25 January 1941

25 January 1941

25 January 1941

January 1941

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East Africa

Rebel forces control large parts of Abyssinia

War in the Air

The RAF attacks the U-boat base at Lorient



January 27, 1941

It was the 5th Monday of 1941. If you were born on this date your birthday numbers 1, 27 and 1941 reveal that your life path number is 7. Your zodiac sign is Aquarius with a ruling planet Uranus , your birthstone is the Garnet , and your birth flower is the Carnation . You are 80 years old, and were born in 1940s, in the middle of Silent Generation. The generation you are born into makes an impact on your life. Swipe up to find out what it all means.

→ January 27, 1941 was a Monday
→ Zodiac sign for this date is Aquarius
→ This date was 29,364 days ago
→ 1941 was the Year of the Serpent
→ In 2022, January 27 is on Friday

View interesting January 27, 1941 birthday facts that no one tells you about, such as your life path number, birthstone, ruling planet, zodiac sign and birth flower.

People born on this day will turn 81 in exactly .

If you were born on this date:

You have been alive for . You were born in the Year of the Serpent. Your birth sign is Aquarius with a ruling planet Uranus. There were precisely 995 full moons after you were born up to this day. Your billionth second was on was on October 5, 1972.

→ You’ve slept 9,788 days or 26.82 years.
→ Your next birthday is away
→ You’ve been alive
→ You were born in the Year of the Serpent
→ You have been alive 704,750 hours
→ You are 42,285,040 minutes old
→ Age on next birthday: 81 years old


On This Day: January 25

On Jan. 25, 1915, the inventor of the telephone, Alexander Graham Bell, inaugurated U.S. transcontinental telephone service.

On Jan. 25, 1882, Virginia Woolf, the British novelist, was born. Following her death on March 28, 1941, her obituary appeared in The Times.

On This Date

1533 England&aposs King Henry VIII secretly married Anne Boleyn, his second wife.
1759 Scottish poet Robert Burns was born in Alloway.
1787 Shays&apos Rebellion suffered a setback when debt-ridden farmers led by Capt. Daniel Shays failed to capture an arsenal at Springfield, Mass.
1890 The United Mine Workers of America was founded in Columbus, Ohio.
1915 The inventor of the telephone, Alexander Graham Bell, inaugurated transcontinental telephone service in the United States.
1959 American Airlines opened the jet age in the United States with the first scheduled transcontinental flight of a Boeing 707.
1971 Charles Manson and three female followers were convicted in Los Angeles of murder and conspiracy in the 1969 slayings of seven people, including actress Sharon Tate.
1988 Vice President George Bush and Dan Rather clashed on "The CBS Evening News" as the anchorman attempted to question the Republican presidential candidate about his role in the Iran-Contra affair.
1993 A gunman shot and killed two CIA employees outside agency headquarters in Virginia. (A Pakistani national was later convicted and was executed in 2002.)
2006 The Islamic militant group Hamas won a large majority of seats in Palestinian parliamentary elections.
2011 Egypt&aposs revolution began as thousands of anti-government protesters clashed with police during a Tunisia-inspired demonstration to demand the end of President Hosni Mubarak&aposs rule.

Historic Birthdays

Virginia Woolf 1/25/1882 - 3/28/1941 British author.Go to obituary »

January 25th, 1943 is a Monday. It is the 25th day of the year, and in the 4th week of the year (assuming each week starts on a Monday), or the 1st quarter of the year. There are 31 days in this month. 1943 is not a leap year, so there are 365 days in this year. The short form for this date used in the United States is 1/25/1943, and almost everywhere else in the world it's 25/1/1943.

This site provides an online date calculator to help you find the difference in the number of days between any two calendar dates. Simply enter the start and end date to calculate the duration of any event. You can also use this tool to determine how many days have passed since your birthday, or measure the amount of time until your baby's due date. The calculations use the Gregorian calendar, which was created in 1582 and later adopted in 1752 by Britain and the eastern part of what is now the United States. For best results, use dates after 1752 or verify any data if you are doing genealogy research. Historical calendars have many variations, including the ancient Roman calendar and the Julian calendar. Leap years are used to match the calendar year with the astronomical year. If you're trying to figure out the date that occurs in X days from today, switch to the Days From Now calculator instead.


Contents

On 1 September 1939, World War II began with the German invasion of Poland. In response, Britain and France declared war on Germany on 3 September. The next few months in the war were marked by the Phoney War.

Phoney War Edit

The Phoney War was an early phase of World War II marked by a few military operations in Continental Europe in the months following the German invasion of Poland and preceding the Battle of France. Although the great powers of Europe had declared war on one another, neither side had yet committed to launching a significant attack, and there was relatively little fighting on the ground. This was also the period in which the United Kingdom and France did not supply significant aid to Poland, despite their pledged alliance.

The French forces launched a small offensive, the Saar Offensive against Germany in the Saar region but halted their advance and returned. While most of the German Army was fighting against Poland, a much smaller German force manned the Siegfried Line, their fortified defensive line along the French border. At the Maginot Line on the other side of the border, French troops stood facing them, whilst the British Expeditionary Force and other elements of the French Army created a defensive line along the Belgian border. There were only some local, minor skirmishes. The British Royal Air Force dropped propaganda leaflets on Germany and the first Canadian troops stepped ashore in Britain, while Western Europe was in a strange calm for seven months.

In their hurry to re-arm, Britain and France had both begun to buy large numbers of weapons from manufacturers in the United States at the outbreak of hostilities, supplementing their own production. The non-belligerent United States contributed to the Western Allies by discounted sales of military equipment and supplies. German efforts to interdict the Allies' trans-Atlantic trade at sea ignited the Battle of the Atlantic.

Operation Weserübung Edit

While the Western Front remained quiet in April 1940, the fighting between the Allies and the Germans began in earnest with the Norwegian Campaign when the Germans launched Operation Weserübung, the German invasion of Denmark and Norway. In doing so, the Germans beat the Allies to the punch the Allies had been planning an amphibious landing in which they could begin to surround Germany, cutting off her supply of raw materials from Sweden. However, when the Allies made a counter-landing in Norway following the German invasion, the Germans repulsed them and defeated the Norwegian armed forces, driving the latter into exile. The Kriegsmarine, nonetheless, suffered very heavy losses during the two months of fighting required to seize all of mainland Norway.

Battles for Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Belgium and France Edit

In May 1940, the Germans launched the Battle of France. The Western Allies (primarily the French, Belgian and British land forces) soon collapsed under the onslaught of the so-called "blitzkrieg" strategy. The majority of the British and elements of the French forces escaped at Dunkirk. With the fighting ended, the Germans began to consider ways of resolving the question of how to deal with Britain. If the British refused to agree to a peace treaty, one option was to invade. However, Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine, had suffered serious losses in Norway, and in order to even consider an amphibious landing, Germany's Air Force (the Luftwaffe) had to first gain air superiority or air supremacy.

With the Luftwaffe unable to defeat the RAF in the Battle of Britain, the invasion of Great Britain could no longer be thought of as an option. While the majority of the German army was mustered for the invasion of the Soviet Union, construction began on the Atlantic Wall – a series of defensive fortifications along the French coast of the English Channel. These were built in anticipation of an Allied invasion of France.

Because of the massive logistical obstacles a cross-channel invasion would face, the Allied high command decided to conduct a practice attack against the French coast. On 19 August 1942, the Allies began the Dieppe Raid, an attack on Dieppe, France. Most of the troops were Canadian, with some British contingents and a small American and Free French presence along with British and Polish naval support. The raid was a disaster, almost two-thirds of the attacking force became casualties. However, much was learned as a result of the operation – these lessons would be put to good use in the subsequent invasion.

For almost two years, there was no land-fighting on the Western Front with the exception of commando raids and the guerrilla actions of the resistance aided by the Special Operations Executive (SOE) and Office of Strategic Services (OSS). However, in the meantime, the Allies took the war to Germany, with a strategic bombing campaign the US Eighth Air Force bombing Germany by day and RAF Bomber Command bombing by night. The bulk of the Allied armies were occupied in the Mediterranean, seeking to clear the sea lanes to the Indian Ocean and capture the Foggia Airfield Complex.

Two early British raids for which battle honours were awarded were Operation Collar in Boulogne (24 June 1940) and Operation Ambassador in Guernsey (14–15 July 1940). The raids for which the British awarded the "North-West Europe Campaign of 1942" battle honour were: Operation Biting – Bruneval (27–28 February 1942), St Nazaire (27–28 March 1942), Operation Myrmidon – Bayonne (5 April 1942), Operation Abercrombie – Hardelot (21–22 April 1942), Dieppe (19 August 1942) and Operation Frankton – Gironde (7–12 December 1942). [30] [31]

A raid on Sark on the night of 3/4 October 1942 is notable because a few days after the incursion the Germans issued a propaganda communiqué implying at least one prisoner had escaped and two were shot while resisting having their hands tied. This instance of tying prisoner's hands contributed to Hitler's decision to issue his Commando Order instructing that all captured Commandos or Commando-type personnel were to be executed as a matter of procedure.

By the summer of 1944, when an expectation of an Allied invasion was freely admitted by German commanders, the disposition of troops facing it came under the command of OB West (HQ in Paris). In turn, it commanded three groups: the Wehrmacht Netherlands Command (Wehrmachtbefehlshaber Niederlande) or WBN, covering the Dutch and Belgian coasts and Army Group B, covering the coast of northern France with the German 15th Army (HQ in Tourcoing), in the area north of the Seine the 7th Army, (HQ in Le Mans), between the Seine and the Loire defending the English Channel and the Atlantic coast, and Army Group G with responsibility for the Bay of Biscay coast and Vichy France, with its 1st Army, (HQ in Bordeaux), responsible for the Atlantic coast between the Loire and the Spanish border and the 19th Army, (HQ in Avignon), responsible for the Mediterranean coast.

It was not possible to predict where the Allies might choose to launch their invasion. The chance of an amphibious landing necessitated the substantial dispersal of the German mobile reserves, which contained the majority of their panzer troops. Each army group was allocated its mobile reserves. Army Group B had the 2nd Panzer Division in northern France, 116th Panzer Division in the Paris area, and the 21st Panzer Division in Normandy. Army Group G, considering the possibility of an invasion on the Atlantic coast, had dispersed its mobile reserves, locating the 11th Panzer Division in Gironde, the 2nd SS Panzer Division Das Reich refitting around the southern French town of Montauban, and the 9th Panzer Division stationed in the Rhone delta area.

The OKW retained a substantial reserve of such mobile divisions also, but these were dispersed over a large area: the 1st SS Panzer Division Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler was still Netherlands, the 12th SS Panzer Division Hitlerjugend and the Panzer-Lehr Division were located in the Paris–Orleans area, since the Normandy coastal defence sectors or (Küstenverteitigungsabschnitte – KVA) were considered the most likely areas for an invasion. The 17th SS Panzergrenadier Division Götz von Berlichingen was located just south of the Loire in the vicinity of Tours.


The Ireland of Edward Cahill (1868–1941): a liberal or a Christian state?

Above: Edward Cahill SJ—in the 1920s and 1930s his name and writings were well known in Ireland.

Ireland for much of his life had been a British possession. There was a constant political drive for Home Rule, which changed to a demand for fuller independence. The final eighteen years of his life were spent under an Irish government. Under both governments, however, many basic realities remained the same: there was widespread poverty, migration from the countryside into the towns and cities, and emigration to Britain and the United States of America agriculture remained the country’s main industry, 92% of the population were Catholics and the vast majority practised their religion to some degree. Despite the extensive manifestations of religion, Cahill feared a progressive encroachment of liberal secularism into Irish life.

Family background
Edward Cahill had a happy childhood as one of eight children on a farm in west Limerick. Early in life he showed strong signs of patriotism and of social concern for the less well-off. Like his friend in adulthood, Éamon de Valera, also from a Limerick rural background, he became concerned to improve the lot of the small farmer and the landless labourer. Social commitment, strong religious belief and patriotic concern for the welfare of his country were intermingled in his life and determined much of his activity in the final quarter of his career.

At the age of sixteen he entered the seminary for Limerick diocese at Mungret College. After obtaining a BA from the Royal University of Ireland, he went to Maynooth to study theology. Coming up to his ordination, he joined the Jesuits. After some years of further training, he was ordained and then sent back to Mungret to teach in the college’s Apostolic School. He spent twelve years there, first as teacher, then as director of the Apostolic School and finally as rector of the entire college. The Apostolic students were young men destined to work as priests across the English-speaking world. Edward brought to their formation the highest ideals. Many have thought that those years were the high point of his career. Numerous priests in North America, South Africa and Australasia paid tribute to the grounding he had given them in prayer, spirituality, education and love of country.

Above: Mungret College staff in 1897—Edward Cahill is the last on the right in the back row.

Edward’s patriotism, however, became a problem for his provincial superior. He was deeply interested in the Irish language, and through it became friendly during 1914–15 with a number of members of the Irish Volunteers. He also ran a boys’ cadet corps in the school. In 1917 he was transferred to Clongowes Wood College and from there to Milltown Park, Dublin, where he was given the task of teaching church history to Jesuit theological students drawn from all over the world. For many years he had read widely in Irish and European history.

Above: Éamon de Valera’s handwritten dedication to Edward Cahill on a copy of Bunreacht na hÉireann, 1 May 1937. (Jesuit Library, Milltown Park)

In his sociological and historical studies Cahill became convinced of the problem posed for Catholicism by Liberalism. ‘Liberalism’ is frequently identified in later times with concern for freedom and human rights, but Cahill, looking to Liberalism in mainland Europe in the nineteenth century and its subsequent history, saw it as a secular outlook that excluded mention of God from public life and undermined Christian values. He also saw it as advocating the laissez-faire capitalism that caused so much exploitation and suffering. At a time when Catholicism in Ireland seemed to be flourishing, he feared for its future. The Irish people had been subjected to Liberalism for more than 100 years and their values were more undermined than appeared on the surface. Moreover, the values of economic liberalism, or laissez-faire capitalism, had become part of Irish business life. His research indicated to him that a key driving force in Liberalism was Freemasonry, with its wide network of lodges and secret membership. His many articles on Freemasonry gave rise to a book in 1930 entitled Freemasonry and the anti-Christian movement. It proved controversial. The fact that it was marked by careful research and the reading of original sources resulted in favourable reviews in Catholic publications in Britain, America and mainland Europe, and in some non-Catholic works. It ran to a second edition.

Meantime, following the papal advice to involve lay people in the Church’s apostolate, Cahill gathered around him a number of men drawn from all backgrounds who were interested in social reform and in Christianity. To them he lectured on Catholic sociology, and from his meetings with them emerged the organisation known as An Rioghacht. It supported his ideas and his writings, and played an active part in Catholic Action in the 1920s and 1930s. Among the aims of its members was the development of the New Ireland into a Christian state. It was an idea and aim that had considerable support. The means to it was to be the papal social teaching. Fr Cahill felt that his friend de Valera had similar ideals. Towards the formal Christianising of Ireland, Cahill produced his largest book, The framework of a Christian state.

Commission of Inquiry into Banking
With de Valera in government and plans for a new constitution, it was natural for de Valera to ask Fr Cahill for proposals regarding the constitution. This led to a Jesuit committee being formed and a draft document being brought to de Valera by Cahill. Not content with that, Cahill also added suggestions of his own. Around the same time, two members of An Rioghacht were appointed to the Commission of Inquiry into Banking (1934–8). They, like Fr Cahill, viewed banking as a means to serve the people and not just as a purely profit-making enterprise. They emphasised a social side to economics and they believed that to establish true social and political reform the country should have its own independent currency. The Banking Commission was divided in its final report. The majority of members, however, followed a conservative line resistant to change. It proved a triumph for the Department of Finance and a setback for de Valera, members of An Rioghacht and other supporters of reform.

Edward Cahill spoke out strongly against the majority report, which had been supported by the one Catholic bishop on the commission. In this, as in some of his writings, he was subjected to severe censorship from within the Jesuit order. It was a difficult era for religious superiors. The anti-Modernist spirit still reigned, fresh ideas in theology or social teaching could easily be misconstrued, and politically the wounds of the Civil War were still raw and allegiances were polarised.

In his final years Edward kept writing. In a year and a half he produced a number of articles and pamphlets, as well as actively promoting a plan he had for lessening the migration from the countryside to the towns and cities. In 1941 he had his final bout of sickness. After a long illness, endured with much patience, he died on 16 July. Next day, the various newspapers chronicled his death with laudatory headlines. His funeral at the Jesuit Church, Gardiner Street, Dublin, was attended by a large number of clergy, and in attendance were Taoiseach Éamon de Valera and Mrs de Valera, some members of the Dáil and the Senate, and a wide range of friends and acquaintances. He would have been surprised, had he lived, to find that within a decade a number of his and An Rioghacht’s proposals for the improvement of the country were taken up by Clann na Poblachta, and that Seán MacBride had among his advisers some members of An Rioghacht.

Personally, Edward Cahill was remembered for many years as an author, a leading figure in the many-sided Catholic Action movement, a lover of his country and its language, and a man who by his enthusiasm and Christian idealism, in the aftermath of Civil War, bonded men and women together in the quest for social reform in a new Ireland. Finally, he was remembered as a kindly, approachable man who had time for others and especially for the poor.

Above: The house today in Ballyvocogue, Cappagh, Co. Limerick, where Edward Cahill was born in 1868.

Thomas J. Morrissey SJ is the author of The Ireland of Edward Cahill SJ, 1868–1941—a secular or a Christian state? (Messenger Publications, 2016).

FURTHER READING
E. Cahill, The framework of a Christian state (Dublin, 1932).
P. Corish, The Irish Catholic experience: a historical survey (Dublin, 1985).
M. Curtis, The splendid cause: the Catholic Action movement in Ireland in the 20th century (Dublin, 2008).
E. Larkin, The historical dimensions of Irish Catholicism (Washington DC, 1984).


The following content and historical data directly sourced from the book called ‘Silver Bonanza,’ authored by James Blanchard III released in 1995.

Mr. Blanchard was a successful businessman and a large driving force behind the ‘re-legalization’ of private gold bullion ownership in the USA in 1975.

Only recently have we learned through Wikileaks intercepted US cables that simultaneous efforts were ongoing to discourage US citizenry from buying and saving Gold Bullion long term (but that is a COMEX silver price discovery topic of another post).

Below is nearly 5,000 years of Gold Silver Ratio data with a slight preamble of sources used:

The more ancient ratios are estimates for long periods. Those from 1600 to 1900 (AD) are yearly on periodic averages from Michael G. Mulhall, The Dictionary of Statistics, 4th ed. (London: George Routledge and Sons, 1899) and E.J. Farmer, The Conspiracy Against Silver, or a Plea for Bimetallism (New York: Greenwood Press, 1969 originally published 1886), p. 13.

The other statistics are from Steve Puetz’s Investment Letter, or from our own records. Statistics after 1900 are not yearly averages, but lows or highs that generally did not sustain for long periods. In 1980 the ratio stayed below 20 to 1 for the first two and a half months only, and touched under 16 to 1 for just a few days around January 21, 1980.


Executive Order 9066

After Japan attacked Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, and the United States entered a war in Europe and the Pacific, the nation was overcome by shock, anger, and fear—a fear exaggerated by long-standing anti-Asian prejudice. Ten weeks later President Franklin Roosevelt signed Executive Order 9066, under which nearly 75,000 American citizens of Japanese ancestry were taken into custody. Another 45,000 Japanese nationals living in the United States (but long denied citizenship because of their race) were also incarcerated. Some forty years later, members of the Japanese American community successfully led the nation to confront the wrong it had done—and to make it right.

With Executive Order 9066, President Franklin Roosevelt authorized the removal and incarceration of “any and all persons” from areas of the country deemed vulnerable to attack or sabotage.

On Loan from National Archives and Records Administration


The "Four Freedoms" Speech

Shortly before President Roosevelt’s State of the Union address was delivered on January 6, 1941, Eleanor published her first My Day column of the year. The essay anticipated many of the themes the president would address in his speech. Though hope was hard to entertain, she believed that many Americans would nevertheless find a ray of hope by working together toward the attainment of “peace with honor and justice for all.” 1 She then mentioned the goals (or “freedoms,” in Franklin’s speech) for which she thought people would be inspired to fight: “Justice for all, security in certain living standards, a recognition of the dignity and the right of the individual human being, without regard to his race, creed, or color.” 2

I doubt if anyone will say a thoughtless “Happy New Year.” They will know that happiness is hard to achieve in a world where war and famine and poverty and injustice still hold sway. Most of us will wish each other a “Happier New Year,” vowing inwardly that whatever we can do to obtain peace with honor and justice for all, we will do in the future. In our own country and in our own lives, we will try to disassociate ourselves from our personal interests sufficiently to help bring about such things as seem to be of benefit to our whole people.

Justice for all, security in certain living standards, a recognition of the dignity and the right of the individual human being, without regard to his race, creed, or color—these are things for which vast numbers of our citizens will willingly sacrifice themselves. Progress may be slow, but as more of us keep this determination in our minds and hearts, I feel sure we will be able to say, as we look back over each year, “This has been a Happier New Year.” 3

Several days later, when FDR addressed the nation with his “four freedoms” speech, which is excerpted below, he presented a vision of a new world order founded on a quartet of essential freedoms: freedom of speech and expression, freedom of religion, freedom from want, and freedom from fear. The first two were already enshrined in the American Constitution. But the idea that every American should enjoy freedom from want, which went beyond the traditional political and civil rights granted to most Americans, grew out of the New Deal. The last item, freedom from fear, belongs to the same impulse that drove Franklin to dream up the United Nations. All four elements found expression in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

Annual Message to Congress

January 6, 1941

In the future days, which we seek to make secure, we look forward to a world founded upon four essential human freedoms.

The first is freedom of speech and expression—everywhere in the world.

The second is freedom of every person to worship God in his own way—everywhere in the world.

The third is freedom from want—which, translated into world terms, means economic understandings which will secure to every nation a healthy peacetime life for its inhabitants—everywhere in the world.

The fourth is freedom from fear—which, translated into world terms, means a worldwide reduction of armaments to such a point and in such a thorough fashion that no nation will be in a position to commit an act of physical aggression against any neighbor--anywhere in the world.

That is no vision of a distant millennium. It is a definite basis for the kind of world attainable in our own time and generation. That kind of world is the very antithesis of the so-called new order of tyranny, which the dictators seek to create with the crash of a bomb.

To that new order we oppose the greater conception—the moral order. A good society is able to face schemes of world domination and foreign revolutions alike without fear.

Since the beginning of our American history, we have been engaged in change—in a perpetual peaceful revolution—a revolution which goes on steadily, quietly adjusting itself to changing conditions— without the concentration camp or the quick-lime in the ditch. The world order which we seek is the cooperation of free countries, working together in a friendly, civilized society.

This nation has placed its destiny in the hands and heads and hearts of its millions of free men and women and its faith in freedom under the guidance of God. Freedom means the supremacy of human rights everywhere. Our support goes to those who struggle to gain those rights or keep them. Our strength is our unity of purpose. To that high concept there can be no end save victory. 4

Citations

  • 1 Roosevelt, My Day, January 1, 1941.
  • 2 Ibid.
  • 3 Ibid.
  • 4 Franklin D. Roosevelt, “Annual Message to Congress: The Four Freedoms Speech,” January 6, 1941, Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library and Museum website, (accessed April 6, 2009).

Audio Version

In this audio recording, an actor reads President Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s January 6, 1941 address to the nation, featured in the resource book "Fundamental Freedoms: Eleanor Roosevelt and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights." In the speech, Roosevelt presents a vision of a new world order founded on four essential freedoms: freedom of speech and expression, freedom of religion, freedom from want, and freedom from fear.


January and February both date from about the time of Rome’s founding. They were added to a calendar that had been divided into ten month-like periods whose lengths varied from 20 to 35 or more days. A winter season was not included, so those period lengths are believed to have been intended to reflect growth stages of crops and cattle.

When introduced, January was given 29 days and put at the beginning of the calendar year. February was given 23 days and put at the end. Then, for an undetermined period shortly after Rome’s founding, months were said to have begun when a new moon was first sighted. At some later time, month lengths were separated from lunations and again became fixed. At that time, February’s original length was extended by five days which gave it a total of 28.


Watch the video: On This Day in World War Two: January 25th 1941