History of Railways and Football

History of Railways and Football

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In the 19th century football clubs found it difficult to obtain a mass following. One reason concerned the cost of travelling to games.

In 1871, Charles W. Alcock, the Secretary of the Football Association, announced the introduction of the Football Association Challenge Cup. All games had to take place in London and as a result, three of the original 15 entries, had to withdraw because they could not afford the travelling costs of playing in the competition. Only 2,000 spectators watched the first FA Cup final in 1872. The cost of travelling to the game was a major factor in this low attendance.

In March, 1889 the Football League was formed. It consisted of six clubs from Lancashire (Accrington, Blackburn Rovers, Burnley, Everton and Preston North End) and six from the Midlands (Aston Villa, Derby County, Notts County, Stoke, West Bromwich Albion and Wolverhampton Wanders). The main reason Sunderland was excluded was because the other clubs in the league objected to the costs of travelling to away games.

In the 19th century it cost 6d to watch a Football League match. This was expensive when you compare this with the price of other forms of entertainment. It usually cost only 3d to visit the musical hall or the cinema. It has to be remembered that at this time skilled tradesmen usually received less than £2 a week.

As Dave Russell points out in Football and the English: A Social History of Association Football in England (1997): "In terms of social class, crowds at Football League matches were predominantly drawn from the skilled working and lower-middle classes... Social groups below that level were largely excluded by the admission price." Russell adds "the Football League, quite possibly in a deliberate attempt to limit the access of poorer (and this supposedly "rowdier") supporters, raised the minimum adult male admission price to 6d".

Men also had the problem of having to work on a Saturday. Although some trades granted their workers a half-day holiday, it did not give them much time to travel very far to see a game. Even a local game caused considerable problems. For example, West Ham United played Brentford in an important game at the end of the 1897-98 season. A local newspaper reported that because of the inadequate transport system supporters had to travel by boat from Ironworks Wharf along the Thames to Kew before catching a train to Brentford. Given these transport problems, it is no surprise that the game was watched by only 3,000 people.

It was the railways that eventually provided cheap and fast travel. Over 114,000 people watched Tottenham Hotspur play Sheffield United in the 1901 FA Cup. It has been estimated that a large percentage of the crowd travelled to Crystal Palace Stadium via the London & Brighton Railway and Great Northern Railway.

When Chelsea was formed in 1905 it chose Stamford Bridge as its home as it was close to Waltham Green station (now Fulham Broadway). Tottenham Hotspur benefited from its closeness to White Hart Lane railway station. It has been argued that "10,000 spectators could be easily handled by trains arriving every five minutes".

In 1906 a railway station at Ashton Gate was opened to enable people to travel to the Bristol City ground. Manchester United moved to Old Trafford in 1909 to take advantage of the railway network established for the nearby cricket ground. One of the main reasons Arsenal moved to Highbury in 1913 was because it was served by the London Underground station at Gillespie Road (later renamed Arsenal).

In 1923 the FA Cup was moved to Wembley. The ground had been built for the British Empire Exhibition and had excellent railway links. Over 270,000 people travelled in 145 special services to the final that featured West Ham United and Bolton.

The railways had a considerable impact on the attendances of international matches. Only 1,000 people from Scotland travelled to watch the game against England at Crystal Palace in 1897. However, for the match at Wembley in 1936, 22,000 Scots came to London in 41 trains provided by the London Midland and Scottish Railway.

Trinidad & Tobago Football History

Welcome to the Trinidad & Tobago Football History website, a window into the twin islands' footballing past. Though far from complete it covers over 100 years of the sport with a collection of stories, newspaper articles and clippings, and photos from as far back as 1904.

From the first inter-colonial matches to the Martinez Shield Tournaments in the 20's to the first tour to Jamaica in 1935/36 to the visit by the English FA team in the 50's, to players going pro in the NPSL and NASL in the 60's and the exploits at Howard University in the 70's up to more recent times, there's a little bit of everything to be found. At present the focus is on before the year 2000. For current news please visit the excellent fan site www.socawarriors.net.

More material is constantly being added, the most recent of which can be accessed with the "recently added" link on the left. Changes and enhancements to website functionality along with major additions in content will be noted in the "what's new" link above. Old articles and pictures are being sought, and if you'd like to contribute please use the contact form (link also at the top).

All comments and suggestions are also welcome.

A note about navigation

There are several ways of unearthing content on the site.

To browse by date it's simplest to hit the "list all stories" link on the left and select the decade of interest, or use the filter options at the top of the results.

Searches can be conducted either by searching for a keyword or using the guided search topics listed on the right.

The picture gallery is currently not search-able, but should be soon. For now it can be browsed using the "picture gallery" link.

The History of Steam Trains and Railways

An invention that changed the world was 200 years old in 2004. Britain celebrated the bicentenary of the steam railway locomotive with a year-long events programme, but it was not an engineering giant such as James Watt or George Stephenson that was fêted.

The man who first put steam engines on rails was a tall, strong Cornishman described by his schoolmaster as “obstinate and inattentive”. Richard Trevithick (1771-1833), who learnt his craft in Cornish tin mines, built his “Penydarren tram road engine” for a line in South Wales whose primitive wagons were pulled, slowly and laboriously, by horses.

On February 21, 1804, Trevithick’s pioneering engine hauled 10 tons of iron and 70 men nearly ten miles from Penydarren, at a speed of five miles-per-hour, winning the railway’s owner a 500 guinea bet into the bargain.

He was 20 years ahead of his time – Stephenson’s “Rocket” was not even on the drawing board but Trevithick’s engines were seen as little more than a novelty. He went on to engineer at mines in South America before dying penniless aged 62. But his idea was developed by others and, by 1845, a spider’s web of 2,440 miles of railway were open and 30 million passengers were being carried in Britain alone.

With the launch in January 2004 of a new £2 coin by the Royal Mint – bearing both his name and his ingenious invention, a coin approved by Queen Elizabeth II – Trevithick at last received the public recognition he deserved.

Perhaps because it was the birthplace, Britain can boast more railway attractions per square mile than any other country. The figures are impressive: more than 100 heritage railways and 60 steam museum centres are home to 700 operational engines, steamed-up by an army of 23,000 enthusiastic volunteers and offering everyone the chance to savour a bygone age by riding on a lovingly preserved train. The surroundings – stations, signal-boxes and wagons – are equally well preserved and much in demand by TV companies filming period dramas. (Website: https://www.heritagerailways.com)

Wales deserves a special mention for its Great Little Trains. Though small in stature, these narrow-gauge lines are real working railways, originally built to haul slate and other minerals out of the mountains, but now a wonderful way for visitors to admire the scenery, which is breathtaking. There are eight lines to choose from and one, the Ffestiniog Railway, is the oldest of its kind in the world.

Then there are the railway museums that are historic in their own right. “Steam” at Swindon is built into the former workshops of the Great Western Railway (GWR) which has near-legendary status among rail fans the GWR Railway Centre at Didcot re-creates its golden age in an old steam depot where polished engines are tended lovingly. Part of Manchester’s Museum of Science and Industry is situated in the world’s oldest passenger station and the ‘Thinktank’ museum in Birmingham contains the world’s oldest active steam engine, designed by James Watt in 1778.

But it is North East England that is known as the birthplace of railways for here, around Newcastle, the world’s first tramways were laid and, later, the world’s first public railway between Stockton and Darlington steamed into life. At Shildon in County Durham, a £10 million permanent Railway Village is taking shape, to open in the autumn, the first out-station of the National Railway Museum.

At nearby Beamish, the open-air museum of North Country Life – where the past is brought magically to life – there’s an opportunity to see one of the earliest railways re-created. Feel the wind – and steam – in your hair as you travel in open carriages behind a working replica of a pioneering engine such as Stephenson’s Locomotion No.1, built in 1825.

If you can, go south-westwards to Cornwall where the story of the great engineer Trevithick began. In his home town of Camborne is a bronze statue of him holding a model of one of his engines while not far away the little thatched cottage where he lived, at Penponds, is open to the public. It is hard to imagine that scribblings in this humble home were to lead to the ‘high-pressure steam engine’ and the world would never be quite the same again.

Time is money

A confectionery factory © The Victorians had become addicted to speed and, like all speed crazy kids, they wanted to go ever faster. Time was money and efficiency became increasingly important. Although division of labour had been conceived by Adam Smith and illustrated by a pin factory in The Wealth of Nations in 1776, it could now become fully realised. This specialisation and - by implication - individualisation of labour was in marked contrast to the rural means of production, in which the family was the means of production, consumption and socialisation.

. steam engines were servant to neither season nor sunshine.

With greater speed came a greater need for industries and businesses to make more and make it quicker. Steam made this possible and changed working life forever. Gone were the days when work was dictated by natural forces: steam engines were servant to neither season nor sunshine. Factories had foremen and life became correspondingly more regimented. The clocking-on machine was invented in 1885 and time and motion studies to increase efficiency would be introduced only some twenty years later. But it was not all bad news. Agricultural incomes depended on variable harvests and weather. Factories provided secure and predictable income, but long hours.

Working life was becoming increasingly regulated, and the working week was reorganised to promote ever-greater efficiency. The old custom of St. Monday - when no work was done - was gradually phased out and to compensate, work stopped around midday on Saturday and did not resume until Monday morning. A new division between 'work' and 'leisure' emerged, and this new block of weekend leisure time coincided with the development of spectator sports like cricket and football, and the rise of music hall entertainment for the new working classes.

New loyalties were needed to fill some of the vacuum caused by the demise of close-knit rural communities, and they didn't come from the church. Many of the middle class (itself a new term dating only from 1812) became concerned about the godlessness of the working classes when it emerged that only 50 per cent of the eligible population attended a church service on Census Sunday in 1851.

First game in Notre Dame Football history

On Nov. 23, 1887, nearly 45 years to the day after Rev. Edward Sorin, C.S.C., arrived in northern Indiana, the University of Notre Dame fielded a collegiate football team. Originally published in Scholastic, the University’s student magazine, the following article describes the scene of the inaugural contest. The photos are among the earliest athletics images in the Notre Dame Archives.

For some days previous to Wednesday great interest had been manifested by our students in the football game which had been arranged between the teams of the Universities of Michigan and Notre Dame. It was not considered a match contest, as the home team had been organized only a few weeks, and the Michigan boys, the champions of the West, came more to instruct them in the points of the Rugby game than to win fresh laurels.

The visitors arrived over the Michigan Central RR., Wednesday morning, and were at once taken in charge by a committee of students. After spending a few hours in “taking in” the surroundings, they donned their uniforms of spotless white and appeared upon the Seniors’ campus. Owing to the recent thaw, the field was damp and muddy but nothing daunted, the boys “went in,” and soon Harless’ new suit appeared as though it had imbibed some of its wearer’s affinity for the soil of Notre Dame.

At first, to render our players more familiar with the game, the teams were chosen irrespective of college. After some minutes’ play, the game was called, and each took his position as follows:

Univ. of M. – Full Back: J.L. Duffy Half Backs: J.E. Duffy, E. McPheran Quarter Back: R.T. Farrand Centre Rush: W.W. Harless Rush Line: F. Townsend, E.M. Sprague, F.H. Knapp, W. Fowler, G.W. De Haven, M. Wade.

Univ. of N.D. – Full Back: H. Jewett Half Backs: J. Cusack, H. Luhn Quarter Back: G. Cartier Centre Rush: G.A. Houck Rush Line: F. Fehr, P. Nelson, B. Sawkins, W. Springer, T. O’Regan, P.P. Maloney.

On account of time, only a part of one inning was played, and resulted in a score of 8 to 0 in favor of the visitors. The game was interesting, and, notwithstanding the slippery condition of the ground, the Ann Arbor boys gave a fine exhibition of skilful [sic] playing. This occasion has started an enthusiastic football boom, and it is hoped that coming years will witness a series of these contests.

After a hearty dinner, Rev. President Walsh thanked the Ann Arbor team for their visit, and assured them of the cordial reception that would always await them at Notre Dame. At 1 o’clock carriages were taken for Niles, and amidst rousing cheers the University of Michigan football team departed, leaving behind them a most favorable impression.

Amidst melting snow and muddy conditions, the entire Notre Dame student body showed up for the game that was played on “senior campus field.”

This map depicts Notre Dame’s campus in 1894, seven years after the first football game. There is no way of telling if the field on this map was in the same location in 1887, but it suggests that “senior campus field” may have been located near present-day Crowley Hall of Music and Riley Hall of Art and Design.

The first Notre Dame program featured team rosters and a rules explanation of the “American college game of football.”

Stadium History

Stamford Bridge is one of the oldest football grounds in the country and has been the home of Chelsea Football Club since our formation in 1905.

Stamford Bridge opened as a sporting arena on 28 April 1877. For the first 27 years of its existence it was used almost exclusively for the traditionally popular Victorian pursuit of athletics meetings by the London Athletic Club.

In 1904 the ownership of the modest ground changed hands when Mr Henry Ausgustus (Gus) Mears and his brother, Mr J T Mears, obtained the deeds, having previously acquired additional land (formerly a large market garden) with the aim of hosting a newer sport they had fallen in love with - football - which had swept the north of England and the Midlands and was growing in interest rapidly in the capital city.

The new arena they commissioned on the 12.5 acre site was designed by renowned Scottish football stadium architect Archibald Leitch (as were many others across the land) and included a characteristic feature of his work in the 120-yard long stand on the east side to hold 5000 spectators, complete with a pedimented centre gable on the roof,

The other sides formed a vast, open bowl with thousands of tons of material excavated from the building of the Piccadilly Line underground railway supporting the high terracing for standing spectators..

The capacity was originally planned to be 100,000 and was the second largest in country behind a decaying Crystal Palace stadium in south London - at the time the FA Cup final venue.

Initially the stadium was offered to nearby Fulham FC to play there. They turned down the chance and so instead a new side, Chelsea Football Club, was born in March 1905 and moved into the new Stamford Bridge stadium for the start of the season a few months later.

It was quickly a success with a 60,000 crowd in the first year, promotion to Football League Division One after two, and three FA Cup finals held there between 1920 and 1922.

Why is it called Stamford Bridge?

The name Stamford Bridge is one with great significance in English history, having been the site in Yorkshire of a succesful battle against the Vikings in 1066, immediately prior to defeat by the Normans at the Battle of Hastings.

However the naming of Chelsea Football Club's stadium is all about local landmarks rather than conquest from abroad.

On 18th-Century maps showing the Fulham Road and King's Road area there is a stream called 'Stanford Creek' which runs along the route of the present-day railway line behind the East Stand. It flowed down into the Thames.

Where the stream crosses the Fulham Road it is marked 'Little Chelsea Bridge' which was originally called Sanford Bridge (from sand ford), while a bridge over the stream on the King's Road was called Stanbridge (from stone bridge). It seems that these two bridge names and that of the stream, 'Stanford Creek', together evolved into the name Stanford Bridge, which again later changed into Stamford Bridge, to become the adopted name of the stadium close by.

A bridge taking the Fulham Road over a railway line remains in place today, close to the main Stamford Gate entrance to the stadium site.

After its creation, the stadium remained largely unchanged in appearance until the 1930s when the southern terrace gained a partial covering – a curious structure which would later lead to the nickname the ‘Shed End’.

Ironically, for a name that would become famous in football, the asymmetrical roofing was erected for another sport. Covering roughly a fifth of the terrace area, and designed by the original Stamford Bridge architect Archibald Leitch, it was commissioned by the Greyhound Racing Association who for many decades held dog races on the track that enclosed the pitch. They wanted cover for the bookmakers and their betting customers.

Some 30 years after the structure’s appearance, a letter published in the Chelsea matchday programme from supporter Cliff Webb called for the Fulham Road End of the ground to be known as ‘The Shed’, and for more fans to join a vocal gathering there in order to rival the home end support at other grounds. His requests bore fruit and the stand at the south end which opened to replace the old terrace in 1997 still bears the Shed name today.

In 1939, the north end of Stamford Bridge gained an addition too, and it was also unusually architecturally. There was a pressing need for more covered seating in addition to the original East Stand, so a new construction was commissioned and started in 1939, Archibald Leitch again involved in the design process.

Adjacent to the East Stand, its building was disrupted by the outbreak of the Second World War but when it was opened in 1945, supporters now had the option of sitting in a tier that was raised on stilts over the north-east corner of the existing standing terrace.

Some who used it even reported it shook when trains passed by on the track close behind, but it survived for 30 years until pulled down with the opening of a huge, new East Stand. The now-completely-open-again north terrace remained in use until 1993 when the move to an all-seater Stamford Bridge began in earnest.

In the space of a decade and almost bookending one of Chelsea’s most successful periods, Stamford Bridge acquired new stands along both sides of the pitch.

During the course of 1965, agreement to build, planning and construction of a West Stand took place, ultimately a fairly modest affair seating just over 6,000 fans on what was a reshaping of the old, vast terracing on that side of the stadium. There was a roof, although one supported by pillars in an age when other grounds were building cantilevered stands without, and an area of terracing remained along the front which later also sat supporters on what became known as ‘The Benches’.

At the rear were six rudimentary hospitality boxes, making the Bridge the second ground in the land after Old Trafford to offer such facilities. With floodlights having arrived in 1957, big, glamorous European nights were among the order of the day.

With the West Stand and the team of the day a success, and the original East Stand over 60 years old and moribund, the thoughts of the then Chelsea directors turned ambitiously towards a complete redevelopment of Stamford Bridge into a stunning, 60,000 all-covered, all-seater arena beginning with the east side. That is as far as it got.

The new project was ill-timed as well as burdened by poor decisions, including appointing architects with no experience in stadium design. The impact of attendances dipping was not considered either. Britain's economy hit relegation form in the early 1970s, with a building strike among many delays to the construction, and the new stand was delivered late and over-budget. Combined with a decline in results on the pitch, that brought the club to its knees, leading to the sale of star players, relegation and a close encounter with bankruptcy.

When it opened in 1974, the East Stand’s striking design was not to everyone’s taste and it loomed large over the rest of the stadium, but it brought fans closer to the pitch than ever before, covering the old dog track, and sightlines from the middle and ultra-steep upper tier are superb. In time, recovery on and off the pitch arrived and the stand melded well into the rebuilt stadium where it remains as the oldest part today.

With Chelsea Football Club virtually bankrupt and stuck in Division Two in the early 1980s, it was bought by businessman Ken Bates, ending the long Mears dynasty. However as part of the ownership change, the stadium became owned by a separate company and former club directors sold shares in that to property developers.

Chelsea had an initial right to continue playing at the Bridge but now faced a fight to remain long-term, with the spectre of housing or a supermarket there instead and the team sharing with the likes of Fulham or QPR horrifying fans.

A bitter, expensive and close-run 10-year battle ensued, which put any further ground development on hold and gave birth to a ‘Save the Bridge’ campaign to raise money for legal costs.

A collapse in the property market came to our aid and with an ironic twist it was the developers who were forced into bankruptcy, and in 1992 Chelsea Football Club got our ground back.

It was a close shave at times but Stamford Bridge had survived and in 1993, the process of turning a dilapidated ground with views far from the pitch into one of the most impressive stadiums in the country began, with Bates also introducing the Chelsea Pitch Owners scheme to protect the club from any such threat in the future.

The rebuilding of Stamford Bridge into the current stadium advanced with the redevelopment of the North Stand area. All-seater stadiums were now the requirement across the upper divisions of English football and the old semi-circular terrace that came to house away fans only was demolished

A new, two-tier stand to house home supporters was opened at that end in November 1994 and was renamed two years later as the Matthew Harding Stand, in memory of the Chelsea vice-chairman killed in a helicopter accident whose financial loan helped greatly with its building. A wraparound to join to the west side was later added and the stand remains home for many of the most vocal Chelsea fans.

Next in the redevelopment queue was the Shed End. The old home terrace last saw action on the final day of the 1993/94 league season, to be replaced with temporary seating for a couple of years before work began on a seated Shed End stand. At the same time an adjoining four-star hotel, flats and an underground car park were constructed.

The final piece of the new Stamford Bridge story had one more hurdle to overcome. The lower tier of the new West stand was built on schedule but then problems with the local council over planning permission meant a two-year delay before the rest of the stand could be built.

Finally that last battle was won and work began on completing the biggest part of the stadium, the huge 13,500 seater with many boxes, function halls and suites for all-year use. In was ready for the start of 2001/02 campaign and marked, at last, the completion of an all-seater Stamford Bridge which had begun way back in 1973 with the start of the East Stand.

The current capacity stands at just over 41,000 and the ground has gone from being a huge oval shape to one with all four sides close to the pitch. There is almost no part of the current stadium that hasn't markedly changed in recent years with only the huge old Shed wall remaining from the original stadium. It be can be seen outside of the current ground, opposite the Megastore and box office.

As well as all the work on the stadium itself, much of the remaining 12.5 acre site has seen building work, with two four-star hotels, restaurants, conference and banqueting facilities, an underground car park, a health club, a music venue and business centre all added.

Stamford Bridge has come a long, long way since the original athletics venue was first opened in 1877, as can be seen in the video below, which is one of many features telling the Chelsea FC story in the club's extensive and exciting Museum.

History of Railways and Football - History

In the previous parts, I discussed the humble beginnings of football in Pakistan from independence (1947), early growth, the ‘Golden Age’ of the 1960s followed by a sudden, ‘Dark Age’ throughout the 1970s that stunted the potential growth of beautiful game in the country. The gloom was somewhat lifted in the early half of the 1980s as Pakistan scratched and scrapped itself back from the international wilderness with a new, bold, but grossly inexperienced generation of players who strived to bring back the joy on the face of football lovers in the country.

The increased participation of the national team at various youth and senior levels across Asia in the coming years was to prove vital for Pakistan’s reemergence on the international scene. However, politics would have a decisive say in what path the game followed. The increased televised coverage of world football, in particular the FIFA World Cup, on national television meant a bigger fan base was created but much more was needed to give the game a boost in the country.

Despite falling short for qualifying to the 1984 AFC Asian Cup finals, the mid 1980s began a sudden burst of regular international action that caught our footballers hard and fast.

Emergence of South Asian football competitions

The latter half of the 1980s saw Pakistan host the 3rd and 4th Quaid-i-Azam International Championships in the Aprils of 1985 and 1986. Nepal, Bangladesh, Indonesia, North Korea were among the others invited to take part.

Most importantly, however, was football becoming a regular event in the nascent South Asian Games. After declining to send a football team for the first edition held at Kathmandu in 1984, Pakistan decided to take part in the 1985 event that hosted by Dhaka, Bangladesh. Pakistan won their group featuring Nepal (won 3-2), Maldives (won 3-1), and the hosts Bangladesh (lost 1-2) but failed to qualify for the final. Up until the mid-1990s, football at the South Asian Games was recognised as a senior level competition. Now, it is limited as a U-23 event.

That same year, the Asian Football Confederation brought back the Asian Champions’ Cup (also known as Asian Club Championship) for the club champions of Asia after a 14 year absence. The last event in 1971 was won by Israeli side Maccabi Tel Aviv who now play in UEFA region. PIA, having won the 1984 Inter Provincial Championship, was elected to become Pakistan’s first representative in Asian club football. They were placed in a tricky qualifying group for the 1985-86 Asian Club Championship hosted in Colombo, Sri Lanka and involving the winners from India, Bangladesh, the hosts, Maldives, and Nepal. Only Indian giants East Bengal qualified for the next round from the group as PIA finished 6 points behind in 4th place out of a group of 6 teams. The eventual winner of the competition was South Korea’s Daewoo Royals (Pusan) who beat Saudi side, and final hosts, Al-Ahly Jeddah 3-1 in late January 1986.

The subsequent Asian club participations, including the Asian Cup Winners’ Cup, didn’t bring much glory either as Habib Bank (1986-87), PAF (1987-88), Crescent Textile Mills Faisalabad (1988-89), and even a Punjab FC side (1989-90) could only get the odd points against weaker sides from Maldives or Nepal whilst being put to the sword by clubs from Bangladesh, Iraq, India, Oman in their qualifying groups.

This was an era where South Asia had become the permanent whipping boys for rest of Asia in both club and national team competitions. The increasing professionalism, fitness levels, coaching, and player awareness that had become ingrained in the rest of the Asian region meant that South Asia had miles to go.

After losing 2-0 in a friendly against Iran in Tehran in Feb 1986, Pakistan’s national team took part in 1986 Asian Games where they lost to UAE (0-1), Iraq (1-5, a penalty by Ghulam Sarwar ‘Teddy’), Oman (1-3), and Thailand (0-6). The tough draws against the well-established Asian sides certainly did not help but nevertheless it was some much needed practice for the boys. After Pakistan was knocked out by Nepal during qualification for 1988 Olympics in April 1987, the country hosted the 5th Quaid-i-Azam International Tournament in Lahore. A month later in October, Pakistan won bronze under the captaincy of Zafar Iqbal in the 1987 South Asian Games football tournament hosted by India. The team was coached by late German manager Burkhard Ziese who remained in charge from 1987 till 1989-90.

This was followed by more defeats in qualification for 1988 Asian Cup at the hands of Jordan (0-1), Japan (1-4), Kuwait (0-3) and qualifying group hosts Malaysia (0-4).

The year 1989 began with Pakistan’s first ever participation for the FIFA World Cup qualifying rounds for Italia 1990 in January-February. One wonders why Pakistan Football Federation (PFF) had been missing so many World Cup qualifiers for almost 40 years!

That being said, Pakistan had always been playing a vital role in the World Cups for many years before our actual participation. The sports goods industry of Sialkot had been providing millions of footballs around the world, peaking during World Cup seasons, since 1980. The Adidas ‘Tango’ balls used in the 1982 World Cup hosted by Spain was Pakistan’s major contribution to the beautiful game thanks to the hard work of Sialkot manufacturers. That tradition is still alive today and Sialkot is still a major contributor on the international market.

The qualifiers saw Pakistan teamed up against much stronger sides in Kuwait and UAE. They were easily knocked out one at a time by the Middle East giants. UAE eventually qualified for Italia 1990 as one of the two Asian sides alongside World Cup regulars South Korea. These defeats would be regarded as good practice as Pakistan hosted the 1989 South Asian Games later that year. The football team went on a brilliant run that eventually led to a gold medal win in the final over Bangladesh (1-0) thanks to a solitary goal by WAPDA’s Haji Abdul Sattar. In terms of international competitions, this was arguably Pakistan’s first ever football final victory at all levels. Football circles across the country celebrated this victory with great aplomb. Everyone called this the beginning of a brand new era for Pakistani football.

By this time, hockey was experiencing a decline and cricket had more or less taken full attention of the Pakistani public thanks no less to the exploits of Javed Miandad, Imran Khan, and a young Wasim Akram in Sharjah as well as around the world. Football was still fighting for attention.

1990s: Politics impedes Progress

The demise of Zia-ul-Haq in 1988 reopened Pakistan for civilian rule but what promised for a great democratic era for the country eventually turned into a mockery of political instability. Political rivalries between the two main parties caught in the musical chairs of power, PPP and PML would take their battles outside the parliament into other supposedly non-political arenas.

Football became a hot bed for such activity as well. The year 1990 was marked by the general elections of the PFF. PML stalwart from Lahore, Mian Muhammad Azhar, went on to narrowly win the elections for PFF Presidency by just one vote. The losing candidate unfortunate for not getting the decisive vote in 1990 was PPP heavyweight Faisal Saleh Hayat.

Mian Azhar held onto power until 2003. While many people would cite the importance of stability in sports federations in the long run, Mian Azhar’s 13-year tenure would have its plenty of thrills, chills, and spills! A year after those elections, the PFF General Secretary post went to Jamaat-e-Islami MNA and football enthusiast from Lahore, Hafiz Salman Butt. Hafiz Salman would hold the post for a mere three years until Mian Azhar forced him out because of growing political rifts as well as invoking a ten-year ban from FIFA on Hafiz Salman over alleged ‘abuse of power’ as a PFF Official in 1995.

The 1991-94 era is, however, often regarded as the best administrative era of Pakistani football. Hafiz Salman was instrumental in organising the National Championships of 1992-93 and 1993-94 (won by PIA and Army respectively) structured on a proper league-style basis and spread over a number of months. Hafiz Salman also managed to get a lucrative three-year sponsorship deal with Lifebuoy Soap. The amount of Rs 35 million was used to organize the said championships.

The media campaign for football in that era was aggressive with football-centric ads on PTV for the renowned soap brand as well as a hit television drama series called ‘Red Card’ produced by PTV Lahore Centre.

The satellite TV boom and live matches from English Premiership and other top leagues in Europe would soon follow in Pakistan.

With Hafiz Salman’s dismissal in 1994 and ban by FIFA and PFF in 1995, Pakistani football fell once again into an era of political incompetence, mismanagement and lethargy that put paid to the progress made. Even today, no long term sponsors for Pakistani football exist.

In the international arena, Pakistan regained gold at the 1991 South Asian Games football under the captainship of Ghulam Sarwar ‘Teddy’ when the side coached by the late Muhammad Aslam Japani won the final against Maldives 2-0. The goals were scored by the late Qazi Ashfaq and Army’s Nauman Khan. However, Asian Cup qualification for 1992 and World Cup qualifications for USA’94 would be a bitter experience. Iran and India quickly disposed of our boys 0-7 and 0-2 for Asian Cup qualifying in July 1992, while Iraq, China, Yemen, and Jordan eased past us for World Cup qualification in May-June 1993. Subsequent qualification campaigns for France ’98 and Korea-Japan 2002 would also end prematurely as the stronger Middle Eastern and East Asian teams would have their way.

The year1993 was the first time the SAFF Championship was held in Pakistan, although the team disappointed the home crowds with an unsatisfactory performance finishing in 4th place. The SAFF Championship was then called the SAARC Football Gold Cup. The subsequent SAFF Championships of 1995, 1997, and 1999 would present a similar story although Pakistan did finish 3rd in 1997 while India dominated the competition with 3 wins out of 4 with a Sri Lanka triumph in 1995.

Qazi Ashfaq was one the best players of this generation as he possessed skill, speed, leadership and passion for the game throughout his playing career however his untimely death in November 13, 2001 robbed this country of a great player and aspiring coach.

Nauman Khan, now a serving Lt. Colonel, retired from the game a few years ago and is current manager of the Pakistan Army football team.

The 1990s also saw the emergence of the indomitable defender Haroon Yousaf. The Mandi Bahauddin native would become a multiple national champion for WAPDA and ABL as well as captain of Pakistan national team in late 1990s until his retirement. Haroon played 51 full internationals for Pakistan and scored 3 goals between 1992 and 2003. Yousaf still plays today as the captain of PMC Athletico Faisalabad in Pakistan Premier League where he recently inspired the team from the brink of relegation by beating intimidating hosts Afghan FC Chaman 1-0 in final game of the 2010 season.

Other great players from late 1980s to late 1990s were Sharafat Ali, Qazi Ashfaq, Zafar Iqbal, Mukhtar Ahmed, Tariq Hussain, Haroon Yousaf, Ghulam Sarwar, Matin Akhtar, Imtiaz Butt, Noshad Baloch, Saleem Patni, Abdul Wahid Jr., Captain Noman, Syed Nasir Ali, Abdul Rasheed, Ejaz Ahmed, Naeem Gul, Zulfiqar Dogar, Bashir Ahmed and Khalid Butt

The Story of Wohaib FC and domestic football in Pakistan

Hafiz Salman Butt was also the founder and chairman of Wohaib FC (Hafiz Wohaib Butt Memorial Football Club). It was established in 1982 in memory of Butt’s slain brother and football lover Hafiz Wohaib Butt. By the early 1990s, Wohaib FC had developed itself in to the premier club in Lahore. It would provide aspiring footballers the chance to represent at national level and attract full-time jobs at various departments later on like Wapda, Railways, Army, PIA, ABL and HBL.

Wohaib FC put on stellar performances at the 1992-93 Asian Club Championship where they beat clubs from Bahrain and Bangladesh to qualify for Group B. After being trounced 10-1 by Dubai club Al-Wasl in the opening fixture, they came back and drew 1-1 with Iranian side, and eventual Asian champions that year, PAS Tehran FC in their final group game. For their efforts, Wohaib FC was ranked 5th place in Asian Club Championship that year. A feat that has never been repeated by a Pakistani team since!

According to former Wohaib FC star and current Model Town Football Club & Academy head coach Khaled Khan,, one reason of Wohaib’s staggering show that year was the fact that it was essentially the Pakistan national team in disguise! Before AFC had begun putting more strict rules and regulations for player registrations, it was not uncommon to see many club sides across Asia ‘borrowing’ players from other teams for registration to compete at Asian club competitions like their own national teams. Wohaib FC had borrowed players like Zafar Iqbal ‘Mama’ (PIA), goalkeeper Mateen Akhtar (WAPDA), and Nauman Khan (Army) who combined with Wohaib’s best talent to take part in the 1992-93 Asian Club Championship.

Hafiz Salman’s sacking from PFF also affected Wohaib FC as departments took away their best talent and the ones that stayed behind were not given the chances they deserved for selection in national team for many years.

This was an era when departments would continue to dominate the domestic competitions but most of them failed to give any noteworthy performances in Asian competitions. Some refused to even show up because of extra costs.

PIA was fast losing ground as the 1990s drew to an end, winning their last of 9 national championships in 1997. Wapda, Army, and (before their disbanding in early 2000s) ABL took over as the dominant sides in Pakistan. The physically dominant game of Punjab teams, had over-taken the flair of Karachi football by then. But that did not do much for the national sides as they still had a lot to do internationally.

2000s: The New Millennium and Pakistani football

The turn of the century saw Pakistan remain stuck in South Asian mediocrity as politics in the PFF as well as provincial FAs, rivalries between various officials (current and former), limited government budgets, and poor administration held game back. Football survived in the country based purely on annual grants received from FIFA and AFC for development projects for developing nations.

Nearly a million US dollars annually would be pocketed by each national FA (including PFF) from there on to improve football infrastructure in each country. These grants helped built the PFF Football House as part of the FIFA GOAL Project on Ferozepur Road, Lahore in mid-2000s. Further GOAL Projects in other cities like Karachi, Peshawar, Quetta are in the pipeline but no further step has been taken by PFF in their implementation for years!

The national team got the appointment of Englishman Daved Burns and then John Layton as head coaches between 2000 till 2002 thanks to AFC support. Slovak coach Joseph Herel was also part of AFC support programs as he took charge from 2002 till 2003. These coaches helped bring a level of stability in the side as well as discovering new talent across Pakistan through various trials and training camps held nationwide at youth levels. The likes of future Pakistan captains Muhammad Essa and Jaffar Khan emerged onto the scenes because of these programs as a new look Pakistan tried to make a mark in international competitions. Muhammad Essa would eventually inspire the now defunct PTCL team to win the 2003 PFF President’s Cup.

In fact it was during the tenure of John Layton that the Pakistan team embarked on an ambitious tour of England in late March 2001 in preparation for the upcoming 2002 World Cup qualifiers with the help of UK-based Pakistani business communities. The tour saw Pakistan play a few friendly matches against English sides where they played friendly games against the then English Second Division side Bury FC (lost 3-0 Indian legend Baichung Bhutia scoring against us once again), and Premiership team Coventry City (2-0), as well as losing to an amateur level London ABSA team. The games were broadcast live in Pakistan on PTV and featured players like Haroon Yousaf, Sarfraz Rasool, Jaffar Khan and Tanveer Ahmed. One assumes that PTV still possesses footage from these games in their archives.

The World Cup qualifiers after these games also resulted in losses to Lebanon, Thailand and Sri Lanka. However, Pakistan did earn a thrilling 3-3 draw with Sri Lanka in the return leg of the World Cup qualifiers thanks to a stunning hat-trick by Gohar Zaman. But the disappointment of another qualification failure was obvious.

The domestic structure was in desperate need of revamping to bringing the best out of the player under capable coaches at all levels- something which Pakistan had been lacking for decades.

The SAFF Cup of January 2003 held in Bangladesh brought a lot of surprises to the game. Under the inspiration of attacking midfielder Sarfraz Rasool of KRL, Pakistan stunned giants India (1-0), Sri Lanka (2-1) and Afghanistan (1-0) as they reached the semi-finals only to fall short against Maldives 1-0 and losing the 3rd/4th place game against India 2-1 as hosts Bangladesh won the final on penalties against Maldives. Sarfraz Rasool top scored with 4 goals in the tournament and was declared Asian Player of the Month for his performance. World Cup and Asian Cup qualification afterwards were still disappointing though as Kyrgyzstan and Singapore cut us out in respective campaigns.

The year 2003 was also the year that finally ended the 13 year rule of Mian Azhar as PFF President. Thanks to the campaigning of the still-banned Hafiz Salman Butt, Faisal Saleh Hayat won the PFF general elections to become President of the PFF. Mian Azhar had gradually fallen out of favour from the pro-Musharraf PML-Q faction over the years while Faisal Saleh Hayat’s own pro-Musharraf PPP faction had been making headways in run-up to the 2003 General Elections where he became Interior Minister of Pakistan later that year as well. Pakistani politics, it seems, will always have a say in everything.

2003 was also the year FootballPakistan.Com (FPDC) was established as a genuine independent non-profit football website striving for the progress, promotion, prosperity, and professionalism of Pakistani football through volunteer efforts.

*Special thanks to the Co-Founder, Webmaster, and Chief Editor of FPDC Malik Riaz Hai Naveed, veteran football journalist Riaz Ahmed, and the Pakistan Football Federation (PFF) for providing the information that helped create this article chronicling the history for Pakistani football.*

The Early History of Football’s Forward Pass

By 1905, college football was all the rage, attracting tens of thousands of fans to games at a time when major-league baseball teams often attracted only 3,000—and pro football was still more than a decade away. But it was also an increasingly violent and deadly passion. There were 18 fatalities nationwide that year, including three college players (the rest were high-school athletes), and President Theodore Roosevelt, whose son was on the freshmen team at Harvard University, made it clear he wanted reforms amid calls by some to abolish the college game. In a commencement address at the school earlier in the year, Roosevelt alluded to the increasingly violent nature of football saying, “Brutality in playing a game should awaken the heartiest and most plainly shown contempt for the player guilty of it.”

So in December representatives of 62 schools met in New York to change the rules and make the game safer. They made a number of changes, including banning the “flying wedge,” a mass formation that often caused serious injury, created the neutral zone between offense and defense and required teams to move 10 yards, not 5, in three downs.

Their biggest change was to make the forward pass legal, beginning the transformation of football into the modern game. But at first, it didn’t seem like a radical move. Established coaches in the elite Eastern schools like Army, Harvard, Pennsylvania and Yale failed to embrace the pass. It was also a gamble. Passes couldn’t be thrown over the line on five yards to either side of the center. An incomplete pass resulted in a 15-yard penalty, and a pass that dropped without being touched meant possession went to the defensive team. “Because of these rules and the fact coaches at that time thought the forward pass was a sissified type of play that wasn’t really football, they were hesitant to adopt this new strategy,” says Kent Stephens, a historian with the College Football Hall of Fame in South Bend, Indiana.

The idea of throwing an overhand spiral was relatively new, credited to two men, Howard R. “Bosey” Reiter of Wesleyan University, who said he learned it in 1903 when he coached the semipro Philadelphia Athletics, and Eddie Cochems, the coach at St. Louis University.

St. Louis quarterback Bradbury Robinson completed the first legal pass on September 5, 1906 when he threw 20 yards to Jack Schneider in a scoreless tie against Carroll College (Robinson’s first attempt fell incomplete, resulting in a turnover). St. Louis went on to win the game 22-0. That completion drew little attention, but a month later a pass from Wesleyan’s Sam Moore to Irwin van Tassel in a game against Yale garnered more attention, including accounts in the press.

But it took another year and the team from Pennsylvania’s Carlisle Indian Industrial School to showcase the potential of the pass. In 1907, Glenn Scobey (Pop) Warner had returned to coach at the boarding school for Native Americans that he’d built into a football powerhouse beginning in 1899, largely through trick plays and deception. Over the years, he drew up end arounds, reverses, flea flickers and even one play that required deceptive jerseys. Warner had elasticized bands sewn into his players’ jerseys so that after taking the kickoff, they would huddle, hide the ball under a jersey and break in different directions, confounding the kicking team. Warner argued there was no prohibition against the play in the rules. The tricks were how the smaller, faster Native Americans could compete against players 30 or 40 pounds heavier.

In 1907, Carlisle Indian Industrial School traveled to Philadelphia to play Pennsylvania. The Indians completed 8 of 16 passes, including one thrown by a player relatively new to the varsity squad named Jim Thorpe, pictured here in 1909. (Corbis) In an era where an incomplete pass resulted in a 15-yard penalty, the Carlisle football squad, pictured here in 1905, showcased the potential of the pass. (Library of Congress) In 1907, Glenn Scobey (Pop) Warner, pictured here in 1917, had returned to coach at the boarding school for Native Americans that he'd built into a football powerhouse beginning in 1899, largely through trick plays and deception. (University of Pittsburgh Digital Archives) Notre Dame's victory over Army in 1913 somehow earned the reputation as the game that pioneered the use of the forward pass and changed football. Irish quarterback Gus Dorais completed 14 of 17 passes, some to an end named Knute Rockne, pictured here in this undated photograph. (Bettmann / Corbis) Sally Jenkins, author of The Real All Americans, a book about Carlisle's football legacy, says the idea that Notre Dame created the modern passing game "is an absolute myth." Newspaper story after newspaper story from the 1907 season details the Carlisle passing game. (Library of Congress)

For the 1907 season, Warner created a new offense dubbed “the Carlisle formation,” an early evolution of the single wing. A player could run, pass or kick without the defense divining intent from the formation. The forward pass was just the kind of “trick” the old stalwarts avoided but Warner loved, and one he soon found his players loved as well. “Once they started practicing it, Warner pretty much couldn’t stop them,” says Sally Jenkins, author of The Real All Americans, a book about Carlisle’s football legacy. “How the Indians did take to it!” Warner remembered, according to Jenkins’ book. “Light on their feet as professional dancers, and every one amazingly skillful with his hands, the redskins pirouetted in and out until the receiver was well down the field, and then they shot the ball like a bullet.”

Carlisle opened the 1907 season with a 40-0 triumph over Lebanon Valley, then ran off five more victories by a total score of 148-11 before traveling to the University of Pennsylvania’s Franklin Field (still used today) to meet undefeated and un-scored upon Pennsylvania before 22,800 fans in Philadelphia.

On the second play of the game, Carlisle’s Pete Hauser, who lined up at fullback, launched a long pass that William Gardner caught on the dead run and carried short of the goal, setting up the game’s first touchdown. The Indians completed 8 of 16 passes, including one thrown by a player relatively new to the varsity squad named Jim Thorpe. The sub-headline to the New York Times account of the game read: “Forward Pass, Perfectly Employed, Used for Ground Gaining More Than Any Other Style of Play.” The story reported that “forward passes, end runs behind compact interference from direct passes, delayed passes and punting were the Indians’ principal offensive tactics.”

According to Jenkins’ book, the New York Herald reported: “The forward pass was child’s play. The Indians tried it on the first down, on the second down, on the third down—any down and in any emergency—and it was seldom that they did not make something with it.”

Carlisle romped 26-6, outgaining Penn 402 yards to 76. Two weeks later, the Indians again used the pass to defeat Harvard, a team they’d never beaten, 23-15. Carlisle lost one game that year, to Princeton 16-0 on the road. The game had changed forever. In the ensuing decades, a Notre Dame victory over Army in 1913 somehow earned the reputation as the game that pioneered the use of the forward pass and changed football. Irish quarterback Gus Dorais completed 14 of 17 passes for 243 yards, some to an end named Knute Rockne, in a shocking 35-13 victory. By then, the rules had been changed to eliminate the penalties for incompletions and throwing the ball over the center of the line.

But Jenkins says the idea that Notre Dame created the modern passing game “is an absolute myth.” Newspaper story after newspaper story from the 1907 season details the Carlisle passing game. Even Rockne, she adds, attempted to correct the record later in life.

“Carlisle wasn’t just throwing one or two passes a game. They were throwing it half their offense,” she adds. “Notre Dame gets credit for popularizing the forward pass, but Pop Warner is the man who really created the passing game as we know it.”

Thorpe, who became an Olympic hero and one of the most celebrated athletes of the century, went on to play for Carlisle through the 1912 season, when Army Cadet Dwight Eisenhower was injured trying to tackle him during a 27-6 Indians victory. After the 1914 season, Warner left Carlisle for Pittsburgh, where he won 33 consecutive games. He went on to Stanford and Temple, finishing his coaching career in 1938 with 319 wins.

In 1918, the U.S. Army reoccupied the barracks at Carlisle as a hospital to treat soldiers wounded in World War I, closing the school. Carlisle ended its short stretch in the football limelight with a 167-88-13 record and a .647 winning percentage, the best for any defunct football program.

“They were the most innovative team that ever lived,” Jenkins says. “Most of Warner’s innovations he got credit for later were created in 1906 and 1907 at Carlisle. He was never so inventive again.”

Notre Dame fan rushes the field before the game is over & Notre Dame loses

Notre Dame alum Dan Murphy recalls the time he rushed the field with his younger brother before the Notre Dame vs. USC "Bush Push" game was over.

34. No. 1 USC 34, at No. 9 Notre Dame 31
Oct. 15, 2005
Trojans quarterback Matt Leinart pushed and spun his way into the end zone -- with help from tailback Reggie Bush and a few more teammates -- to score a 1-yard touchdown with three seconds left. Fans from both sides will never forget the "Bush Push." USC's 28th consecutive win featured three ties and four lead changes, including three in the final 5:09.

35. No. 14 BYU 46, No. 19 SMU 45
Holiday Bowl, Dec. 19, 1980
The Cougars trailed 45-25 with 3:57 left, but they recovered an onside kick and blocked a punt to fuel an improbable comeback. Trailing 45-39 with the ball at the SMU 41 on the final play, BYU quarterback Jim McMahon threw a Hail Mary pass, which somehow ended up in the arms of tight end Clay Brown. Kurt Gunther's extra point won the game.

36. No. 5 Texas 21, No. 1 Alabama 17
Orange Bowl, Jan. 1, 1965
The first Orange Bowl in prime time wasn't decided until Texas linebacker Tommy Nobis stuffed quarterback Joe Namath short of the goal line late in the fourth quarter. The loss spoiled No. 1 Alabama's perfect season. Namath didn't start because of a knee injury, but he came off the bench to throw for 255 yards with two TDs to earn MVP honors.

37. No. 2 Navy 21, Army 15
Municipal Stadium, Philadelphia, Dec. 7, 1963
Officials delayed the game a week following the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. The No. 2 Midshipmen, who were undefeated and led by Heisman Trophy-winning quarterback Roger Staubach, took an early 21-7 lead. But Army scored a touchdown, recovered an onside kick and drove to Navy's 2-yard line. The Midshipmen lined up for a final play when time ran out. It was the debut of TV instant replay.

38. No. 9 Auburn 17, No. 2 Alabama 16
Birmingham, Alabama, Dec. 2, 1972
Fans of both schools remember one of the most famous games in Iron Bowl history by three words: "Punt, Bama, Punt." The Tigers stunned the undefeated, No. 2 Crimson Tide by blocking two punts in the final six minutes to come from behind. Walk-on linebacker Bill Newton blocked both punts, and defensive back David Langner returned both for touchdowns.

39. No. 2 Clemson 35, No. 1 Alabama 31
College Football Playoff National Championship, Tampa, Florida, Jan. 9, 2017
There were three lead changes in the final five minutes of the first CFP championship game rematch. Clemson quarterback Deshaun Watson got the ball last, and his 2-yard TD pass to Hunter Renfrow with one second remaining gave the No. 2 Tigers their first national title in 35 years. No. 1 Alabama was denied its fifth national title in eight seasons.

40. Notre Dame 18, at Ohio State 13
Nov. 2, 1935
It was the first meeting between the Midwestern powerhouses, and both teams were undefeated. The Buckeyes took a 13-0 lead into the fourth quarter at home. The Irish rallied and scored three touchdowns, the final one on backup quarterback Bill Shakespeare's pass to Wayne Millner with 32 seconds to go.

41. Maryland 42, at No. 6 Miami 40
Nov. 10, 1984
The No. 6 Hurricanes had a 31-0 lead at halftime at the Orange Bowl. Maryland coach Bobby Ross started backup quarterback Frank Reich in the second half, and the Terrapins responded with six straight touchdowns to take a 42-34 lead. After the Hurricanes scored with a minute left, the Terrapins stopped a 2-point try to complete the largest comeback in NCAA history at the time.

42. At No. 12 Michigan 24, No. 1 Ohio State 12
Nov. 22, 1969
First-year Wolverines coach Bo Schembechler stunned his mentor, Woody Hayes, to earn a share of a Big Ten title and end OSU's 22-game winning streak. The Wolverines scored all of their points in the first half and intercepted six passes to preserve the win. The stunning upset by the 15-point underdogs was the start of the famous "10-Year War" between the rivals.

43. At Chicago 2, Michigan 0
Nov. 30, 1905
The original "Game of the Century" between the Western Conference rivals was played on Thanksgiving Day. The Maroons scored a safety in the final 10 minutes to end Michigan's 56-game unbeaten streak. The Maroons finished 11-0 under Amos Alonzo Stagg, outscoring their opponents 271-5, and were retroactively named national champions.

Bobby Bowden took down Nebraska in the 1994 Orange Bowl to win his first national championship. AP Photo/Doug Mills, File

44. No. 1 Florida State 18, No. 2 Nebraska 16
Orange Bowl, Jan. 1, 1994
After so many near misses, FSU coach Bobby Bowden finally won his first national championship in his 18th season with the Seminoles. FSU kicker Scott Bentley kicked four field goals, including a 22-yarder with 21 seconds remaining. The Cornhuskers missed a 45-yard field goal -- wide left -- as time expired.

45. Alabama 20, Washington 19
Rose Bowl, Jan. 1, 1926
The Crimson Tide were the first Southern team invited to play in the Rose Bowl, and they rallied from a 12-0 deficit by scoring three touchdowns in the third quarter to stun the heavily favored Huskies. Alabama, led by coach Wallace Wade, finished 10-0, and its Rose Bowl victory put Southern college football on the map.

46. At No. 2 Notre Dame 31, No. 1 Florida State 24
Nov. 13, 1993
The battle of unbeaten teams and No. 1 vs. No. 2 was the first time College GameDay took its show to campus. The No. 2 Irish led 24-7 in the third quarter, but the Seminoles rallied behind quarterback Charlie Ward. Notre Dame's Shawn Wooden knocked down Ward's pass in the end zone on the final play.

47. No. 1 Alabama 35, No. 4 Georgia 28
SEC Championship Game, Atlanta, Dec. 1, 2018
With Alabama trailing in the second half of the SEC championship game, backup quarterback Jalen Hurts came off the bench to throw for one touchdown and run for another. The Crimson Tide didn't take their first lead -- after the Bulldogs' failed fake punt --until Hurts scored on a 15-yard run with 1:04 left.

48. No. 2 Miami 17, at No. 1 Florida State 16
Nov. 16, 1991
It was the first in what would be a handful of haunting FSU losses to the Hurricanes. Seminoles kicker Gerry Thomas missed a 34-yard field goal wide right with 29 seconds remaining to give the Hurricanes a road victory. The game is still known as "Wide Right I." The Hurricanes went on to win a share of their fourth national championship.

49. No. 6 Texas 38, No. 13 Michigan 37
Rose Bowl, Jan. 1, 2005
Texas coach Mack Brown publicly lobbied for his team to play in the Rose Bowl, and the Longhorns proved they belonged by winning on Dusty Mangum's 37-yard field goal as time expired in the first meeting between the schools. Texas quarterback Vince Young ran for 192 yards with four touchdowns and passed for 180 with one score.

50. No. 1 Florida State 34, No. 2 Auburn 31
BCS National Championship, Pasadena, California, Jan. 6, 2014
Heisman Trophy-winning quarterback Jameis Winston rallied the Seminoles back from an 18-point deficit and threw the winning 2-yard touchdown to Kelvin Benjamin with 13 seconds left in the last BCS National Championship. The Seminoles scored 24 points in the second half, and the teams combined for that many in the last 4:42.

Rock Preston scores to finish off an FSU rally from a 31-3 deficit to tie Florida 31-31 in the "Choke at Doak." Florida State University

51. No. 4 Florida 31, at No. 7 Florida State 31
Nov. 26, 1994
Choke at Doak. The Gators led the Seminoles 31-3 entering the fourth quarter. But FSU QB Danny Kanell, nearly benched, threw for 232 yards and a TD in the fourth to rally the Noles. Bobby Bowden decided to kick the extra point rather than go for 2 after Rock Preston's 4-yard TD run with 1:45 left. "It is a pretty dang good win . I mean tie," was Bowden's postgame Freudian slip.

52. No. 3 Oklahoma 29, at No. 4 Ohio State 28
Sept. 24, 1977
The Sooners rolled to a 20-0 second-quarter lead, but the Buckeyes rallied to go in front 28-20 in the fourth. The first meeting of the traditional powers was nothing short of thrilling. Elvis Peacock's 2-yard TD run made it 28-26 with 1:29 left. OU's 2-point try failed. Enter Uwe von Schamann. His successful onside kick followed by a 41-yard field goal gave OU the win.

53. No. 13 Tennessee 35, at No. 5 Notre Dame 34
Nov. 9, 1991
The Volunteers rallied from 31-7 down in the first half to go up 35-34 with 4:03 left on an Andy Kelly-to-Aaron Hayden TD pass. The Irish marched down the field to get in field goal range. With its starting kicker injured on an earlier FG block for a TD, backup Rob Leonard lined up for a 27-yarder. The Vols' Jeremy Lincoln blocked it with his butt. "I went up to my mom after the game," he said, "and thanked her for giving me such a big behind."

54. No. 2 Alabama 32, No. 3 Georgia 28
SEC championship game, Atlanta, Dec. 1, 2012
AJ McCarron connected with Amari Cooper on a 45-yard TD with 3:15 left to give the Crimson Tide the late edge in a back-and-forth contest that featured five lead changes. The Bulldogs almost made it six. On the Bama 8 with 9 seconds left, WR Chris Conley slipped at the 5 after catching Georgia QB Aaron Murray's deflected pass. Time expired, sending the Tide back to the BCS title game.

55. USC 16, at Notre Dame 14
Nov. 21, 1931
After the Trojans rallied from a 14-0 deficit, Johnny Baker kicked a 33-yard field goal with one minute left to win it. USC snapped the Fighting Irish's 26-game unbeaten streak, and the Trojans claimed their first national championship. Coach Howard Jones took the USC team to visit Knute Rockne's grave after the game.

56. No. 9 Notre Dame 13, No. 2 Alabama 11
Orange Bowl, Jan. 1, 1975
In Ara Parseghian's last game as Notre Dame's coach, the Fighting Irish sprung the upset and cost Bear Bryant and Alabama the national championship. Wayne Bullock and Mark McLane ran for touchdowns to give the Irish a 13-0 lead. Parseghian rode off on his players' shoulders after Reggie Barnett's interception of Tide QB Richard Todd with under two minutes left sealed it.

57. At No. 15 Alabama 33, No. 20 Ole Miss 32
Oct. 4, 1969
The Crimson Tide and the Rebels delivered one of the greatest SEC games in history in a rare-for-the-times prime-time TV game featuring four lead changes in the fourth quarter. George Ranager caught a late 14-yard, fourth-and-goal TD pass from Scott Hunter to lift Alabama to the win. Ole Miss QB Archie Manning had 540 total yards (436 passing, 104 rushing) and five touchdowns (three rushing, two passing) in the loss. The offenses combined to set one NCAA and nine SEC records.

58. At No. 7 Miami 27, No. 1 Florida State 24
Oct. 7, 2000
After trailing 17-0 at the half, the Seminoles rallied, finally taking a 24-20 lead on a 29-yard Chris Weinke TD pass with 1:37 left. The Canes answered with a Ken Dorsey-to-Jeremy Shockey 13-yard touchdown with 46 seconds remaining. FSU moved into field goal range, but Matt Munyon missed a 49-yarder to tie. It was wide right. Of course. "Wide Right III" flashed across the Orange Bowl scoreboard.

59. Michigan State 41, at Northwestern 38
Oct. 21, 2006
Trailing 38-3 in the middle of the third quarter, the Spartans staged the biggest comeback in FBS history. Two interceptions and a blocked punt for a touchdown fueled the 38-point rally. Michigan State tied it on a 9-yard Drew Stanton TD pass with 3:48 left and won it on Brett Swenson's 28-yard field goal with 13 seconds on the clock.

60. No. 3 Georgia 54, No. 2 Oklahoma 48 (2 OT)
College Football Playoff semifinal at Rose Bowl, Jan. 1, 2018
Down 31-14 late in the first half, Georgia rushed its way back into the semifinal thriller. RBs Sony Michel and Nick Chubb combined for 326 rushing yards and five touchdowns. Michel's fourth-quarter fumble was returned for a TD to give OU a 45-38 lead, but a Chubb TD with 55 seconds left sent it to overtime. Michel atoned for the miscue as his 27-yard sprint in the second overtime sent the Bulldogs to the national title game.

61. No. 3 Penn State 15, No. 6 Kansas 14
Orange Bowl, Jan. 1, 1969
Awarded a second chance on a 2-point conversion with 15 seconds left, Penn State's Bob Campbell swept over the left side for the win. Kansas stopped the initial try but was flagged for having 12 men on the field. The Nittany Lions finished second in the final AP poll.

62. No. 2 Alabama 34, No. 1 Miami 13
Sugar Bowl, Jan. 1, 1993
The 8-point-underdog Crimson Tide rolled to the national championship by surprisingly dominating a Hurricanes team that had won 29 straight games. Alabama picked off Miami QB Gino Torretta three times and held the Canes to 48 yards rushing. George Teague's 31-yard interception return for a TD in the third quarter effectively ended it.

63. No. 8 Arkansas 14, at No. 1 Texas 13
Oct. 17, 1964
The Razorbacks snapped the top-ranked and defending national champion Longhorns' 15-game win streak when Texas' 2-point try failed after a Ted Koy touchdown run with 1:27 left. Ken Hatfield's 81-yard punt return gave Arkansas an early lead and Freddie Marshall's 34-yard TD pass to Bobby Crockett in the fourth put the Hogs ahead to stay. Arkansas finished the season with a share of the national title.

64. No. 1 Colorado 10, No. 5 Notre Dame 9
Orange Bowl, Jan. 1, 1991
Colorado claimed a share of the national championship with the win over Notre Dame, but the game is remembered for a touchdown that didn't count. Rocket Ismail took a punt back 91 yards for a score with 43 seconds left to jolt the Fighting Irish into the apparent lead, but a clipping call wiped the play out.

65. Pittsburgh 13, at No. 2 West Virginia 9
Dec. 2, 2007
A win away from playing for the BCS National Championship, No. 2 West Virginia lost the 100th Backyard Brawl to rival Pitt. The four-touchdown-favorite Mountaineers, who committed five turnovers and had only 183 total yards, couldn't recover after QB Pat White was knocked out of the game in the second quarter. "It was just a nightmare," coach Rich Rodriguez said. "The whole thing was a nightmare."

66. No. 3 Texas 13, No. 22 Nebraska 12
Big 12 championship, Dec. 6, 2009
Hunter Lawrence booted a 46-yard field goal on the final play of the game after a review put one second back on the clock. The Huskers celebrated on the field when Colt McCoy's pass sailed out of bounds and the clock ran to to all zeros on the previous play. Nebraska DT Ndamukong Suh dominated the Longhorns, registering 4.5 sacks. Texas advanced to the BCS title game with the win, where the Horns lost to Alabama.

67. Navy 14, No. 2 Army 2
Municipal Stadium, Philadelphia, Dec. 2, 1950
Navy (2-6) stunned Army (8-0), ending the Black Knights' 28-game unbeaten streak. The Midshipmen limited No. 2 Army to five first downs and only 137 total yards in front of President Harry S. Truman and 101,000 others in attendance. The Mids also picked off five passes from Army QB Bob Blaik.

68. No. 7 Georgia Tech 7, No. 11 Pittsburgh 0
Sugar Bowl, Jan. 2, 1956
The first integrated Sugar Bowl was controversial before and during the game. Georgia Gov. Marvin Griffin threatened not to allow the Yellow Jackets to play in the game because Pitt's roster included Bobby Grier, who was black. The Yellow Jackets and Grier did make it to New Orleans for the game, but a very questionable pass interference call against Grier led to the only points of the game.

69. No. 1 Nebraska 45, at Missouri 38
Nov. 8, 1997
Nebraska WR Matt Davison miraculously caught the "Flea Kicker" TD pass from QB Scott Frost that was deflected off teammate Shevin Wiggins' foot with no time left on the clock to send the top-ranked Cornhuskers to overtime. Frost's option keeper gave Nebraska the lead in OT, and the Cornhuskers' defense sacked Missouri QB Corby Jones to end it.

70. No. 16 Alabama 17, No. 5 USC 10
Sept. 10, 1971
The Crimson Tide surprised USC by breaking out the wishbone offense. Alabama scored 17 points on its first three possessions. The Tide defense thwarted three Trojans drives inside the Bama 25-yard line in the second half to preserve the win.

71. No. 7 Kentucky 13, No. 1 Oklahoma 7
Sugar Bowl, Jan. 1, 1951
Kentucky coach Bear Bryant used three defensive tackles and nine men in the box to slow down the Sooners and end their 31-game winning streak. Wilbur Jamerson caught and rushed for a touchdown in the first half, and five Oklahoma turnovers helped the Wildcats hang on for the upset win.

Michael Crabtree rescued Texas Tech with a touchdown catch with one second remaining in a 2008 victory over No. 1 Texas. Collegiate Images via Getty Images

72. At No. 7 Texas Tech 39, No. 1 Texas 33
Nov. 2, 2008
No. 1 Texas rallied from 16 down in the third quarter to take a 33-32 lead on Vondrell McGee's TD run with 1:29 left. But that just set the stage for a thrilling finish. Michael Crabtree caught a 28-yard toss from Graham Harrell, shook off a defender and raced into the end zone for the winning touchdown with only one second on the clock.

73. No. 5 USC 18, No. 3 Ohio State 17
Rose Bowl, Jan. 1, 1975
In their third straight Rose Bowl meeting, USC came from behind to beat USC. Pat Haden tossed a 38-yard TD pass to J.K. McKay with 2:03 left. Haden connected with Shelton Diggs, who made a diving catch on the 2-point conversion, to win it. The Trojans would claim a share of the national championship.

74. At Columbia 21, No. 6 Army 20
Oct. 25, 1947
Gene Rossides passed for 239 yards and rallied the Lions from 20-7 down in the fourth quarter to end Army's 32-game unbeaten streak. As the game ended, reports say the Columbia fans waved white handkerchiefs at the Army side of the field, where many Cadets had tears streaming down their faces.

75. No. 16 Texas 15, No. 2 Oklahoma 14
Oct. 11, 1958
Behind a 13-play, 74-yard touchdown drive late in the fourth quarter, Texas ended a six-game losing streak to the Sooners and handed OU its only loss of the season. QB Bobby Lackey threw the winning score for the Horns. The win over the Sooners was the first of eight straight that Texas would win in the series under coach Darrell Royal.

76. No. 17 Boston College 41, at No. 1 Notre Dame 39
Nov. 20, 1993
The Fighting Irish came back from 21 points down in the fourth quarter to go ahead by one but left time for the Eagles to come back. Quarterback Glenn Foley moved the ball to the Notre Dame 24, and kicker David Gordon nailed a 41-yard field goal at the gun. The team that the Irish beat the week before, Florida State, went on to win the national championship.

77. No. 1 USC 42, No. 2 Wisconsin 37
Rose Bowl, Jan. 1, 1963
The Trojans rolled to a 42-14 lead in the fourth quarter, then nightfall and the Badgers started coming on. Wisconsin quarterback Ron Vander Kelen, who averaged 131 passing yards per game, threw for 401 yards. The teams broke 11 Rose Bowl records.

78. No. 3 Army 21, Navy 21
Municipal Stadium, Philadelphia, Nov. 27, 1948
The Midshipmen came in 0-8, the Black Knights 8-0 and 21-point favorites. But the playing field leveled when Army's Thanksgiving meal included a course of food poisoning. Forty-two players became ill. They recovered to play, but a crowd of 102,500, including President Truman, Chief Justice Vinson and most of the Cabinet, saw a taut game that Navy tied with a touchdown with 4:42 left.

79. No. 6 Florida 24, No. 3 Alabama 23
SEC championship game, Atlanta, Dec. 3, 1994
Alabama senior quarterback Jay Barker, 35-2-1 as a starter, fell short in trying to lead the Crimson Tide to its eighth comeback victory of the season. When the Tide scored on a pick-six to go ahead 22-17 with 5:29 to play, head coach Gene Stallings chose to kick the extra point instead of go for two. Danny Wuerffel drove the Gators down for the win, scoring on a 2-yard pass to Chris Doering.

80. SMU 20, at TCU 14
Nov. 30, 1935
They came in undefeated and played for the Southwest Conference championship and a Rose Bowl bid. In the fourth quarter with the score 14-14, on fourth down from the TCU 39, the Mustangs' Bob Finley went back to punt but instead threw a touchdown pass to Bobby Wilson. The $85,000 SMU received from the Rose Bowl paid the mortgage on the Mustangs' campus stadium.

Football: Eriksen's former cardiologist says he had no history of heart concerns

Denmark midfielder Christian Eriksen, who was hospitalised after collapsing during his side's Euro 2020 opener against Finland on Saturday (Jun 12), had no prior heart issues during his time with Premier League club Tottenham Hotspur, his former cardiologist said.

Eriksen, 29, collapsed in the 42nd minute of the match while running near the left touchline after a Denmark throw-in and was given life-saving cardiac massage treatment on the pitch, with officials later saying that the player was stable and awake.

READ: Football: Denmark's Christian Eriksen 'awake' in hospital after collapse in Euro 2020 game

Dr Sanjay Sharma of St. George's University of London said Eriksen had returned normal tests since 2013, but the sight of the Inter Milan playmaker falling to the ground had briefly raised concerns that doctors had missed something.

"I thought, 'Oh my God? Is there something there that we didn't see?' But I have looked at all the test results and everything looked perfect," Sharma told The Mail on Sunday.

"From the day we signed him, it was my job to screen him and we tested him every year. So certainly his tests up to 2019 were completely normal, with no obvious underlying cardiac fault. I can vouch for that because I did the tests."

Former Bolton Wanderers midfielder Fabrice Muamba said that Eriksen's collapse brought back painful memories of his cardiac arrest on the pitch in an FA Cup match in 2012. The ex-England under-21 midfielder had to retire soon after at the age of 24.

"It brought back stuff that I have put down in me, this emotion that's down there. To watch it from that distance and not know what was going to happen," Muamba told the BBC.

"It was scary, but credit to the medical staff. They have done an amazing job on Christian. I like how his team mates got together to protect him.

"I hope things turn out to be OK for him. I hope he will come through."

Watch the video: How The Victorian Railway Advanced Britain. How Victorians Built Britain. Absolute History


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  3. Caw

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  4. Fenrilkree

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  5. Theodore

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