roman rhetorical training, in which students delivered speeches for the prosecution and defense at imaginary trials. A wide variety of fascinating ethical, social, and legal details animate the fictional world conjured up by these oratorical exercises.


The True History of Atlantis 2

As we just said, myths work at several levels, and a parallel such as the Atlantean one is just a facet of God s myriad aspects. In other words, volcanoes are manifestations of God s power, the weapon he often chooses to castigate the nations and to force Evolution to follow its course. The Hindus call this force by the name of vajra, a Sanskrit word meaning both “hard as diamond”, as well as “thunderbolt”. The vajra is the thunderbolt weapon used by almighty gods such as Baal (Hercules s archetype), Zeus, Indra, Haddad, and a myriad others. In fact, God is neither the vajra nor the volcano, but the force behind it, its impeller and wielder.

For the vajra is indeed the flail of the gods, the Celestial weapon He uses in order to quicken Evolution and to stir Nature into action, in the endless parade of lifeforms that characterizes Life. Perhaps all this has a purpose in the divine conscience, though I don t really know for sure. But there is no doubt whatsoever in my mind that Catastrophism is God s way, if He indeed has any. Moreover, it is also Nature s way, let no one doubt it. The ancients well knew that, and so do I, having learnt from them. For instance, they often portrayed the vajra as a flail or a lash, or even a hammer or a mace wielded by the god in order to stir Nature into action.

Gods like Christ are not the only ones to die and to rise again from the dead. By the way, Christ too is the wielder of the “iron rod”, the hardest of metals being a metaphor for “diamond” and, hence, for the vajra. Christ was preceded by many aliases, and the conception of “dying-resurrecting” gods akin to the Sun of Justice dates from oldest antiquity. Among the many archetypes of Christ we can mention, offhand, Osiris, Attis, Tammuz, Adonis, Shiva, Kronos, Saturn, Dionysos, Serapis, Mithra and, of course, Krishna, in his infinite series of avatars, and Hercules, the great hero, in his fiery apotheosis that figured the Atlantean Conflagration.

1 Tektites are glass beads and concretions resulting from giant meteoritic (or cometary) falls or, perhaps, from gigantic volcanic explosions as well. These collisions scatter tektites far and wide, as in the above case. The ones in question are called Indochinites, in an allusion to the region where they abound the most. The Indochinites were dated at 700 kyears (one kiloyear = one thousand years). The explosion of Lake Toba took place 70 kyears ago. The even larger one of Lake Taupo took place at some 100 kyears ago or so.

These giant explosions which all occurred in the region of Indonesia, volcanically the most active in the whole world are easily large enough to trigger an Ice Age. However, whether one is indeed caused depends on other conditions, probably dictated by insolation and other variables, astronomical or not. As we just said, the region of Indonesia has literally hundreds of active or dormant volcanoes, and has been very little researched so far, due to its remoteness.

Further research of the Indonesian region will, now that its connection with the birthplace of Mankind is being pointed out, certainly confirm the reality of what we are claiming. Our research is based on very detailed local traditions and is the fruit of many years of study of the myth of Atlantis-Eden from a scientific though unbiased, point of view. We push no religious, scientific, philosophic or mercenary point, and our interest lies soley in establishing Truth. As the Romans used to say, Amicus Plato, magis amica Veritas.


Boldly Rewatching the Voyages: Who Mourns for Adonais?

(Note: This post appears as a page elsewhere on this site. If you haven’t read it yet, my introductory post on this Star Trek: The Original Series rewatch is a good place to start. Previous essays on specific episodes can be found here.)

Original Air Date: September 22, 1967

Crew Death Count: 0

Bellybuttons: 0 (note the deliberate cut of Palamas’ toga)

For years, I misread the title of “Who Mourns for Adonais?” as “Who Mourns for Adonis?” (The Mission Log Podcasters have bailed me out by pointing out that many others have apparently made the same mistake.) It’s not a grievous error: going back far enough, the words Adonais and Adonis are related. Adonai(s), in the Hebrew Bible, refers to God Adonis, in Greek mythology, was the mortal lover of Aphrodite. The episode’s title comes from stanza forty-seven of Percy Bysshe Shelley’s poetic elegy Adonais, mourning the death of John Keats. Sadly, none of this is very relevant to this week’s episode. Spelled correctly or not, the episode is somewhat a rehash of “The Squire of Gothos” and “Space Seed.”

First documented use of the “Talk to the hand” comeback

“Who Mourns for Adonais?” finds the Enterprise on a cartography mission at the planet Pollux IV when the ship is taken captive by a giant, disembodied hand consisting, according to Spock, not of flesh, but of energy. The hand is soon followed by a head that makes references to ancient earth civilizations. A landing party encounters the owner of the head (and hand), who claims to be the Apollo (Michael Forest) of ancient Greek myth. He declares that he, along with Zeus, Artemis, Aphrodite, Athena, and the others, were alien visitors to earth five thousand years ago. Now, the others have faded into history for lack of worshipers, but Apollo expects the newly arrived humans to take up permanent settlement on his planet (which he calls Olympus) and give him the respect he thinks he deserves. Most of the rest of the episode is a long showdown between Apollo and the crew, with archaeologist Lieutenant Palamas (Leslie Parrish) torn between the two. It would have been nice to incorporate some of the actual Greek mythology into the story, but that never really happens.

Let’s just get the misogyny out of the way up front, because it’s inevitable in any episode featuring a female officer. Right from the prologue, Palamas is condescended to. While the lieutenant submits a report to senior officers, Scott, who has no purpose on the bridge other than salivating, gazes at Palamas so fiercely we worry his eyeballs might fall out of his head. The intent of this scene is presumably to set up Palamas as the face that could launch a thousand ships, but all it really does is demonstrate the chief engineer’s lack of professionalism. Scott obsesses over Palamas throughout the episode, risking his own life and the safety of the entire landing party, to the extent that Kirk finally orders him to cease-and-desist his childish behavior. Early in the episode, in a side conversation on the bridge, McCoy describes the archaeologist to Kirk: “She’s a woman. [Thanks, Doc!] All woman. One day she’ll find the right man, off she’ll go, out of the service.” (The idea of women using Starfleet to tide them over till marriage was also implied in “Balance of Terror” and “What Are Little Girls Made Of?”)

Mr. Scott literally stalks Palamas around the bridge

Later, on the planet, the Palamas-Apollo relationship doesn’t improve matters. Apollo offers the backward compliment of calling Palamas “wise for a woman.” Like McGivers from “Space Seed,” the bubble-headed archaeologist immediately falls in love with the alpha male (see my “Space Seed” analysis for a brief discussion of that tired old term) who represents her field of specialty. Palamas is not as openly traitorous as McGivers, but she spends much of the episode mooning over Apollo and shirking her duties. The most visible insult is the pink (because she’s a girl!) toga Apollo dresses her in, continuing the TOS tradition of clothing women in garish fairy-princess wardrobe. Palamas finally sees the gender imbalance for the shallow power dynamic it is: “Is that the secret of your power over women,” she asks, “the thunderbolts you throw?” The scene almost ends tragically for Palamas. Apollo towers over her, summoning thunder and lightning as she lies on the ground, helpless. Whatever Apollo’s sinister intent, the Enterprise crew destroys his power source in the nick of time.

Barbie Starfleet Headquarters playset sold separately

Sexism aside, “Who Mourns for Adonais?” is generally considered a rejection of religious orthodoxy, and the episode works well in that regard, particularly in representation of its time period. The twentieth century, particularly after World War II, marked the full manifestation of the industrial revolution as America, and much of the world, turned from an agrarian economy to a more urban, manufacturing economy powered by fossil fuels and computing technology. Interstates, supercomputers, and organizational think tanks ruled the world, with the help of weather satellites and meteorological radar. What god could compete with humans’ ability to organize themselves into armies of technology-wielding super-achievers? Apollo’s own demands to the Enterprise crew reflect the outdated absurdity of ancient mythology: “You will gather laurel leaves, light the ancient fires, kill a deer, make your sacrifices to me!” Kirk tells Apollo that humans have outgrown him: “Mankind has no need for gods.”

“Who Mourns for Adonais?” rejects the gods of Greek and Roman mythology, but it could just as easily be rejecting the angry God of the Old Testament, constantly demanding to be worshiped for no reason other than existence, the cosmic uber-celebrity famous for being famous. Apollo speaks to this directly: “A god cannot survive as a memory. We need love, admiration, worship.” But the episode works equally well in questioning all deity worship from a society only a few years away from the “Me Decade” of the 1970s. Chekov, stand-in for the Baby Boomers who were still young and idealistic in 1967, is the first to directly question Apollo’s claim to godhood: “And I am the tsar of all the Russias.” McCoy gets more to the point, asking what Apollo offers in exchange for the crew’s worship. (Apollo promises “life in paradise,” but we know talk of “paradise” is always a trap – see “This Side of Paradise,” among others.) Palamas makes some attempt to steer Apollo into a more New Testament, free love style of kindness, asking, “How can they worship you if you hurt them?” Apollo, however, is too set in his ways, and ultimately self-destructs when the entire landing party rejects him, as any god is bound to do.

Apollo vanishes after being banned from Twitter

The baby boomer reference offers a more secular interpretation of “Who Mourns for Adonais?” Like any generation, the boomers, the oldest of whom were twenty-one years old in 1967, must have been frustrated with their parents’ stuffy, primitive ways. A generation growing up with Kurt Vonnegut, the Rolling Stones, and John F. Kennedy, had little interest in preceding generations’ old gods of music, literature and politics. The parents still ultimately held the purse-strings, however, and they reminded us of that when they returned Richard Nixon to the White House the following year. (Despite Nixon being only four years older than Kennedy, they certainly behaved as though they were from entirely different generations.) Kirk acknowledges the older generation’s reluctance to yield: when telling Apollo, “Mankind has no need for gods,” the captain includes the awkward line, “We find the one quite adequate.” That monotheistic tribute was supposedly added to appease NBC censors and it distracts us from Star Trek‘s free-thinking optimism. Love them or hate them, the old power structure won’t give up easily.

Imagine how comfortable the Incredible Hulk would be if he wore this

In addition to a worthy philosophical debate, “Who Mourns for Adonais?” doesn’t forget that we’re on a science-fiction adventure. Kirk is the first to consider that Apollo might really be what he says he is, just not who he says he is. Like the Squire of Gothos, Apollo is a space-faring alien who relies on a power source (in this case, the temple where Apollo holds court) to display god-like powers. Apollo and his cohorts (“a gallant band of travelers”) visited earth five thousand years ago and, because they seemed like gods, were identified as such and inspired an entire civilization. With the other “gods” lost to time, Apollo seems more like the salt vampire from “The Man Trap,” the last survivor of an ancient species. Why Apollo hides out on Pollux IV is never explained: if he hopes to be worshiped, why not return to earth? (His claim that “I knew you would come to the stars one day,” isn’t a convincing explanation.) The idea that ancient humans were influenced by alien visitors is a classic s-f theme that gets carried too far by misguided conspiracy theorists. Erich von Daniken’s book Chariots of the Gods?, speculating that the pyramids, Stonehenge, and early religions all constitute evidence of visitations by alien visitors, was published in 1968, followed by a film adaptation in 1970. The book was widely, and easily, debunked but many still believe in the premise.

14th century church fresco used as evidence of “ancient astronauts” in Chariots of the Gods?

While Kirk leads the confrontation with Apollo on Pollux IV, Spock masterfully takes charge of the Enterprise, guiding Uhura, Sulu, and Kyle in their efforts to recover the landing party. Kyle determines the landing party’s location. Sulu searches for Apollo’s power source. Uhura modifies her communications system to devise a subspace bypass so Enterprise can communicate with the landing party. Uhura does the work herself, and instead of questioning her, as he did in “The Naked Time,” Spock acknowledges Uhura as the subject matter expert she is: “I can think of no one better equipped to handle it…”

Spock seeks admission to the Enterprise ham radio club

When Palamas comes to her senses and rejects Apollo, it’s thanks to an inspiring speech from Kirk, similar to his appeal to Dr. Dehner in “Where No Man Has Gone Before.” The captain makes a passionate appeal to Palamas on the basis of a simple fact: “We share the same history, the same heritage, the same lives… We’re human.” Ouch. It’s well-intentioned but a bit xenophobic and puts harsh limits on the crew’s spirit of exploration. I understand the intent, to inspire audiences to consider the vastness of human potential, but human exceptionalism is as dangerous a trap as racial or theological purity. All the learning that results from this five-year mission can’t exist in a vacuum. (Apollo does some “othering” of his own, excluding “the one with the pointed ears” from the landing party because Spock reminds him of Pan, who “always bored me.”)

Mankind in the twenty-third century may be more advanced, but no one is perfect, and an occasional kick in the warp drive might be just what we need. Other cultures or species offer unlimited potential for self-improvement, and if one of the “strange new worlds” our crew explores is the earth of five thousand years ago, useful lessons still await. “Man thinks he’s progressed,” Apollo tells us. “They’re wrong. He’s merely forgotten those things which gave life meaning.” The old traditions weren’t entirely bad, and new customs are never perfect. We would be wise to take the best of both. As much as rapidly changing technology and business customs made previous generations feel irrelevant in the 1960s, the pace of change, and the associated loss of generational history, has only accelerated in the twenty-first century.

Only Kirk and, ironically, Palamas, seem to grasp the significance of losing Apollo and all the history his life represents. Even if he was not of earth, Apollo and his kin clearly influenced earth history, at least in the Star Trek universe. Singer/songwriter John Mellencamp wrote, “There is nothing more sad or glorious than generations changing hands.” It’s this generational change that Kirk reflects on when he asks, “Would it have hurt us, I wonder, just to have gathered a few laurel leaves?” The answer might well be yes we’ve seen what pandering to the power-hungry can lead to. But we must ask the question, because our elders offer real-life experience we won’t find anywhere else, and because a reckless disregard for history is what allows the power-hungry to prosper in the first place.


10 Christ-Like Figures Who Pre-Date Jesus

I recently watched the documentary Zeitgeist (Part 1) as well as Religulous.

Both made mention of claims often made that there are many stories that predate Jesus but have striking parallels. I decided to follow up on these claims and see what kind of information was out there to substantiate these assertions.

I found several websites run by Christians who obviously disputed all claims of any parallels to the life of Jesus.

I also found several interesting books on the subject, such as The World’s Sixteen Crucified Saviors, The Christ Conspiracy: The Greatest Story Ever Sold, and Krishna, Buddha and Christ Unveiled by Acharya S..

As a non-christian, I am approaching this topic purely as an interested observer. I am assuming half of the people who read this will automatically say the claims are false and the other half will say they are true. The truth I found is that it is difficult to know for sure.

Here are ten of the figures often sited:

10. Buddha

Both went to their temples at the age of twelve, where they are said to have astonished all with their wisdom. Both supposedly fasted in solitude for a long time: Buddha for forty–seven days and Jesus for forty. Both wandered to a fig tree at the conclusion of their fasts. Both were about the same age when they began their public ministry:

“When he [Buddha] went again to the garden he saw a monk who was calm, tranquil, self–possessed, serene, and dignified. The prince, determined to become such a monk, was led to make the great renunciation. At the time he was twenty–nine years of age… “Jesus, when he began his ministry, was about thirty years of age.” (Luke 3:23). Both were tempted by the “devil” at the beginning of their ministry: To Buddha, he said: “Go not forth to adopt a religious life but return to your kingdom, and in seven days you shall become emperor of the world, riding over the four continents.” To Jesus, he said: “All these [kingdoms of the world] I will give you, if you fall down and worship me” (Matthew 4:9). Buddha answered the “devil”: “Get you away from me.”

Jesus responded: “…begone, Satan!” (Matthew 4:10). Both strove to establish a kingdom of heaven on earth. According to the Somadeva (a Buddhist holy book), a Buddhist ascetic’s eye once offended him, so he plucked it out and cast it away. Jesus said: “If your right eye causes you to sin, pluck it out, and throw it away.” (Matthew 5:29).

9. Krishna

According to Bhagavata Purana some believe that Krishna was born without a sexual union, by “mental transmission” from the mind of Vasudeva into the womb of Devaki, his mother. Christ and Krishna were called both God and the Son of God. Both were sent from heaven to earth in the form of a man. Both were called Savior, and the second person of the Trinity. Krishna’s adoptive human father was also a carpenter. A spirit or ghost was their actual father. Krishna and Jesus were of royal descent. Both were visited at birth by wise men and shepherds, guided by a star. Angels in both cases issued a warning that the local dictator planned to kill the baby and had issued a decree for his assassination. The parents fled. Mary and Joseph stayed in Muturea Krishna’s parents stayed in Mathura. Both Christ and Krishna withdrew to the wilderness as adults, and fasted. Both were identified as “the seed of the woman bruising the serpent’s head.” Jesus was called “the lion of the tribe of Judah.” Krishna was called “the lion of the tribe of Saki.” Both claimed: “I am the Resurrection.” Both were “without sin.” Both were god-men: being considered both human and divine. Both performed many miracles, including the healing of disease. One of the first miracles that both performed was to make a leper whole. Each cured “all manner of diseases.” Both cast out indwelling demons, and raised the dead. Both selected disciples to spread his teachings. Both were meek, and merciful. Both were criticized for associating with sinners. Both celebrated a last supper. Both forgave his enemies. Both were crucified and both were resurrected.

8. Odysseus

Homeric tales about Odysseus emphasize his suffering life, just as in Mark Jesus said that he, too, would suffer greatly. Odysseus is a carpenter like Jesus, and he wants to return his home just as Jesus wants to be welcomed in his native home and later to God’s home in Jerusalem. Odysseus is plagued with unfaithful and dim-witted companions who display tragic flaws. They stupidly open a magic bag of wind while Odysseus sleeps and release terrible tempests which prevent their return home. These sailors are comparable to Jesus’ disciples, who disbelieve Jesus, ask foolish questions, and show general ignorance about everything. It’s amazing that either Odysseus or Jesus ever manage to accomplish anything, given the companions they have, but this simply demonstrates the power and ability of the one true leader who has a divine mandate to lead the people out of darkness and into a brighter future.

7. Romulus

Romulus is born of a vestal virgin, which was a priestess of the hearth god Vesta sworn to celibacy. His mother claims that the divine impregnated her, yet this is not believed by the King. Romulus and his twin brother, Remus, are tossed in the river and left for dead. (A “slaughter of the innocents” tale which parallels that of Matthew 2:13-16). Romulus is hailed as the son of god. He is “snatched away to heaven” by a whirlwind (It is assumed that the gods took him), and he makes post mortem appearances. In his work Numa Pompilius, Plutarch records that there was a darkness covering the earth before his death (Just as there was during Jesus’ death according to Mark 15:33). He also states that Romulus is to be know afterwards as ‘Quirinus’ A god which belonged to the Archiac Triad (a “triple deity” similar to the concept of the Trinity).

6. Dionysus

Dionysus was born of a virgin on December 25 and, as the Holy Child, was placed in a manger. He was a traveling teacher who performed miracles. He “rode in a triumphal procession on an ass.” He was a sacred king killed and eaten in an eucharistic ritual for fecundity and purification. Dionysus rose from the dead on March 25. He was the God of the Vine, and turned water into wine. He was called “King of Kings” and “God of Gods.” He was considered the “Only Begotten Son,” Savior,” “Redeemer,” “Sin Bearer,” Anointed One,” and the “Alpha and Omega.” He was identified with the Ram or Lamb. His sacrificial title of “Dendrites” or “Young Man of the Tree” intimates he was hung on a tree or crucified.

5. Heracles

Heracles is the Son of a god (Zeus). It is recorded that Zeus is both the father and great-great- great grandfather of Heracles, just as Jesus is essentially his own grandpa, being both “The root and offspring of David” (Revelation 22:16) as he is part of the triune God which is the father of Adam and eventually of Jesus. Both are doubly related to the Supreme God.

Diodorus writes that,”For as regards the magnitude of the deeds which he accomplished it is generally agreed that Heracles has been handed down as one who surpassed all men of whom memory from the beginning of time has brought down an account consequently it is a difficult attainment to report each one of his deeds in a worthy manner and to present a record which shall be on a level with labours so great, the magnitude of which won for him the prize of immortality.”

Jesus is also said to have done a very large number of good works. John 21:25 says that: “Jesus did many other things as well. If every one of them were written down, I suppose that even the whole world would not have room for the books that would be written.”

Hera tries to kill Heracles as an infant by sending two serpents after him, yet Heracles survives by strangling them. This parallels Herod’s slaughter of the innocents in an attempt to kill Jesus (Matthew 2:13-16).

Heracles makes a descent into Hades and returns from it with Theseus and Peirithoüs, just as Jesus descends into the “lower parts of the earth” or Hades (Ephesians 4:7-8) Though Jesus does not bring anyone up from it. Heracles’ body is not found and he is assumed to have been taken by the gods:”After this, when the companions of Iolaüs came to gather up the bones of Heracles and found not a single bone anywhere, they assumed that, in accordance with the words of the oracle, he had passed from among men into the company of the gods.”

4. Glycon

In the middle of the 100s AD, out along the south coast of the Black Sea, Glycon was the son of the God Apollo, who: came to Earth through a miraculous birth, was the Earthly manifestation of divinity, came to earth in fulfillment of divine prophecy, gave his chief believer the power of prophecy, gave believers the power to speak in tongues, performed miracles, healed the sick, and raised the dead.

3. Zoroaster/Zarathustra

Zoroaster was born of a virgin and “immaculate conception by a ray of divine reason.” He was baptized in a river. In his youth he astounded wise men with his wisdom. He was tempted in the wilderness by the devil. He began his ministry at age 30. Zoroaster baptized with water, fire and “holy wind.” He cast out demons and restored the sight to a blind man. He taught about heaven and hell, and revealed mysteries, including resurrection, judgment, salvation and the apocalypse. He had a sacred cup or grail. He was slain. His religion had a Eucharist. He was the “Word made flesh.” Zoroaster’s followers expected a “second coming” in the virgin-born Saoshynt or Savior, who is to come in 2341 AD and begin his ministry at age 30, ushering in a golden age.

2. Attis of Phrygia

Attis was born on December 25 of the Virgin Nana. He was considered the savior who was slain for the salvation of mankind. His body as bread was eaten by his worshippers. He was both the Divine Son and the Father. On “Black Friday,” he was crucified on a tree, from which his holy blood ran down to redeem the earth. He descended into the underworld. After three days, Attis was resurrected.

1. Horus

Born of a virgin, Isis. Only begotten son of the God Osiris. Birth heralded by the star Sirius, the morning star. Ancient Egyptians paraded a manger and child representing Horus through the streets at the time of the winter solstice (about DEC-21). In reality, he had no birth date he was not a human. Death threat during infancy: Herut tried to have Horus murdered. Handling the threat: The God That tells Horus’ mother “Come, thou goddess Isis, hide thyself with thy child.” An angel tells Jesus’ father to: “Arise and take the young child and his mother and flee into Egypt.” Break in life history: No data between ages of 12 & 30. Age at baptism: 30. Subsequent fate of the baptizer: Beheaded. Walked on water, cast out demons, healed the sick, restored sight to the blind. Was crucified, descended into Hell resurrected after three days.

In5D Addendum

by Gregg Prescott, M.S.
Founder, Webmaster, & Editor, In5D.com

When there is a conspiracy, you can usually trace the money to find the root of it. In the case of the story of Jesus, you can trace the bloodlines.

Astrology was well known amongst every civilization and many knew that they were transitioning from a battle-ladened Age of Aries into the upcoming Age of Pisces. A 400 year old prophecy told how a messiah would be born and how he would lead the Hebrews out of persecution. At the time, each religious cult hoped that this messiah would be from their religion. In order to be uncontested amongst their rival religions, one cult created their own messiah story and based it on knowledge from 100 years in the past so nobody would be able to contradict their story. In their own minds, they believed that this would give their story credibility versus the other messiah-like characters who were based on mythology.

Initially, their messiah was based on a man named Yeshua ben Yoseph (which translated means “Joshua, son of Joseph”). Yeshua was believed to have lived approximately 100 years before the creation of Jesus and evaded prosecution by the governing Hebrew body by fleeing to France with his wife, Mary Magdalene and their daughter. Over 100 years after Yeshua’s death, this particular messiah cult added supernatural powers to the Yeshua character, based on Mithra, Osiris and Horus. In order to make their cult more appealing, they added the belief that Yeshua died for your sins and that all anyone needed to do was to accept him as their messiah.

At this point in time, there were several other religious cults vying for ultimate power. The emperor of this time period, Constantine, fought his way into power through death and deception, so he was eager to bring aboard a messiah figure who would forgive him of all of his sins through the deaths he was responsible for on his way to becoming emperor. By the year 312 CE, the Yeshua story had the backing of the Roman Empire, but there were numerous other Yeshua cults that divided them all. In the year 325 CE, Constantine brought together a meeting called the Council of Nicea, which was comprised of all of the leaders from the various Yeshua cults in order to unify their story into one religion which would rival any other major religon. Yeshua’s name was changed to Jesus Christ, with “Christ” meaning the annointed one. Jesus’ first name is simply the English translation of Yeshua, which in Greek, is Iesous.

The Library of Alexandria held all of the Gnostic, philosophy and religious texts from previous generations. By the end of that particular century, all of these texts were allegedly destroyed under the auspices of emperor Theodosius, so there were no other records to corroborate how the Yeshua story was fabricated into the story of Jesus. Most likely, these texts remain hidden in the Vatican library.

I know I’m not alone when I feel there’s something “not right” about religion. My parents are Christian (Methodist). My mother and I will go back and forth talking about religion. She once said, “Our church does wonderful things for the community.” I responded, “Why do you need a church to do good things for other people?” On the same train of thought, why would you need a bible to be a moral person? Shouldn’t morality be innate?

That being said, it’s quite fascinating to see how it all plays out in perfect, astrological order. The golden calf represented the Age of Taurus. The blowing of the ram’s horn symbolized the Age of Aries. When Jesus fed the masses with 2 fish and a loaf of bread, it represented the Age of Pisces. When Jesus said to follow the man bearing the pitcher of water, it represented the Age of Aquarius… which is where we are at right now.

Through sigils and symbolism, you can be assured that the “Jesus Fish” symbol will soon be replaced with something representing the Age of Aquarius.

Your thoughts? Comment below!

Sending you all infinite LOVE and Light!

Click here for more articles by Gregg Prescott!

Gregg Prescott, M.S. is the founder and editor of In5D, Zentasia, and BodyMindSoulSpirit. He co-owns In5D Club with his fiancé, Alison Janes. You can find every episode of “The BIGGER Picture with Gregg Prescott” on Bitchute while all of his In5D Radio shows are on the In5D Youtube channel. He is a visionary, author, a transformational speaker, and promotes spiritual, metaphysical and esoteric conferences in the United States through In5dEvents. Please like and follow In5D on Facebook and Twitter!


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