Day Twleve - Second Hundred May8, 2009 - History

Day Twleve - Second Hundred May8, 2009 - History

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The President began his day with his daily security briefing. That was followed by a an economic briefing and a meeting with the President's senior advisors.

The President then met with stake-holders in the health industry. The purpose of the meeting was to develop a strategy to save money in health care The group was able to outline plans to save $2 trillion. After the meeting the President delivered remarks on health care. Remarks

The President then received the University of North Carolina's men's basketball team

According to popular belief, 12-12-12 is a lucky date that will bring good fortune. Many engaged couples plan to hold their weddings on December 12, 2012, while some expectant parents hope to deliver their baby on that date.

For people attaching special significance to numbers, the highlight of this auspicious day will occur at twelve minutes and twelve seconds past noon. At that moment, the numerical pattern will consist of no less than six repetitions: 12-12-12 12:12:12

Historical Events on May 19

    George van Saksen-Meissen sells Friesland for 100,000 gold guilders to arch duke Charles Philip van Bourgondie installed as bishop of Utrecht Public unveiling of Titian's masterpiece "Assumption of the Virgin" a painted altarpiece in the Basilica di Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari, Venice

Execution of Anne Boleyn

1536 Anne Boleyn, second wife of English King Henry VIII, is beheaded at the Tower of London on charges of adultery, incest and treason

Event of Interest

    Miguel Lopez de Lagazpi founds Manilla in the Philippines Spain confiscates English ships Matthias von Habsburgs army reaches Lieben, at Prague France's First Minister, Cardinal Richelieu declares war on Spain (Franco-Spanish War 1635–59) Battle at Rocroi/Allersheim: French army destroys Spanish army Massachusetts Bay, Plymouth, Connecticut and New Harbor form the United Colonies of New England England is declared a Commonwealth by an act of the Rump Parliament making England a republic for the next 11 years

New Settlement

1749 George II grants charter to Ohio Company to settle Ohio Valley

    About midday, near-total darkness descends on New England, now known to be caused by forest fires in Canada Russian army enters Poland Netherlands captures French island of St Maarten (held until 1795) Game protection law restricts encroachment on Indian hunting grounds French Order of Legion d'Honneur forms

Event of Interest

1828 U.S. President John Quincy Adams signs the Tariff of 1828/Tariff of Abominations into law to protect industry in the North

    Senator Charles Sumner of Massachesetts speaks out against slavery Americans William Francis Channing and Moses G Farmer patent the electric fire alarm Siege of Vicksburg, investment of city complete Battle of Port Walthall Junction, Virginia (Bermuda Hundred) Last engagement in series of battles known as Spotsylvania Skirmish at Cassville, Georgia Blanche Kelso Bruce appointed register of treasury by President Garfield William F. “Buffalo Bill” Cody opened Buffalo Bill's Wild West show in Omaha, Nebraska Ringling Brothers circus premieres 1st mass production of shoes (Jan Matzeliger in Lynn, Massachusetts)

Event of Interest

1885 German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck takes possession of Cameroon and Togoland

    Camille Saint-Saëns' 3rd Symphony in C premieres at St. James Hall, London, with the composer conducting Rice Institute, which became Rice University in Houston, Texas, is chartered Charles Brady King invents pneumatic hammer National Society of Colonial Dames of America founded Heavy rain washes "quick clay" into a deep valley killing 111 in Norway

Event of Interest

1896 1st auto (Karl Benz) arrives in Netherlands

Event of Interest

1897 Oscar Wilde is released from Reading Gaol

    US Congress passes the Private Mailing Card Act, allowing private publishers and printers to produce postcards, had to be labelled "Private Mailing Cards" until 1901, known as "souvenir cards" World's longest railroad tunnel (Simplon) linking Italy and Switzerland opens Great Britain and Boers resume peace talks in Pretoria Tom Jenkins beats Frank Gotcha for heavyweight wrestling champ Federated Boys' Club (Boys' Club of America) organizes Portugal's King Carlos I names Joao Franco premier

Boxing Title Fight

1909 In his first title defence Jack Johnson fights "Philadelphia" Jack O'Brien to a no decision in 6 rounds in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania to retain his world heavyweight crown

Music Premiere

1911 Maurice Ravel's opera "L'Heure Espagnole" premieres at the Opéra-Comique, Paris, France

Event of Interest

1912 AL President Ban Johnson tells Tigers if they continue protest of Ty Cobb's suspension, they will be banned from baseball

    Webb Alien Land-Holding Bill passes, forbidding Japanese from owning land Wash 1st Sunday game, Senators beat Cleveland 1-0 in 18 innings Kelud volcano on Java, erupts killing 5,160

Event of Interest

1919 Mustafa Kemal Atatürk lands at Samsun on the Black Sea coast, beginning the Turkish War of Independence

    Congress sharply curbs immigration, setting a national quota system 49th Kentucky Derby: Earl Sande wins aboard Zev for his first Derby success KPD (communist revolts) in German Ruhr cities occupied by Allies French air force bombs Damascus Syria 54th Kentucky Derby: Chick Lang aboard Reigh Count wins in 2:10.4 "Firedamp" explodes in Mather coal mine, Pennsylvania, killing 195 of 273 miners 51 frogs enter 1st annual "Frog Jumping Jubilee" (Angel's Camp, California) Cloudburst causes stampede in Yankee Stadium, crushes 2 people to death

Declaration of War

1929 Chinese warlord Feng Yuxiang declares war on Chiang Kai-shek's nationalist government

    White women win voting rights in South Africa Cruiser Deutschland launched in Kiel Military coup by Colonel Damian Veltsjev in Bulgaria Sherlock Holmes crossword puzzle in "Sat Review of Lit" Males who solved puzzle became members of Baker Street Irregulars NFL adopts an annual college draft to begin in 1936


1935 English Cardinal John Fisher and statesman Thomas More, executed by Henry VIII, canonized as saints by Pope Pius XI

    John Murray and Allen Boretz's "Room Service" premieres in NYC Amsterdam time becomes MET (Middle European Time)

Event of Interest

1940 French counter attack at Pronne under General Charles de Gaulle

Event of Interest

1944 240 gypsies transported to Auschwitz from Westerbork, Netherlands

    German defense line in Italy collapses Start of the 1st Victory Test Cricket between England & Aust Services Dutch Cooperation for Sexual Reform (NVSH) forms in Amsterdam NY Times reports of worlds smallest & dumbest mechanical brain

Event of Interest

1951 76th Preakness: Eddie Arcaro aboard Bold wins in 1:56.4

    Nuclear explosion in Nevada (fall-out in St George, Utah) Postmaster General Summerfield approves CIA mail-opening project Atkinson & Depeiaza make 347 stand for 7th wkt WI v Australia 81st Preakness: Bill Hartack aboard Fabius wins in 1:58.4 Pirate Dale Long hits 9th-inning HR, 1st HR in 8 straight games Adone Zoli forms Italian government

Theater Premiere

1958 Premiere of Harold Pinter's play "Birthday Party" in London

    "South Pacific" soundtrack album goes #1 & stays #1 for 31 weeks Jan de Quay becomes premier of Netherlands The USS Triton, the first submarine with two nuclear reactors, is completed

Event of Interest

1962 Stan Musial breaks Honus Wagner's NL hit record with 3,431

    US performs nuclear test at Christmas Island (atmospheric) US diplomats find at least 40 secret microphones in Moscow embassy Patricia R. Harris named 1st US black female ambassador (Luxembourg) West Ham United of England win 5th European Cup Winner's Cup against 1860 München of West Germany 2-0 in London USSR ratifies treaty with Britain & US banning nuclear weapons in space 20th Emmy Awards: "Get Smart", "Mission Impossible" & Barbara Bain win Frank Howard fails to homer, after hitting 10 in 6 consecutive games Pirate Radio Brumble of Northern England 1st heard USSR launches Mars 2, 1st spacecraft to crash land on Mars US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site

Emmy Awards

1975 27th Emmy Awards: "The Mary Tyler Moore Show", Robert Blake & Jean Marsh win

    Farm truck packed with wedding party struck by a train, killing 66 in truck, 40 miles south of Poona, India Gold ownership legalized in Australia Senate establishes permanent Select Committee on Intelligence USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR

Film Premier

1977 Film "Smokey & the Bandit" starring Burt Reynolds, Sally Field and Jackie Gleason premieres in NYC

    "In The Navy" by Village People hits #3 104th Preakness: Ron Franklin aboard Spectacular Bid wins in 1:54.2 "Blackstone" opens at Majestic Theater NYC for 104 performances

Event of Interest

1980 Ringo & Barbara Bach are involved in a car crash

    Pirate Jim Bibby gives up a leadoff single to Brave Terry Harper, then retires next 27 batters 5 British Army soldiers are killed when their armoured vehicle is ripped apart by a Provisional Irish Republican Army roadside bomb near Bessbrook, County Armagh

Event of Interest

1982 Sophia Loren jailed in Naples, Italy for tax evasion

Event of Interest

1983 Weird Al Yankovic gives live performance at Wax Museum in Washington, D.C.

    36th Cannes Film Festival: "Narayama Bushiko" directed by Shohei Imamura wins the Palme d'Or "King Of Suede" by Weird Al Yankovic hits #62

Event of Interest

1984 109th Preakness: Puerto Rican jockey Ángel Cordero Jr., aboard Gate Dancer wins his second Pimlico classic

Event of Interest

1984 Stanley Cup Final, Northlands Coliseum, Edmonton, AL: Wayne Gretzky scores twice as Edmonton Oilers beat NY Islanders, 5-2 for a 4-1 series win Oilers first SC title

Event of Interest

1984 Pat LaFontaine scores 2 goals within 22 sec in an NHL playoff game

    Anti-apartheid activist Hélène Pastoors sentenced to 10 yrs in South Africa 39th Cannes Film Festival: "The Mission" directed by Roland Joffe wins the Palme d'Or

Event of Interest

    40th Cannes Film Festival: "Sous le soleil de Satan" directed by Maurice Pialat wins the Palme d'Or Red Sox retire Bobby Doerr's #1 Carlos Lehder Rivas, of Colombia's Medellin drug cartel, is convicted in Florida for smuggling more than 3 tons of cocaine into US Dow Jones Avg passes 2,500 mark for 1st time, closes at 2,501.1 Sue Ellen's (Linda Gray) last appearance on TV show "Dallas"

Film Premier

1989 "Do the Right Thing", directed by Spike Lee, starring Danny Aiello and Ossie Davis premieres at the Cannes Film Festival

Event of Interest

1990 115th Preakness: Pat Day aboard Summer Squall wins in 1:53.6

Event of Interest

1990 "Elvis" TV Drama about early life of Elvis Presley last airs on ABC

Album Release

1992 "Some Gave All" debut album by Billy Ray Cyrus is released (Billboard Album of the Year 1993)

    Boeing 727 crashes into mountain at Medellin Colombia, kills 132 Dow Jones closes above 3,500 for 1st time (3,500.03) Final Episode of TV drama "LA Law" after 8 year run Egyptian actor Omar Sharif suffers a mild heart attack Tennis star Jennifer Capriati (18), checks into a drug rehab center

Event of Interest

1995 Emmy 22nd Daytime Award presentation - Susan Lucci loses for 15th time

    World's youngest doctor, Balamurali Ambati, 17, graduates Mount Sinai STS 77 (Endeavour 11), launches into orbit

Film Premier

1997 "The Lost World: Jurassic Park", directed by Steven Spielberg and starring Jeff Goldblum and Julianne Moore, premieres in the US

Film Release

1999 "Star Wars: Episode I - The Phantom Menace", directed by George Lucas, starring Ewan McGregor, Natalie Portman and Liam Neeson, is released in cinemas

    Lazio of Italy win 39th European Cup Winner's Cup against Mallorca of Spain 2-1 in Birmingham Andrew Motion is appointed British Poet Laureate for 10 years, the first to request a definite term 126th Preakness: Gary Stevens aboard Point Given wins in 1:55.40 Manchester United lose 3-1 to Tottenham at White Hart Lane but win English Premier League title for the 3rd consecutive season

Film Premier

2007 "Sicko" a documentary on the US health care system, directed by Michael Moore has its premiere at the Cannes Film festival.

Film Premier

2007 "Pirates of the Caribbean: At World's End", directed by Gore Verbinksi, starring Johnny Depp, Keira Knightley and Orlando Bloom premieres in Anaheim - most expensive film ($300 million) made at the time

    Coen brothers film "No Country for Old Men", based on the Cormac McCarthy novel, starring Tommy Lee Jones, Javier Bardem and Josh Brolin premieres at the Cannes Film Festival (Best Picture 2008) NHL Eastern Conference Final: Ottawa Senators beat Buffalo Sabres, 4 games to 1 In an all South African final the Bulls (Pretoria) edge the home team Sharks, 20-19 in Durban for their first Super 14 Rugby title Bulls flyhalf Derick Hougaard boots 2 penalties & 2 conversions English FA Cup Final, Wembley Stadium, London (89,826): Chelsea beats Manchester United, 1 – 0 (a.e.t.) Didier Drogba scores 116' winner for Blues' 4th title NHL Western Conference Final: Detroit Red Wings beat Dallas Stars, 4 games to 2 Sri Lanka announces victory in its 25-year war against the terrorist organisation, Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam

Event of Interest

2011 Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer, project to search for dark matter, led by Samuel C. C. Ting, installed on the International Space Station

    137th Preakness: Mario Gutierrez aboard Ill Have Another wins in 1:55.94 UEFA Champions League Final, Munich: Chelsea beats Bayern Munich, 4-3 on penalties after a 1–1 draw at the end of extra time Blues' first title Sweden defeats Switzerland to win the 2013 World Ice Hockey Championship

Music Awards

2013 21st Billboard Music Awards: Taylor Swift, Red win

    Decorated Dutch coach Louis van Gaal confirmed as manager of Manchester United Ryan Giggs named assistant, confirms retirement as a player at age 40 after 963 games and English record 22 major trophies

Event of Interest

2015 Historic first handshake between Prince Charles and Sinn Féin leader Gerry Adams at the National University of Ireland in Galway

    UK inflation is recorded as a negative for the first time since 1960 EgyptAir flight MS804 goes missing over the Mediterranean on route Paris to Cairo

Event of Interest

2018 American actress Meghan Markle marries Prince Harry at a ceremony in Windsor Castle, making her a member of the British royal family

Event of Interest

2018 Queen Elizabeth II grants the titles of Duke and Duchess of Sussex to Prince Harry and Meghan Markle upon their marriage

Biden’s One Hundred Days of Hubris

President Joe Biden / Getty Images Matthew Continetti • April 28, 2021 11:06 pm

President Biden's address to a joint session of Congress underscored this administration's left turn. The speech was a laundry list of progressive priorities in domestic, foreign, and social policy with a price tag, when you add in the American Rescue Plan, of some $6 trillion. Biden's delivery, heavy with improvisation, only slightly enlivened a prosaic and unoriginal text. Biden repeated lines from both Bill "the power of our example" Clinton and Barack "the arc of the moral universe" Obama. But it wasn't just the words themselves that made me think of Biden's most recent Democratic predecessors. The scope of his plans, increasing government's role in just about every aspect of American life, also brought to mind the Democrats who tried to govern as liberals after campaigning as moderates.

I’m old enough to recall the last president who vanquished Reaganism. Obama spoke of "fundamentally transforming the United States of America," and came to Washington in 2009 with the aim of changing the trajectory of the country just as Ronald Reagan had done three decades earlier. Shortly before his one hundredth day in office, he delivered a speech at Georgetown University where he promised to lay a "new foundation" for the country. His friends in the media hailed him as the second coming of Franklin Delano Roosevelt. "Barack Obama is bringing back the era of big government," historian Matthew Dallek and journalist Samuel Loewenberg announced in the New York Daily News.

We know how that turned out. The GOP captured the House in 2010. By the time Obama left office, Republicans had full control of Washington and were dominant in the states. Reaganism survived. And now, 12 years later, the cycle is repeating. This time it’s President Biden who is likened to FDR. It’s Biden who is said to have interred the idea of limited government. It’s Biden who is marking his first 100 days in office with plans to spend trillions on infrastructure, green energy, health care, and elder and child care. The political setbacks of the Obama years didn’t temper Biden’s ambitions. They intensified his desire to leverage narrow congressional majorities into sweeping expansions of the welfare state.

Why does Biden think he can avoid Obama’s fate? Like a good lawyer, he has a theory of the case. It goes like this: Neither Bill Clinton nor Barack Obama spent enough money to ensure a strong economic recovery. They didn't emphasize jobs above all else. Their caution was responsible for Democratic losses in the midterm elections. And all it takes is GOP control of one chamber of Congress to spoil a liberal revival. By opening the floodgates of federal spending, Biden hopes to deepen and extend the post-coronavirus economic boom. Growth and full employment will prevent a Republican takeover. And a second Progressive Era will begin.

The problem with this theory is its selective misreading of history. It wasn’t just the economy that sank the Democrats in 1994 and 2010. It was independent voters who turned against presidents who campaigned as moderates but governed as liberals. Nor did rising unemployment stop Republicans from picking up seats in 2002. And an economic boom didn’t save the House GOP in 2018. In every case, assessments of the president—among independent voters in particular—mattered more than dollars and cents. By committing himself to the idea that massive spending will safeguard the Democratic Congress, Biden may be inadvertently guaranteeing the partisan overreach that has doomed past majorities.

Biden doesn’t give enough credit to the record of his Democratic predecessors. The unemployment rate was 7.3 percent in January 1993 when Bill Clinton was inaugurated. By November 1994, it had fallen to 5.6 percent. Meanwhile, the economy grew by 4 percent in the third quarter of 1994. Nevertheless, the Republicans won control of the House for the first time in 40 years and the Senate for the first time in 8 years. Why? Because Republicans won independents 56 percent to 44 percent. Voters who had backed Ross Perot in 1992 swung to the GOP. Voters’ top priority in the exit poll wasn’t jobs. It was crime . And the failure of Clinton’s unpopular health plan didn’t help.

The 2010 midterm had similar results. The economy, while nothing to brag about, was nonetheless improving. Unemployment had been falling since October 2009 . Growth, though anemic, had also returned . Republicans gained 63 seats in the House and 6 in the Senate because independents rejected President Obama’s governance. They backed Republicans 56 percent to 37 percent—an 8-point swing against a president they had supported in 2008. Why? Part of the reason was the economy. But the Affordable Care Act was also significant. Health care was voters’ second priority in the exit poll. A 48 percent plurality called for Obamacare’s repeal.

Biden’s theory also omits the contrary examples of recent Republican presidents. In November 2002 the unemployment rate was higher , and growth lower , than in November 2000. But the GOP had a good year anyway thanks to President Bush’s high post-9/11 approval ratings and a tough but effective campaign on national security.

The 2018 midterm is further proof that campaign results are not a direct function of economic performance. Democrats won control of the House despite full employment and sustained growth. Independents, who had narrowly backed President Trump in 2016, turned against him and voted for Democratic candidates by a 12-point margin . No mystery why: A 38-percent plurality of voters said they were voting to oppose Trump, whose strong disapproval rating was at an incredible 46 percent in the exit poll. Health care ranked as the top issue, with voters recoiling at the prospect of an Obamacare replacement that failed to cover preexisting conditions.

Not only do the data show that the economy is less important to the midterms than many assume, they are also a reminder that the first hundred days do not define a presidency. The fate of a president and his party depends more on his ability to maintain popularity and on his performance during unanticipated crises. While Biden’s approval ratings continue to be positive and his disapproval low, there are some warning signs: His approval among independents ranges between the mid- to high-50s, and a majority of voters disapproves of his handling of migration along the southern border. Focused on his grand plans for the economy, Biden might dismiss voter concerns over immigration, crime, and inflation until it is too late.

Sure, Biden might avoid making Barack Obama’s mistakes. But he has plenty of time to make mistakes of his own.

The Nashville Plan

Anticipating Judge Miller's almost certain approval of a grade-a-year desegregation plan to begin in September 1957, Superintendent Bass was by then convinced that the time for change was at hand. The Supreme Court had twice ruled unanimously against segregation, yet three years of local argumentation had yielded nothing if the Nashville school board sought any further delay, Bass reasoned, they would have both the plaintiffs and the courts to answer to. On the other hand, pushing ahead on desegregation was bound to stir the wrath of many white parents, and perhaps draw militant outside forces to the city.

The parents of six-year-old Sinclair Lee, Jr., lead their son to Glenn Elementary , Nashville, TN, September 1957. © Nashville Public Library.​​

Three years earlier, it had been moderate citizens of both races who seemed to be at the forefront of desegregation discussions, and the talk was mostly about when and how court orders should be honored. But over the months and years, the debate subtly shifted. People in the middle were being pulled to one side or the other, where the most extreme choices inevitably came down to just two: complete integration now, or total segregation forever. The former had no vocal constituency the latter was being pushed hard by the now-familiar phalanx of radical white supremacists, all energized by a feeling of certitude that time was on their side.

William Bass was uncomfortable with such all-or-nothing polarity. His way was consensus—bringing people together, building mutual respect, and giving opponents room to work out their differences in a spirit of fairness and equity. Bass was looking ahead to his retirement at the end of 1957. His successor, already chosen, was to be Assistant Superintendent W. H. Oliver, who also served as principal of East High School. Through the fall and spring of the 1956-57 school year, the two men patiently guided the school board toward approval of a process by which desegregation would begin in the first grade in 1957 and extend to all twelve grades by 1968. Certain white elementary schools would be told to admit any black first graders who lived within their zones. (Nothing was said about how rezoning would affect the black schools to which those children would have gone, or about whites moving into black schools, or about other biracial elementary school zones not made a part of the desegregation plan.)

To further soften the impact of these gradual changes, a liberal transfer policy would be introduced, allowing students whose race was in the minority in their newly assigned schools to opt for a majority-status alternative—that is, choose to remain in segregation. (This provision was later disallowed by the federal courts.)

With the only black member of the board, attorney Coyness Ennix, casting the lone dissenting vote, this plan was approved and presented to Judge Miller in the spring of 1957. The NAACP attorneys called it "completely inadequate," noting among other things that it would deny any relief to Robert Kelley and the named plaintiffs, because all were in higher grades. Judge Miller, while expressing reservations of his own, reluctantly ordered the plan to be implemented in September 1957, with more specific adjustments to be made later. The plaintiffs appealed, but no delay was permitted. (Two years later, the US Supreme Court would give its tacit consent to the Nashville "stair-step" plan by then, it had become a model of sorts for some other southern school systems seeking a minimal approach to desegregation that would satisfy the court's "all deliberate speed" standard.)

Lajuanda Street and a new classmate at Glenn Elementary , Nashville, TN, September 1957. © Nashville Public Library.​​

Until late in July, there seemed to be a general expectation around the city that Nashville's schools—and the community at large—would eventually accept the judgment of the federal courts and quietly lower the barrier of segregation. To be sure, a great many white residents still objected to such a change, and enough of them had expressed their displeasure in public to leave the impression that they spoke for a majority. Those who favored desegregation, white and black alike, were less vocal, making their numbers appear smaller. There were no opinion polls to measure public sentiment—but the courts had spoken, and the political and educational leadership had quietly accepted that judgment. With the opening of schools just six weeks off, change seemed inevitable. As September approached, the school board and administration under Bass and Oliver seemed prepared for this first small step toward racial equity. They heard encouraging words from Governor Clement and Mayor West, who never wavered in their commitment to the rule of law. The all-white and segregation-minded Tennessee legislature passed several bills aimed at blocking desegregation, but most were either vetoed by Clement or declared unconstitutional by the courts. For all their vocal railing against any change in the racial status quo, the state lawmakers could find no effective means of stalling court-ordered desegregation, and neither the Nashville city council nor the Tennessee delegation in Congress actively attempted to prevent Nashville or any other school system in the state from going ahead with its plans.

Nashville was almost 180 years old in 1957 (its founding had coincided with that of the American nation), and it wore its age with a certain patrician pride. Early in its frontier history, an admiring local citizen had dubbed it "the Athens of the West" (later remapped to the South by the Civil War and other changes of geography and perspective). Its leaders liked that image it called to mind a place of reasonable and civic-minded people, of moderately progressive conservatives. In the war of rebellion, Nashville had spread its sympathies in both directions, sending hundreds of its own residents, white and black, to fight and die for the Union Blue as well as the Confederate Gray. It was not a place of extremes, but of the center. Had they been left to their own devices, some Nashvillians apparently believed, they could have worked out their racial problems amicably and equitably.

Such an opportunity for compromise and reconciliation never blossomed in the Nashville of that war-wracked era, and in the postwar Reconstruction era and beyond, the dream of full citizenship for former slaves soon turned to dust. Slavery was gone, but so was the promise of economic and political freedom every southern state passed laws mandating racial segregation in a "separate but equal" society that assured Caucasians of perpetual advantage in every station of life—in political parties, civic agencies, hotels, theaters, trolleys and trains, from hospital rooms to schoolrooms to the workplace and even the graveyard.

But decades later, in the fall of 1957, a new opportunity was at hand. The elusive ideal of racial equality, often glimpsed but rarely grasped in the United States, was once again coming into focus for Nashvillians—and this time, it was going to be reflected in the quietly serious faces of a few brown-skinned six-year-olds. Powerful forces were rallying to one side or the other, for the children or against them. A fundamental principle of American democracy, as interpreted by the nation's highest court, was about to be applied, and Nashville would be an early testing ground—one of the first of the South's cities to put into motion a comprehensive plan for the desegregation of its public schools, and the only one to that date with a strategy of building from the bottom up, one grade at a time.

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Absher, Roger 78 21
Adkins, Ben 23
Aikey, Jeff 101915
Anderson, John 17
Andrews, Todd 16
Archer, Leon 2157
Arp, Skip 20 22
Asbury, Brian 24 23
Aukland, Rick 1916201921 223419
Ault, Doug 11
Babb, Shannon 961993 282610 289321012 15
Babcock, Jeff 2220
Balough, Gary 10
Balzano, Mike 15 2314
Bare, Booper 824 12
Barnett, Steve 8 8 11
Baumgarden, Erv 18
Beckman, Bill 9 8
Bennett, Joe 6
Birkhofer, Brian 158 14358267226 123 25
Bland, Jordan 19
Blankenship, John 21115 112 12
Bloomquist, Scott 14121212352220 21229 57288272313 2446
Boggs, Butch 13
Boggs, Jack 18 3 71573198 13 16313
Boggs, Jackie 12 2327 29
Boggs, Randy 241513 22
Boland, Mike 24
Bolander, Don 5
Boley, Steve 21
Bowersock, Jerry 18 16 1331
Branscum, George3
Brightbill, Kenny 1225
Briley, James 19
Bronson, Kyle 291313
Brown, Chris 22
Buckingham, Shanon 16 1910
Burks, David 13
Cardin, Tony 202217
Carnes, Bobby 14 16103
Carrier, Eddie 21 1215
Carrier, Eddie Jr. 17 16 28103111
Casebolt, Steve Jr. 17 18 28
Casey, Terry 26
Chamberlain, Dean 24
Chamberlain, Duane 16
Chase, Dave 8
Childers, Billy 19
Chilton, Michael 10 17
Chinn, Wayne 4 20
Chupp, Randle 12 1915
Clanton, Billy 24
Clanton, Shane 1111 1 8 30272687281217
Claycomb, Kevin 11 14 1518
Combs, Rodney20 14 13122366231910715916 3
Conley, Delmas 12 10 24 22 127 7 17 21
Conley, R.J. 11177 14 13 211621 22
Conley, Rod 11 22
Cook, Ray 8 16 1223232418
Coyan, Paul 19
Creveston, Bobby7
Crockett, Paul 722
Crup, Dick 21
Culp, Timothy 29
Curry, Jim 1120 24 12 185 23
Dake, Darrell 14
Davenport, Jonathan 8141181241
Day, Tommy 6
Dean, Danny 9 219 14
DeBolt, Dick 105 21
DeFour, Snooks 2 9
DeLong, Rick 19
Dickey, Dan 22
Dillon, Austin 139
Doering, John 12
Dohm, Zack 15726
Dolen, Roger 17
Dolen, Ron 14 15
Drable, Red 11
Drake, Billy 1282012
Dunaway, Bryan 8 24
Dunlevy, Dick 20
Dunn, Jim 21
Duvall, Mike 21166185 18 912 19 16
Eaker, Verlin 1 133 123
Earl, Robert 16
Eckert, Rick 13 68416 20 6112013179 26 7
Edwards, Ron 137
Eichler, Danny 4 22 16
England, Micheal 14
English, Terry 11 20 10 12 17
Erb, Dennis Jr. 14 10 13 101814 1520217 19
Erb, Tyler 325
Evans, Skip 16
Faith, Ronnie 7
Fedewa, Gary 16
Feger, Jason 1718 521418 27
Felker, Denny 10
Ferguson, Chris 23 29 20
Fitzgerald, C.S. Jr. 17
Fleming, Jim 7
Floyd, Jeff 18
Francis, Steve 1918151110204 24 219415513 2521424 6 513
Frank, Chub 24 221314 15 24
Franklin, Rodney 214 1417
Frye, Bill 182393 166
Fuller, Tim 25
Gattis, Curtis 14
Genzman, Andy 13
Gibson, David 6 19
Gilbert, Floyd 114204617
Gill, John 1120 1522 1515183 1010 88 22
Gilpin, Devin 6
Godsey, Ray 14 242323 21
Goff, Don 18
Gould, Bruce134
Green, Marshall 15
Green, Troy 6
Greenslate, Joe5
Gregory, Don 206
Grossnickle, Robert 6
Gundaker, Kevin 2 17
Hahn, Bill 10
Hale, Chick1059 11 20
Hall, Richard 21
Hartman, Bart 211223 124
Hawkins, Jacob 25
Head, Mike 14
Hearst, Tom 1315
Heckenast, Frank Jr. 19 151615 23
Hekkema, Ron 16
Helfrich, Tommy 2233 81721 24 141023 2
Heminger, Wally 10 23
Henry, Jon 22 20
Herbert, Daryl 22
Hewitt, Jack 23 82012 1319
Hill, Vic 2228 17
Hill, Bob 5
Hitt, Tim 151517 20 6
Hobbs, Don 135 4 8 24
Hoffman, Dave 22
Hoffman, Don 7 19
Hoffman, Nick 20
Horn, Fred 4
Hotovy, J.R. 1228
Hounshell, Ed 16
Hubbard, Austin 19
Hughes, Charles 1
Hughes, Jason 18
Hurtubise, Jim 1519
Hutcherson, Ron 11
Inmon, Jerry 217 65184
Irvan, Ernie 12
Izzo, Joe 12
Izzo, Tony Jr. 22
Jackson, Bill 12
James, Bubby 18 18 16
James, Scott 23 20 11 20 21
Jewell, Mike 23 12 10
Johnson, Davey 16 18 2 23 3 22
Johnson, Greg 10207 13 18
Johnson, Jay 20 239
Johnson, Johnny 8 14 16
Johnson, Ronnie 642446 95
Junghans, Chase 1128
Kelley, Curtis 21
Kenimer, Doug 102120 5
Keppler, Steve 9
Kinzer, Brandon 11
Knowles, Wade 9 11
Korte, Randy 22 13 281025
Kosiski, Steve 17
Kraft, Willie 612 1321 22
Kramer, Joey 18
Lamp, Frank 10
Landers, Jared 4 17 9274
Lanigan, Darrell 17105 106141962 61124 133271474421619225 26
Latham, Ralph14
Lawhorn, John 7 10 20 18 24 7
Lay, Jesse 20
LeFevers, Vern 15 10 15 9
Linville, Dustin 30 30
Long, Roger 15 1017
Loomis, Ted 22
Madden, Chris 1611 232361413117126 5
Malcuit, Brad 21
Maloney, Chuck 10
Manville, Tim 25
Marhefka, Bob 22
Marko, Dave 6 13
Marlar, Mike 19 9 18 10 1710 32727
Marolf, Nick 18
Mars, Jimmy 1811 21 52315 2627 111520239262523
Mason, John 99212042 97121514204
McBride, J. J. 4
McCreadie, Tim 712 5222224 28 141219
McCool, Bub 15292911
McDowell, Dale 12 19 2132217 833182326263488
McLaren, Baldy 10
McWilliams, Audie 3 22
McWilliams, Chuck11 7 2417 19 138
Meadows, Joe 4
Merryfield, Joe 1
Messenger, Terry 24 22
Miller, Darren 1772 12
Miller, Jerry 8
Miller, Matt 14 713 6 209214927 5 27
Miller, Roger 6
Moore, Larry8 18 1212211721 13 3 2
Moran, Devin 23171616
Moran, Donnie 115 46131011661 214117 182 19915
Morris, Buddy 9
Morton, Bill 11
Moyer, Billy 6722211191125131713 232124 21 12122 1326 820
Moyer, Billy Jr 19 4
Mugavin, John 17 8 18
Neat, Brad 162124171214 3
Neat, Dustin 15
Nece, Ray 13
Negangard, Shawn 24
Norman, Kike 11
Norris, Mike 24 29
O'Neal, Hudson 18 11
O'Neal, Don 523989142 20114327 3093018
Osman, John 22
Overton, Brandon 19 115
Owens, Jimmy 15262412551 24328 1422
Pace, Eddie 11
Page, Michael 8
Parker, Pete 13 5
Patrick, Jim 219 2123
Patrick, Pat92 17 1122413118182512 23
Patterson, Kris 1687 21 24
Paxton, Justin 15
Pearson, Earl Jr. 98 1 97626 7 135139
Petro, Gene 143 7
Petro, Russ 17 12 6 19 514
Phillips, Dick 20 16
Phillips, Larry 21
Phillips, Terry 98 7 144 10 26 6927
Pierce, Bob 3 661118 141615 2012524 4
Pierce, Bobby 42521221424
Pohlman, Bob 17
Poole, Carl19
Potts, Dick 20 17
Provezano, John 13
Purvis, Jeff 211218223
Rayburn, C. J. 11 87 18
Reaume, Andrew 16
Reddick, Tyler 2425
Regeth, Roger 82318 18
Rice, Jerry 8 23 14
Richards, Josh 25419 61019 5 1126718
Rickman, Eddie 16
Rients, Tom 14 24 8
Roberts, Casey 12 25
Robinson, Kent 30 296 101910
Rogers, Buddy 13
Ruhlman, Brian 15 13
Russell, Steve 10
Ruttman, Joe2
Sanger, Ed 1612541922 13
Satterlee, Gregg 1725 148 2
Sceva, Neal 316
Schleiper, Dan 3 11651410 22 28 28
Schlitz, Dick 7
Scott, Aaron 1827
Scott, Larry 14
Scott, Johnny 21
Scott, Stormy 4
Seaborn, Don 2 183
Senneker, Bob 2220
Shaver, Steve 5 151027 27
Shaw, Gary 23
Shaw, Mike 15
Shepherd, Rick 14 14
Sheppard, Brandon 16715 102114
Shirley, Brian 6 28 1118 17 2930
Simmons, Buck 113 419 17 20 7
Simpson, Chad 17 7
Simpson, Chris 12 146930
Simpson, Kenny 520 19
Smalley, Junior 8 24
Smith, Bo 12
Smith, Brady 15 1316
Smith, Clint 9 1946
Smith, Earl154 20
Smith, Freddy 920417322492242223472322 21 19
Smith, Roscoe 14
Smith, Steve 20
Sommers, Art16
Spatola, Mike III 12
Speer, David 1610163151422
Standridge, Rick 23
Steinhaus, Gibby 9
Stricker, Joe6
Strube, Jim 12
Stuhler, Gary 943 13 17 11
Swartz, Charlie 4111317 15211917520 18 224
Tarter, Josh 18
Taylor, Dick 19
Taylor, Jeff 24
Taylor, Payton 17
Teegarden, Billy17 2 18695 1216
Terry, Dan 19
Thomas, Billy 8 24 19
Thornton, Ricky Jr. 15
Unzicker, Ryan 21
VanWormer, Jeep 16 353 2182530 21 23
Vaught, Will 20
Vineyard, H.E. 915 7 107
Virden, Johnny 16
Wallace, Wendell 21 23 21 11 718 8 24 19
Walton, Ken 51 22
Watercutter, Wayne13
Watson, Finn 15
Watterman, Skip 23
Wearing, Bob12 16
Weaver, Kevin 17 511108213 10 16
Weaver, Randy 25
Weeden, Ron 19
Weiss, Ricky 3
Wells, Eric 20
Williams, Greg 24
Williams, Johnny 13 17
Witcher, Noel Jr. 231111
Woodard, Al 24
Woodling, Randy 12
Wooldridge, Paul4
Woolworth, Dale 15
Wyatt, Jay18
Yeager, Timmy 13
Yearsley, John 14 24
Yobe, Dave 5
Yoder, Shane 12 19 16 14
Zeigler, Mason 22 23 2816
Zwanziger, Bill 1612 13
* The table below shows the total number of top five finishes in the 49 year history of the World 100.
# of Top 5'sDriverBest FinishYears with a Top Five Finish
19Scott BloomquistWIN2018, 2015, 2014, 2013, 2012, 2010, 2007, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1990, 1989, 1988
9Billy MoyerWIN2010, 2001, 2000, 1998, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1991
8Donnie MoranWIN2001, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1992, 1989, 1985, 1983
8Jimmy OwensWIN2019, 2018, 2014, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007
7Steve FrancisWIN2015, 2007, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1992
7Dale McDowellWIN2017, 2016, 2014, 2010, 2009, 2005, 2003
7Freddy Smith2nd1994, 1993, 1991, 1989, 1987, 1985, 1983
7Darrell Lanigan2nd2017, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2007, 1999, 1992
6Jeff PurvisWIN1988, 1986, 1985, 1984, 1983, 1982
6Larry MooreWIN1992, 1990, 1986, 1985, 1981, 1979
6Brian BirkhoferWIN2012, 2009, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002
5Charlie SwartzWIN1996, 1989, 1982, 1980, 1979
4Ed SangerWIN1977, 1976, 1975, 1974
4Jack BoggsWIN1997, 1995, 1988, 1983
4Dan SchlieperWIN2004, 2003, 2002, 1998
4Pat Patrick2nd1984, 1983, 1978, 1972
4Don O'Neal2nd2011, 2010, 2004, 2008
3Bruce GouldWIN1973, 1972, 1971
3Verlin EakerWIN1978, 1975, 1972
3Doug KenimerWIN1981, 1977, 1976
3Mike DuvallWIN1986, 1982, 1981
3Bobby PierceWIN2016, 2015, 2013
3Jonathan DavenportWIN2019, 2017, 2015
3Jerry Inmon2nd1984, 1982, 1978
3Tommy Helfrich2nd1990, 1977, 1976
3John Mason2nd1997, 1987, 1986
3Bob Pierce3rd2002, 1999, 1984
3Jeep VanWormer3rd2008, 2007, 2006
3Ronnie Johnson4th1997, 1993, 1991
2Floyd GilbertWIN1976, 1973
2Ken WaltonWIN1978, 1977
2Randy BoggsWIN1988, 1987
2Chub FrankWIN2005, 2004
2John BlankenshipWIN2013, 2011
2Earl Pearson Jr.WIN2016, 2006
2Billy Teegarden2nd1978, 1973
2Don Seaborn2nd1981, 1974
2Buck Simmons2nd1981, 1979
2Kenny Brightbill2nd1985, 1984
2Gary Stuhler2nd1989, 1988
2Kevin Weaver2nd1998, 1994
2Davey Johnson2nd2000, 1994
2Shannon Babb2nd2006, 2002
2Rick Aukland3rd2000, 1999
2Don Hobbs4th1982, 1979
2Josh Richards4th2013, 2006
2Jason Feger4th2014, 2012
2Matt Miller4th2014, 2008
2Jared Landers4th2015, 2009
2Tim McCreadieWIN2018, 2008
1Joe MerryfieldWIN1975
1Charles HughesWIN1976
1Shane ClantonWIN2008
1Bart HartmanWIN2009
1Dennis Erb JrWIN2016
1Joe Ruttman2nd1971
1Snooks DeFour2nd1977
1Leon Archer2nd1979
1Kevin Gundaker2nd1980
1Rodney Franklin2nd1986
1Darren Miller2nd2005
1Eddie Carrier Jr.2nd2011
1Gregg Satterlee2nd2017
1George Branscum3rd1971
1Gene Petro3rd1973
1Neal Sceva3rd1974
1David Speer3rd1980
1Bobby Carnes3rd1987
1Audie McWilliams3rd1991
1Rodney Combs3rd1992
1John Gill3rd1995
1Bill Frye3rd1996
1Brad Neat3rd2012
1Mike Marlar3rd2017
1Tyler Erb3rd2018
1Ricky Weiss3rd2019
1Paul Woodridge4th1971
1Earl Smith4th1972
1J.J. McBride4th1974
1Danny Eichler4th1975
1Fred Horn4th1980
1Joe Meadows4th1990
1Rick Eckert4th1999
1Terry Phillips4th2001
1Clint Smith4th2005
1Wayne Chinn4th2007
1Billy Moyer Jr4th2016
1Stormy Scott4th2019
1Joe Greenslate5th1971
1Chick Hale5th1972
1Dick DeBolt5th1973
1Don Bolander5th1974
1Dave Yobe5th1975
1Kenny Simpson5th1980
1Russ Petro5th1987
1Bob Hill5th1990
1Jim Curry5th1991
1Pete Parker5th1993
1Steve Shaver5th2003
1Jimmy Mars5th2004
1Brandon Overton5th2018
1Chris Madden5th2019

Click any driver name in the table below to view a victory lane photo from that year!

World 100 Champions by State:
Ohio 11 * Tennessee 9 * Arkansas 6 * Iowa 6 * Georgia 6 * Kentucky 3
Florida, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Illinois, New York 1

Important Events From This day in History December 2nd

Celebrating Birthday's Today
Monica Seles
Born: 2nd December 1973 Novi Sad, Yugoslavia
Known For : Former World No. 1 Ladies professional tennis player in 1991 and 1992 winning nine grand slam titles. Wimbledon Ladies Champion 1992, French Ladies Open Champion 1990, 1991 and 1992, US Ladies Open Champion 1991 and 1992, Australian Ladies Open Champion 1991, 1992, 1993 and 1996. She was forced to have a break after a German spectator stabbed her in the back with a knife during a match at Hamburg, Germany. She did make a come back in 1996 when she won The Australian Open for a forth time but could never match her earlier record of the worlds number 1.

Britney Spears
Born: 2nd December 1981 McComb, Mississippi, United States
Known For : American entertainer and singer who started her career as a member of The New Mickey Mouse Club and featured on the show from 1993 to 1994. In 1998 she released her first single "Baby One More Time" which reached number 1 on the Billboard Hot 100 singles chart in January 1999. She continued in the music industry for some time releasing the Oops. I Did It Again album in 2000 which once again shot to the top of charts. She continued to have success with her music with the In the Zone album topping the charts in 2003, and followed with other albums that were hugely popular. From 2006 her life appears to have become complicated and controversy followed her life including a period in a drug rehabilitation center and her controversial divorce and child custody battle with Kevin Federline.

Day Twleve - Second Hundred May8, 2009 - History

Virgin Music Festival 2009 Day 1

Stay in the loop

The Virgin Music Festival 2009 edition kicked off yesterday at the Molson Amphitheatre. Although the major concern over this year's festival has been the move to the downtown Toronto venue, it actually worked out 'ok'. Strange sound mixing issues continued to plague the performers, and there was a definite absence of a 'festival' vibe this year. but low attendance has thus far made this one of the easiest and most accessible Vfests I've been to so far!

Whether that will remain true for today's show, offering a more stacked line up headlined by NIN's last Canadian performance, remains to be seen.

One way to handle the poor ticket sales to the planned Orillia venue was to move the entire Virgin Festival to the smaller and centralized Molson Amphitheater venue. This filled my head with visions of nightmare bottle necks and crowds blocking any hope of moving around between the three stages. However, the Festival seems to have avoided traffic flow problems by having dismal attendance.

The venue must have been at MOST half full yesterday, with the biggest crowds packing in for The Pixies and leaving Ben Harper looking somewhat lonely in a theater full of empty seats and lawn gaps. The side stages were equally easy to get to, although I was seriously worried about the traffic flow when I first saw the park layout.

This quick shot of the map gives a rough idea of how the Amphitheater was laid out, followed by a shot of one of many potential bottlenecks strewn about the festival grounds. The second largest 'Virgin Radio' stage was placed near the Ontario Place kids water park (although sectioned off) and the third 'Boardwalk Stage' (aka Red Virgin Tent) is back behind the lawn area of the mainstage.

The boardwalk stage is actually really cool - all tucked in to a tiny pedestrian walkway, creating a club-like atmosphere that was really kind of unique to the Vfest offerings. I caught Iglu & Hartly - pop electro rapping beach rockers from LA, and the ever popular Rural Alberta Advantage both on this tiny stage. The crowds loved being up close, on the same level with the bands playing under a flimsy tent with no real stage to speak of. But this suited these artists perfectly, and in some ways this stage was more exciting that the other dominating festival acts.

The only main stage bands worth mentioning for me were Franz Ferdinand, who put on a solid energetic performance, and The Pixies, who seemed to get better with each song of their long set. They of course obliged the crowd with favourites like Bone Machine, Here Comes Your Man, and Where is My Mind? - really a much better set than I was expecting from this seasoned rock reformation.

Speaking to some other festival goers, I'm told both Paolo Nutini and Sloan were good too, although questions about the sound levels plagued almost every review I got. There were a lot of questions about the quality of sound at the Amphitheater main stage after they announced the new venue, and I have mixed feelings.

Ben Harper definitely did not sound 'right' and although the instrumentals were ok, the vocals seemed to have some sort of odd feedback. This may be a matter of where you're sitting as well, as I was off in the reserved media seats in section 301 however given that the entire theater is designed to provide quality sound, it's frustrating to have such inconsistent quality. I'm seriously hoping that Nine Inch Nails sounds better tonight than on their recent tour with Jane's Addiction at the same venue.

Finally, the hilight of the day for me was definitely hanging with the boys from Down with Webster. Not only did they inject the party at the Virgin Radio stage with some much needed energy, but they put on a fantastic set debuting some of the tunes like 'Back of My Hand' off their new album, due out October 6th. I had a chance to sit down with some of the band members to chat, and later caught up with them in the Bacardi Deck Lounge to talk about this year's Vfest:

So what has the band been up to, leading up to today's Vfest show?

Well some of us went to school for music and communications, and we've played hundreds and hundreds of shows. we haven't really taken a break!

You have a reputation for going non-stop. how long do you expect to keep it up for?

Haha, forever! We have played a lot, over a hundred shows this year all over North America. We joined Warped Tour, and have had a lot of help getting our name out there.

It's probably good to be playing back at home in Toronto, but Warped Tour vs. Vfest. any major differences?

The parking lots! Haha. Well on Warped Tour for the first two weeks, we didn't realize we had catering. So we were eating macaroni Michelinas. but here they have catering! I guess it was our first real tour so. but we just didn't know. The whole thing about Warped Tour is that even the big bands that are there, they get treated the same way as everyone else.

And Vfest then. what's it like to play here?

A lot of the bands at Vfest, it's a bit of a closer fit for us. Warped Tour was not bands we were really familiar with at all. if you look at Vfest, it's a lot of pop acts. Plus this is such a cool opportunity to play in front of hundreds of people who don't know who you are, just to see their reaction.

You're on today right before Pitbull and after Thunderheist. is this a fit for you guys?

We're so used to not having any fit, it's like nothing really fits with us so - whatever! It's good though. so far people have responded to it, from hip hop to rock to emo crowds. everyone seems to dig it. The stage here is kind of tucked away though. we'll have to leave breadcrumbs so people can find us.

That's the trick! Well at least you're not niching yourself too much.

It's kind of fun to be able to play for people where you're not sure what the reaction will be.

Anyone on the Festival bill you're looking forward to?

We're definitely staying for Ben Harper, and heard their bass player is really good. N.E.R.D., they're awesome. and love MuteMath, there's so much energy in that band, especially the drummer it's great!

Down with Webster is getting ready to tour in support of their North American album release on October 6th. The new single, Back of My Hand, is on iTunes right now and totally rocked live! The guys will also be in town at The Phoenix on October 8th - worth checking out!

Overall, Virgin Music Festival '09 has been much calmer than I imagined, with few crowds to speak of but also a lack of excitement and energy. I'm expecting more fun, but more logistical frustration, from Day 2. Still, well worth it to see NIN headline!

Forty years of the internet: how the world changed for ever

T owards the end of the summer of 1969 – a few weeks after the moon landings, a few days after Woodstock, and a month before the first broadcast of Monty Python's Flying Circus – a large grey metal box was delivered to the office of Leonard Kleinrock, a professor at the University of California in Los Angeles. It was the same size and shape as a household refrigerator, and outwardly, at least, it had about as much charm. But Kleinrock was thrilled: a photograph from the time shows him standing beside it, in requisite late-60s brown tie and brown trousers, beaming like a proud father.

Had he tried to explain his excitement to anyone but his closest colleagues, they probably wouldn't have understood. The few outsiders who knew of the box's existence couldn't even get its name right: it was an IMP, or "interface message processor", but the year before, when a Boston company had won the contract to build it, its local senator, Ted Kennedy, sent a telegram praising its ecumenical spirit in creating the first "interfaith message processor". Needless to say, though, the box that arrived outside Kleinrock's office wasn't a machine capable of fostering understanding among the great religions of the world. It was much more important than that.

It's impossible to say for certain when the internet began, mainly because nobody can agree on what, precisely, the internet is. (This is only partly a philosophical question: it is also a matter of egos, since several of the people who made key contributions are anxious to claim the credit.) But 29 October 1969 – 40 years ago next week – has a strong claim for being, as Kleinrock puts it today, "the day the infant internet uttered its first words". At 10.30pm, as Kleinrock's fellow professors and students crowded around, a computer was connected to the IMP, which made contact with a second IMP, attached to a second computer, several hundred miles away at the Stanford Research Institute, and an undergraduate named Charley Kline tapped out a message. Samuel Morse, sending the first telegraph message 125 years previously, chose the portentous phrase: "What hath God wrought?" But Kline's task was to log in remotely from LA to the Stanford machine, and there was no opportunity for portentousness: his instructions were to type the command LOGIN.

To say that the rest is history is the emptiest of cliches – but trying to express the magnitude of what began that day, and what has happened in the decades since, is an undertaking that quickly exposes the limits of language. It's interesting to compare how much has changed in computing and the internet since 1969 with, say, how much has changed in world politics. Consider even the briefest summary of how much has happened on the global stage since 1969: the Vietnam war ended the cold war escalated then declined the Berlin Wall fell communism collapsed Islamic fundamentalism surged. And yet nothing has quite the power to make people in their 30s, 40s or 50s feel very old indeed as reflecting upon the growth of the internet and the world wide web. Twelve years after Charley Kline's first message on the Arpanet, as it was then known, there were still only 213 computers on the network but 14 years after that, 16 million people were online, and email was beginning to change the world the first really usable web browser wasn't launched until 1993, but by 1995 we had Amazon, by 1998 Google, and by 2001, Wikipedia, at which point there were 513 million people online. Today the figure is more like 1.7 billion.

Unless you are 15 years old or younger, you have lived through the dotcom bubble and bust, the birth of Friends Reunited and Craigslist and eBay and Facebook and Twitter, blogging, the browser wars, Google Earth, filesharing controversies, the transformation of the record industry, political campaigning, activism and campaigning, the media, publishing, consumer banking, the pornography industry, travel agencies, dating and retail and unless you're a specialist, you've probably only been following the most attention-grabbing developments. Here's one of countless statistics that are liable to induce feelings akin to vertigo: on New Year's Day 1994 – only yesterday, in other words – there were an estimated 623 websites. In total. On the whole internet. "This isn't a matter of ego or crowing," says Steve Crocker, who was present that day at UCLA in 1969, "but there has not been, in the entire history of mankind, anything that has changed so dramatically as computer communications, in terms of the rate of change."

Looking back now, Kleinrock and Crocker are both struck by how, as young computer scientists, they were simultaneously aware that they were involved in something momentous and, at the same time, merely addressing a fairly mundane technical problem. On the one hand, they were there because of the Russian Sputnik satellite launch, in 1957, which panicked the American defence establishment, prompting Eisenhower to channel millions of dollars into scientific research, and establishing Arpa, the Advanced Research Projects Agency, to try to win the arms technology race. The idea was "that we would not get surprised again," said Robert Taylor, the Arpa scientist who secured the money for the Arpanet, persuading the agency's head to give him a million dollars that had been earmarked for ballistic missile research. With another pioneer of the early internet, JCR Licklider, Taylor co-wrote the paper, "The Computer As A Communication Device", which hinted at what was to come. "In a few years, men will be able to communicate more effectively through a machine than face to face," they declared. "That is rather a startling thing to say, but it is our conclusion."

On the other hand, the breakthrough accomplished that night in 1969 was a decidedly down-to-earth one. The Arpanet was not, in itself, intended as some kind of secret weapon to put the Soviets in their place: it was simply a way to enable researchers to access computers remotely, because computers were still vast and expensive, and the scientists needed a way to share resources. (The notion that the network was designed so that it would survive a nuclear attack is an urban myth, though some of those involved sometimes used that argument to obtain funding.) The technical problem solved by the IMPs wasn't very exciting, either. It was already possible to link computers by telephone lines, but it was glacially slow, and every computer in the network had to be connected, by a dedicated line, to every other computer, which meant you couldn't connect more than a handful of machines without everything becoming monstrously complex and costly. The solution, called "packet switching" – which owed its existence to the work of a British physicist, Donald Davies – involved breaking data down into blocks that could be routed around any part of the network that happened to be free, before getting reassembled at the other end.

"I thought this was important, but I didn't really think it was as challenging as what I thought of as the 'real research'," says Crocker, a genial Californian, now 65, who went on to play a key role in the expansion of the internet. "I was particularly fascinated, in those days, by artificial intelligence, and by trying to understand how people think. I thought that was a much more substantial and respectable research topic than merely connecting up a few machines. That was certainly useful, but it wasn't art."

Still, Kleinrock recalls a tangible sense of excitement that night as Kline sat down at the SDS Sigma 7 computer, connected to the IMP, and at the same time made telephone contact with his opposite number at Stanford. As his colleagues watched, he typed the letter L, to begin the word LOGIN.

"Have you got the L?" he asked, down the phone line. "Got the L," the voice at Stanford responded.

Kline typed an O. "Have you got the O?"

"Got the O," Stanford replied.

Kline typed a G, at which point the system crashed, and the connection was lost. The G didn't make it through, which meant that, quite by accident, the first message ever transmitted across the nascent internet turned out, after all, to be fittingly biblical:

Frenzied visions of a global conscious brain

One of the most intriguing things about the growth of the internet is this: to a select group of technological thinkers, the surprise wasn't how quickly it spread across the world, remaking business, culture and politics – but that it took so long to get off the ground. Even when computers were mainly run on punch-cards and paper tape, there were whispers that it was inevitable that they would one day work collectively, in a network, rather than individually. (Tracing the origins of online culture even further back is some people's idea of an entertaining game: there are those who will tell you that the Talmud, the book of Jewish law, contains a form of hypertext, the linking-and-clicking structure at the heart of the web.) In 1945, the American presidential science adviser, Vannevar Bush, was already imagining the "memex", a device in which "an individual stores all his books, records, and communications", which would be linked to each other by "a mesh of associative trails", like weblinks. Others had frenzied visions of the world's machines turning into a kind of conscious brain. And in 1946, an astonishingly complete vision of the future appeared in the magazine Astounding Science Fiction. In a story entitled A Logic Named Joe, the author Murray Leinster envisioned a world in which every home was equipped with a tabletop box that he called a "logic":

"You got a logic in your house. It looks like a vision receiver used to, only it's got keys instead of dials and you punch the keys for what you wanna get . . . you punch 'Sally Hancock's Phone' an' the screen blinks an' sputters an' you're hooked up with the logic in her house an' if somebody answers you got a vision-phone connection. But besides that, if you punch for the weather forecast [or] who was mistress of the White House durin' Garfield's administration . . . that comes on the screen too. The relays in the tank do it. The tank is a big buildin' full of all the facts in creation . . . hooked in with all the other tanks all over the country . . . The only thing it won't do is tell you exactly what your wife meant when she said, 'Oh, you think so, do you?' in that peculiar kinda voice "

Despite all these predictions, though, the arrival of the internet in the shape we know it today was never a matter of inevitability. It was a crucial idiosyncracy of the Arpanet that its funding came from the American defence establishment – but that the millions ended up on university campuses, with researchers who embraced an anti-establishment ethic, and who in many cases were committedly leftwing one computer scientist took great pleasure in wearing an anti-Vietnam badge to a briefing at the Pentagon. Instead of smothering their research in the utmost secrecy – as you might expect of a cold war project aimed at winning a technological battle against Moscow – they made public every step of their thinking, in documents known as Requests For Comments.

Deliberately or not, they helped encourage a vibrant culture of hobbyists on the fringes of academia – students and rank amateurs who built their own electronic bulletin-board systems and eventually FidoNet, a network to connect them to each other. An argument can be made that these unofficial tinkerings did as much to create the public internet as did the Arpanet. Well into the 90s, by the time the Arpanet had been replaced by NSFNet, a larger government-funded network, it was still the official position that only academic researchers, and those affiliated to them, were supposed to use the network. It was the hobbyists, making unofficial connections into the main system, who first opened the internet up to allcomers.

What made all of this possible, on a technical level, was simultaneously the dullest-sounding and most crucial development since Kleinrock's first message. This was the software known as TCP/IP, which made it possible for networks to connect to other networks, creating a "network of networks", capable of expanding virtually infinitely – which is another way of defining what the internet is. It's for this reason that the inventors of TCP/IP, Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn, are contenders for the title of fathers of the internet, although Kleinrock, understandably, disagrees. "Let me use an analogy," he says. "You would certainly not credit the birth of aviation to the invention of the jet engine. The Wright Brothers launched aviation. Jet engines greatly improved things."

The spread of the internet across the Atlantic, through academia and eventually to the public, is a tale too intricate to recount here, though it bears mentioning that British Telecom and the British government didn't really want the internet at all: along with other European governments, they were in favour of a different networking technology, Open Systems Interconnect. Nevertheless, by July 1992, an Essex-born businessman named Cliff Stanford had opened Demon Internet, Britain's first commercial internet service provider. Officially, the public still wasn't meant to be connecting to the internet. "But it was never a real problem," Stanford says today. "The people trying to enforce that weren't working very hard to make it happen, and the people working to do the opposite were working much harder." The French consulate in London was an early customer, paying Demon £10 a month instead of thousands of pounds to lease a private line to Paris from BT.

After a year or so, Demon had between 2,000 and 3,000 users, but they weren't always clear why they had signed up: it was as if they had sensed the direction of the future, in some inchoate fashion, but hadn't thought things through any further than that. "The question we always got was: 'OK, I'm connected – what do I do now?'" Stanford recalls. "It was one of the most common questions on our support line. We would answer with 'Well, what do you want to do? Do you want to send an email?' 'Well, I don't know anyone with an email address.' People got connected, but they didn't know what was meant to happen next."

Fortunately, a couple of years previously, a British scientist based at Cern, the physics laboratory outside Geneva, had begun to answer that question, and by 1993 his answer was beginning to be known to the general public. What happened next was the web.

The birth of the web

I sent my first email in 1994, not long after arriving at university, from a small, under-ventilated computer room that smelt strongly of sweat. Email had been in existence for decades by then – the @ symbol was introduced in 1971, and the first message, according to the programmer who sent it, Ray Tomlinson, was "something like QWERTYUIOP". (The test messages, Tomlinson has said, "were entirely forgettable, and I have, therefore, forgotten them".) But according to an unscientific poll of friends, family and colleagues, 1994 seems fairly typical: I was neither an early adopter nor a late one. A couple of years later I got my first mobile phone, which came with two batteries: a very large one, for normal use, and an extremely large one, for those occasions on which you might actually want a few hours of power. By the time I arrived at the Guardian, email was in use, but only as an add-on to the internal messaging system, operated via chunky beige terminals with green-on-black screens. It took for ever to find the @ symbol on the keyboard, and I don't remember anything like an inbox, a sent-mail folder, or attachments. I am 34 years old, but sometimes I feel like Methuselah.

I have no recollection of when I first used the world wide web, though it was almost certainly when people still called it the world wide web, or even W3, perhaps in the same breath as the phrase "information superhighway", made popular by Al Gore. (Or "infobahn": did any of us really, ever, call the internet the "infobahn"?) For most of us, though, the web is in effect synonymous with the internet, even if we grasp that in technical terms that's inaccurate: the web is simply a system that sits on top of the internet, making it greatly easier to navigate the information there, and to use it as a medium of sharing and communication. But the distinction rarely seems relevant in everyday life now, which is why its inventor, Tim Berners-Lee, has his own legitimate claim to be the progenitor of the internet as we know it. The first ever website was his own, at CERN:

The idea that a network of computers might enable a specific new way of thinking about information, instead of just allowing people to access the data on each other's terminals, had been around for as long as the idea of the network itself: it's there in Vannevar Bush's memex, and Murray Leinster's logics. But the grandest expression of it was Project Xanadu, launched in 1960 by the American philosopher Ted Nelson, who imagined – and started to build – a vast repository for every piece of writing in existence, with everything connected to everything else according to a principle he called "transclusion". It was also, presciently, intended as a method for handling many of the problems that would come to plague the media in the age of the internet, automatically channelling small royalties back to the authors of anything that was linked. Xanadu was a mind-spinning vision – and at least according to an unflattering portrayal by Wired magazine in 1995, over which Nelson threatened to sue, led those attempting to create it into a rabbit-hole of confusion, backbiting and "heart-slashing despair". Nelson continues to develop Xanadu today, arguing that it is a vastly superior alternative to the web. "WE FIGHT ON," the Xanadu website declares, sounding rather beleaguered, not least since the declaration is made on a website.

Web browsers crossed the border into mainstream use far more rapidly than had been the case with the internet itself: Mosaic launched in 1993 and Netscape followed soon after, though it was an embarrassingly long time before Microsoft realised the commercial necessity of getting involved at all. Amazon and eBay were online by 1995. And in 1998 came Google, offering a powerful new way to search the proliferating mass of information on the web. Until not too long before Google, it had been common for search or directory websites to boast about how much of the web's information they had indexed – the relic of a brief period, hilarious in hindsight, when a user might genuinely have hoped to check all the webpages that mentioned a given subject. Google, and others, saw that the key to the web's future would be helping users exclude almost everything on any given topic, restricting search results to the most relevant pages.

Without most of us quite noticing when it happened, the web went from being a strange new curiosity to a background condition of everyday life: I have no memory of there being an intermediate stage, when, say, half the information I needed on a particular topic could be found online, while the other half still required visits to libraries. "I remember the first time I saw a web address on the side of a truck, and I thought, huh, OK, something's happening here," says Spike Ilacqua, who years beforehand had helped found The World, the first commercial internet service provider in the US. Finally, he stopped telling acquaintances that he worked in "computers", and started to say that he worked on "the internet", and nobody thought that was strange.

It is absurd – though also unavoidable here – to compact the whole of what happened from then onwards into a few sentences: the dotcom boom, the historically unprecedented dotcom bust, the growing "digital divide", and then the hugely significant flourishing, over the last seven years, of what became known as Web 2.0. It is only this latter period that has revealed the true capacity of the web for "generativity", for the publishing of blogs by anyone who could type, for podcasting and video-sharing, for the undermining of totalitarian regimes, for the use of sites such as Twitter and Facebook to create (and ruin) friendships, spread fashions and rumours, or organise political resistance. But you almost certainly know all this: it's part of what these days, in many parts of the world, we call "just being alive".

The most confounding thing of all is that in a few years' time, all this stupendous change will probably seem like not very much change at all. As Crocker points out, when you're dealing with exponential growth, the distance from A to B looks huge until you get to point C, whereupon the distance between A and B looks like almost nothing when you get to point D, the distance between B and C looks similarly tiny. One day, presumably, everything that has happened in the last 40 years will look like early throat-clearings — mere preparations for whatever the internet is destined to become. We will be the equivalents of the late-60s computer engineers, in their horn-rimmed glasses, brown suits, and brown ties, strange, period-costume characters populating some dimly remembered past.

Will you remember when the web was something you accessed primarily via a computer? Will you remember when there were places you couldn't get a wireless connection? Will you remember when "being on the web" was still a distinct concept, something that described only a part of your life, instead of permeating all of it? Will you remember Google?

Using the Month Calculator

To compute the distance in months and days between two dates, simply fill out the two input fields:

  • First date: Enter the date to start the calculation
  • Second date: Enter the end date for the calculation

Follow that up by hitting 'Calculate Months Difference'. Next, you'll get:

What if the first date comes after the second?

The tool works no matter the order of dates you enter. Enter them as you wish!

Why does a year difference (or multiple) show less than a multiple of twelve months?

The calculator does not count the final day in the time-frame. That is, it counts the day of the first date but not the ending date.

To get around this, bump the date by one in the end. For example, June 1, 2000 to June 1, 2001 is less than twelve months. However, June 1, 2000 to June 2, 2001 is 12 months.

How do you use the month calculator?

The month difference calculator can be used much like the day difference calculator or week difference calculator. Use it to figure out the timespan that two events or frames overlapped.

Watch the video: BCG 365 Seconds Countdown 365 Days 12 Months 12 Progress Bars Remix The Game of Life 1970 theme


  1. Amado

    I apologize for interfering, I would like to suggest a different solution.

  2. Tlanextli

    Incomparable topic, it is interesting to me))))

  3. Nisar

    every day is like the previous one. each post by the author is different from the previous one. conclusion: read the author :)

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