The French and Indian War a war between the British and the Colonist on One Sice and the French and the Indians on the other - History

The French and Indian War a war between the British and the Colonist on One Sice and the French and the Indians on the other - History


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Stamp tax imposed


The Revenue Act of 1764 did not bring in enough money to help pay the cost of defending the colonies. The British looked for additional sources of taxation. Prime Minister Grenville supported the imposition of the a stamp tax. Colonial representatives tried to convince Grenville that the tax was a bad idea. Grenville insisted in having the new taxes imposed and presented them for approval to the parliament. The parliament approved the tax in March 1765

The stamp tax was a tax that was imposed on every document or newspaper printed or used in the colonies. The taxes ranged from one shilling a newspaper to ten pounds for a lawyers license, Everything a colonist needed to was taxed. The income was to be directed to pay the cost of defending the colonies.The colonist particularly objected to the fact that violation of the taxes would be prosecuted by in Admiralty Courts and not by jury trials. The tax was approved with no debate,.

The colonies responded with outrage. It was considered a shocking act. The colonist considered the act unconstitutional, a tax had been imposed and they had not been consulted. They had no need to heed the taxes. The Virginia House of Burgesses was nearing the end of its session when word of the Stamp Act reached it. A young delegate named Patrick Henry introduced a Resolution which stated that: That the general assembly of the colony, together with his majesty or his substitute have in their representative capacity the only exclusive right and power to levy taxes and impositions on the inhabitants of this colony and that every attempt to vest such a power in any person or persons whatsoever other than the general assembly aforesaid is illegal, unconstitutional, and unjust, and has a manifest tendency to destroy British, as well as American freedom. This was the beginning of a united colonial opposition to the British Act. full text


The French were the first European country to successfully settle in what would become Canada. They founded Quebec City in 1608. The French and the First Nation people built trade and diplomatic relations. They did this to influence and power over the continent.

Canada and France have a rich and strong relationship, rooted in shared values and shaped by a common history and language. Both countries are committed to working closely in a number of ways and to using their relationship in the service of a fair and equitable international order based on respect for law.


The Declaration of Independence

George Washington as Captain in the French and Indian War, by Junius Brutus Stearns, oil on canvas, circa 1849-1856.

The French and Indian War, also called the Seven Years War by the English, was part of a major struggle between European powers. It took place both across the continents of Europe and North America and involved France, England, Russia, Prussia, Spain, and others. The war began because Britain felt they needed to prevent the French from gaining control over trade and territories that the British thought were rightfully theirs. In North America, combat took place over a large span of land and included battles in Canada, through Western Pennsylvania, and all the way to the Mississippi River. This war included the first major military experience of George Washington and the first use of colonial militia. It ended with the British control of North America. However, the French and Indian War was also very expensive and contributed to the conflict between the British and their American colonies.

The War, which began in 1754, was the fourth colonial conflict between England and France. Unlike the three previous conflicts, this one began in America. French and British soldiers butted heads over control of the Ohio Valley. The Ohio Valley was important because it provided fur traders access to cities and ports on the East Coast. This business was very profitable. Another desired territory was the Mississippi River Valley, the entry point to the frontier in the west.

Troops were sent out to protect valuable territories from French control. Early on, a squadron of British and American soldiers, led by a bold but unknown twenty-two year old named George Washington, attacked the French at Fort Duquesne. Soon after the attack, though, Washington's troops surrendered to the French. The French also defeated a second British military force squadron. When this news reached England, a war was officially declared. Americans would call this the French and Indian War.

The first phase of this war was very unsuccessful for Britain. When their troops attempted attacks on the French, they ended in defeat over and over again. The British were afraid of the French and their Indian allies because their attacks were brutal and they burned and destroyed settlements in their path. Eventually, the French destroyed a settlement within sixty miles of Philadelphia, a central city in the American colonies. Americans were disheartened. They believed that Britain was not making the proper commitment to protect them or the North American territory.


British Secretary of State William Pitt helped turn the tide against the French. He is also the namesake of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

The turning point in the war came when the British asked William Pitt to take over wartime operations. Pitt believed control of North America was critical to England as a world power. In other words, he felt they could not afford to lose the war. Pitt committed more troops to the war and replaced old leaders with young ones. He also gave control of recruitment and supplies to local authorities in the colonies and promised to pay them for their work.

British luck started changing with their capture of the city of Louisbourg in Canada. They blocked the St. Lawrence Seaway, which stopped all French trade to inland towns and the frontier. Then, the British struck a final blow to the French cause in Quebec in 1759. British Commander James Wolfe bravely sent his forces up a rocky hill to surprise the French. In the battle that followed on the Plains of Abraham, both Wolfe and the French commander were killed. The British gained control over this important territory. They continued to be successful in battle after that, conquering Montreal as well. Ultimately the British gained control of the territories at stake, and thus the French chapter in North American history was over.

The War's over! As a colonist, tell us how you feel about the British, the French, and The Indians and why.

Consequences of the War

The French and Indian or Seven Years War left Britain with pressing financial problems. Victory in the War had given Britain Canada, Spanish Florida and the Native American lands east of the Mississippi. In addition to these lands, the British had twenty-two smaller colonies ruled by Royal Governors in the West Indies and elsewhere. British national debt almost doubled to pay for the war and there still were 10,000 British troops in the colonies. Money was needed to pay for their expense. Britain had to re-think how it was going to govern and pay for its far-flung possessions. The colonists had already contributed both soldiers and materials to the war effort, but the British government felt that now they should also contribute to paying for the cost of continued defense and greater administration of the colonies. Many British leaders felt that there was no other way to pay for these expenses than to tax the colonists. The colonists did not object to contributing to the cost of their defense, but, with the French no longer present, they did not see the need for British troops to remain in the colonies. They maintained (and paid for) colonial militias to defend themselves from Indian attack. They also felt, if they were going to be taxed by Parliament, they should be represented in it.

Even though they fought on the same side, the French and Indian War did not bring the British and Americans closer together. British troops remained in the colonies, which the colonists resented. British troops looked down their noses at the colonials. They regarded them as crude and lacking culture. The pious New Englanders found the British redcoats to be profane and the presence and attitude of the aristocratic British officers disturbed the colonists. The colonists also saw their presence as a threat to the liberties they had enjoyed since their first settlements. Americans blamed Britain for many of their problems and felt their own governments were better suited to both govern and defend the colonies. With the War behind it, Parliament intended to show colonists that they ruled the colonies. In 1765, the colonists still considered themselves as loyal subjects of Britain, with the same historic rights and obligations as Englishmen. But 160 years after the founding of Jamestown and a practice of &ldquosalutary neglect&rdquo, tension between the colonies and Britain was going to rapidly increase.

The French Era&rdquo (1634-1763): North America prior to the start of the French and Indian War

The British Era&rdquo (1763-1775) &mdash North America during and following the French and Indian War


The French and Indian War (1754-1763): Its Consequences

The surrender of Montreal on September 8, 1760 signaled an end to all major military operations between Britain in France in North America during the French and Indian War. Although the guns had fallen silent in Canada and the British colonies, it was still yet to be determined just how or when the Seven Years’ War, still raging throughout the world, would end. What resulted from this global conflict and the French and Indian War shaped the future of North America.

By 1762, the Seven Years’ War, fought in Europe, the Americas, West Africa, India, and the Philippines, had worn the opposing sides in the conflict down. The combatants (Britain, Prussia, and Hanover against France, Spain, Austria, Saxony, Sweden, and Russia) were ready for peace and a return to the status quo. Imperialist members of the British Parliament did not want to yield the territories gained during the war, but the other faction believed that it was necessary to return a number of France’s antebellum holdings in order to maintain a balance of power in Europe. This latter measure would not, however, include France’s North American territories and Spanish Florida.

On February 10, 1763, over two years after the fighting had ended in North America, hostilities officially ceased with the signing of the Treaty of Paris between Britain, France, and Spain. The fate of America’s future had been placed on a new trajectory, and as famously asserted by 19 th century historian, Francis Parkman, “half the continent had changed hands at the scratch of a pen.” France’s North American empire had vanished.

North America after the signing of the Treaty of Paris in 1763.

The treaty granted Britain Canada and all of France’s claims east of the Mississippi River. This did not, however, include New Orleans, which France was allowed to retain. British subjects were guaranteed free rights of navigation on the Mississippi as well. In Nova Scotia, Fortress Louisbourg remained in Britain’s hands. A colonial provincial expeditionary force had captured the stronghold in 1745 during King George’s War, and much to their chagrin, it was returned to the French as a provision of the Treaty of Aix-la-Chappelle (1748). That would not be the case this time around. In the Caribbean, the islands of Saint Vincent, Dominica, Tobago, Grenada, and the Grenadines would remain in British hands. Another bug acquisition for His Majesty’s North American empire came from Spain in the form of Florida. In return, Havana was given back to the Spanish. This gave Britain total control of the Atlantic Seaboard from Newfoundland all the way down to the Mississippi Delta.

The loss of Canada, economically, did not greatly harm France. It had proved to be a money hole that cost the country more to maintain than it actually returned in profit. The sugar islands in the West Indies were much more lucrative, and to France’s pleasure, Britain returned Martinique and Guadeloupe. Although His Most Christian Majesty’s influence in North America had receded, France did retain a tiny foothold in Newfoundland for fishing. Britain allowed the French to keep its rights to cod in the Grand Banks, as well as the islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon off the southern coast.

The inhabitants of the British colonies in North America were jubilant upon hearing the results of the Treaty of Paris. For nearly a century they had lived in fear of the French colonists and their Native American allies to the north and west. Now France’s influence on the continent had been expelled and they could hope to live out their lives in peace and autonomously without relying on Britain’s protection.

The consequences of the French and Indian War would do more to drive a wedge in between Britain and her colonists more so than any other event up to that point in history. During the Seven Years’ War, Britain’s national debt nearly doubled, and the colonies would shoulder a good portion of the burden of paying it off. In the years that followed, taxes were imposed on necessities that the colonists considered part of everyday life—tea, molasses, paper products, etc. Though proud Englishmen, the colonists viewed themselves as partners in the British Empire, not subjects. King George III did not see it this way. These measures were met with various degrees of opposition and served as the kindling that would eventually contribute to igniting the fires of revolution.

That tinder that would eventually be lit the following decade also came in the form of the land west of the Appalachian Mountains, which had been heavily fought over during the war. As British traders moved westward over the mountains, disputes erupted between them and the Native Americans (previously allied with French) who inhabited the region. Overpriced goods did not appeal to the Native Americans, and almost immediately tensions arose. For many in the British military and the colonies, this land had been conquered and rested within His Majesty’s dominion. Therefore, the territory west of the Appalachians was not viewed as shared or Native land—it was rightfully open for British trade and settlement. The Native Americans did not respond accordingly.

19th-century painting of Pontiac by John Mix Stanley

What transpired next has gone down in history as Pontiac’s Rebellion (1763-1764) and involved members of the Seneca, Ottawa, Huron, Delaware, and Miami tribes. The various uprisings and uncoordinated attacks against British forts, outposts, and settlements in the Ohio River Valley and

along the Great Lakes that occurred, ravaged the frontier. Although a handful of forts fell, two key strongholds, Forts Detroit and Pitt, did not capitulate. In an attempt to quell the rebellion against British authority, the Proclamation of 1763 was issued. The French settlements north of New York and New England were consolidated into the colony of Quebec, and Florida was divided into two separate colonies. Any land that did not fall within the boundaries of these colonies, which would be governed by English Law, was granted to the Native Americans. Pontiac’s Rebellion eventually came to an end.

The Royal Proclamation of 1763 further alienated the British colonists. Many sought to settle the west, and even Pennsylvania and Virginia had already claimed lands in the region. The proclamation prohibited the colonies from further issuing any grants. Only representatives of the Crown could negotiate land purchases with the Native Americans. Just as France had boxed the colonies into a stretch along the east coast, now George III was doing the same.

The French and Indian War had initially been a major success for the thirteen colonies, but its consequences soured the victory. Taxes imposed to pay for a massive national debt, a constant struggle with Native Americans over borders and territories, and the prohibition of expansion to the west fueled an ever-increasing “American” identity. As the years following the French and Indian War drug on, the colonists—already 3,000 miles away from Britain—grew further and further apart from the mother country.


The Treaty of Paris

The Treaty of Paris was signed on February 10, 1763, officially bringing an end to the French and Indian War. The British were awarded Canada, Louisiana and Florida (the latter from Spain), thereby removing European rivals and opening up North America for Westward expansion.

The Treaty of Paris also returned Pondicherry to France, and gave them back valuable colonies in the West Indies and Senegal. The British victory in the French and Indian War earned England a reputation as a world power with a strong navy, a reputation they would use to continue their empire-building around the globe. The French loss would later inspire them to side with American patriots against the British during the Revolutionary War.


George Washington : The French And Indian War

commander in the French and Indian war, George Washington was better equipped to serve as a commander in chief during the Revolution because of his respected nature and his newly found military tactics. “The French and Indian War was the North American conflict in a larger imperial war between Great Britain and France known as the Seven Years’ War.”(“Office of the Historian”1) George Washington served as the commander during this war. He led his troops to victory against the French. George Washington


French and Indian War

From 1754 to 1763 France and Great Britain fought each other in the French and Indian War. The war was part of a bigger war, called the Seven Years’ War, in Europe. However, the French and Indian War took place in North America. Even though France got help from its Native American allies, Britain won the war. The victory gave Britain control over most of the colonies in North America.

Background

In the middle of the 1700s both Britain and France controlled land in North America. Britain controlled the 13 colonies that later became the United States. France’s lands were called New France. New France included large parts of what is now eastern Canada. It also covered much of the Great Lakes region and areas west of the Appalachian Mountains.

Both countries wanted the upper Ohio River valley, in what is now northeastern Ohio and western Pennsylvania. The French were trading with the Native Americans, while people from the British colonies were starting settlements. Both sides built forts in the area.

War began in 1754, when British colonial troops under George Washington tried to drive the French from what is now western Pennsylvania. They failed. British soldiers arrived in 1755. They lost a battle for Fort Duquesne, near what is now Pittsburgh.

The next few years of the war continued to be difficult for the British. The French had a better army, and the Native Americans knew how to fight in the woodlands.

By the end of 1757, however, the British had begun to gain ground. They had collected more money and better supplies than France. They also had become experts in wilderness fighting. By 1760 the British had captured all of New France. The war ended when Britain and France signed the Treaty of Paris on February 10, 1763.


The French and Indian War a war between the British and the Colonist on One Sice and the French and the Indians on the other - History

It is in place here to take a momentary view of the two peoples, as we find them in America, who were about to grapple in a great final struggle for the control of the continent. There are many points of resemblance. Both had occupied portions of the continent for nearly two hundred years, both were intensely religious, representing different forms of Christianity, and each was bigoted and intolerant and jealous of its rival. However we may admire the religious fervor of the Puritan, the Presbyterian, and the Huguenot, we must equally admire the French Catholic, who made his home in the wilderness and gave his life to the conversion of the savage. The religious zeal of both peoples had, however, become greatly modified during the two centuries that had passed, owing chiefly to the coming of many who sought only adventure or gain. In 1750 we look in vain through the English colonies for the Puritan of the Winthrop type, and it is almost equally difficult to find in Canada the spirit of Allouez or Marquette. Again, the French and English were alike in personal courage, in a jealous love of tbe respective countries from which they had sprung and both had imbibed that spirit of wild freedom inseparable from a life in the wilderness. But the points of difference between the English and the French in America are more striking than their points of agreement.

First, as to motive or object in settling in America. The chief object of the English was to find a home for themselves, far from persecution, where by patient industry they might build up a commonwealth while secondarily, they would lead the red man to embrace Christianity.

The object of the Frenchman was twofold. First, he would build up a great New France which should be the glory of his native land second, he would convert the native red man to his religion and third, he sought the wealth to be derived from the fur trade. These are comprehensive statements. It was the French government, as reflected in its loyal sons, that aimed to build up a New France it was the French Jesuit, typifying the religious sense of the nation, who labored to convert the Indian it was the French settler who strove for the wealth of the fur trade.

But while the Englishman would found New England by migrating in thousands, the Frenchman would do the same for his nation, not by migrating, but by making Frenchmen of the Indians. When the Englishman wished to marry, he found a wife among his fellow-immigrants, or imported her from England the Frenchman desiring a wife found her in the forest -- he married a squaw. The English generally migrated in families, or congregations the French who came were mostly men, and thus they lacked the indispensable corner stone of the State -- the family. One great blunder made by the Frenchman was his failure to diagnose the Indian character. He evidently believed the Indian more capable of civilization than he was. The Frenchman spent himself to lift up the Indian, but more frequently the Indian dragged him down to barbarism he married the squaw and raised a family, not of Frenchmen, but of barbarians. The French made many thousands of nominal converts among the natives, but there is little evidence that the Indian was changed in habits or character by his conversion, or that he was led to aspire to a higher civilization.

A second important difference between the two peoples is found in their relation to their respective home governments. The English colonies had been left by their sovereign to develop themselves, and they grew strong and self-reliant. Two of them, Rhode Island and Connecticut, chose their own governors and, aside from the ever irritable Navigation Acts, they all practically made their own laws. They were very democratic, and almost independent and, indeed, but for want of one thing, union, they constituted a nation. The French colonies, on the other hand, were wholly dependent on the Crown. From the beginning the king had fostered and fed and coddled them, and they never learned to stand alone. As a whole they were a centralized, hierarchical despotism. As men they experienced an individual freedom, born of life in the wilderness, but political or religious freedom was beyond their dreams or desires.

Again, the English colonies opened wide their doors to all the world. The English Protestants were intolerant of Catholics, it is true, and even of one another but their religious strife was chiefly intellectual and theological, and they continued to dwell together on the same soil. The French, on the other hand, excluded all except Catholics from their new domains. The French Huguenots, who were ill at ease among the English in Carolina, petitioned their king to permit them to settle in Louisiana, where they might still be Frenchmen and still be his subjects but the bigoted monarch answered that he did not drive heretics from his kingdom only to be nourished in his colonies, and they remained with the English and became a part of them. 1 And the narrow-minded king reaped the reward of his folly while the English in America numbered, at the opening of the French and Indian War, at least twelve hundred thousand souls, the French population barely reached sixty thousand. The French king might have had, without expense to himself, a quarter of a million industrious people of his own nation dwelling in the Mississippi Valley but he threw away the opportunity, and that vast fertile region was now peopled only by roving Indian hordes. The French had control of a territory twenty times as great as that held by the English but the English had a population twenty times as great as the French.

In one respect, and one only, the French had the advantage over the English: they were a unit. The French king had but to command, and all Canada was ready to rush to arms. The English were composed of separate colonies-republics, we may say each enjoying much liberty without the responsibility of nationality each joined loosely to the mother country, but wholly separate politically from all its fellows. Each colony had its own interests and lived its own life, and it was difficult to awake them to a sense of common danger. Governor Dinwiddie, in 1754 appealed frantically and in vain to rouse his neighbor colonist to action Indeed, it required two or three years' warfare to awaken the English to a sense of their duty, and the result was that the French during that period were successful on every side.

The far-sighted Franklin saw this great defect -- this want of union and at a colonial conference held at Albany, in 1754, and known as the Albany Congress, he brought about a plan of union, known as the Albany Plan. This plan provided for a president-general to be appointed by the Crown, and for a council to be elected by the legislatures. But the English government rejected the plan because it was too democratic, while the colonists rejected it because they feared it would increase the power of the king, and the colonies plunged into this war, as into those that preceded it, without concerted action.

An important consideration at the opening of this great struggle for a continent was the attitude of the Indians. Had all the tribes thrown their weight to either side, the other side would doubtless have been defeated. But it happened that they were divided. The majority of the Indians, however, were with the French, and most naturally so. The Frenchmen flattered and won them by treating them as brethren, by adopting their customs, by marrying into their tribes, and by showing a zeal for their souls' salvation. The Frenchman readily fell into the Indian habits. Even the great Canadian governor, Frontenac, is said to have at times donned their costume and entered the uncouth dance, where he would leap as high and yell as loud as any child of the forest.

The Englishman, on the other hand, never received the native red man on the same footing with himself, never cared for his confidence, nor desired him as a neighbor. Often the two races were friendly, but a mutual suspicion was never absent. 2 Moreover, the English wanted land, which the Indians were loath to yield, and the French wanted furs, which they were always ready to furnish. In view of these facts is not strange that the majority of the natives sided with the French. Nearly all the Algonquin tribes were French in their sympathies. But the very notable exception we find in the fierce, warlike Six Nations, or Iroquois, of northern New York, who cast their lot with the English. The enmity of the Iroquois toward the French had its origin in a little skirmish they had in 1609 with Champlain, when a few of their chiefs were slain. But there was another cause. The Iroquois and the Algonquins were deadly, hereditary enemies, and so they had been from a time far back, beyond the coming of the white man to North America and the intimacy between the Algonqnins and the French proved a serious barrier to the latter when they sought to make friends of the Iroquois.

Nevertheless, for a quarter of a century before the opening of the war we are treating, the French were making every effort to win the Six Nations, and they would doubtless have succeeded but for the counter influence of one man, William Johnson, the British superintendent of Indian affairs. Johnson spent many years among the Iroquois, knew their language as he knew his own, married a Mohawk squaw, and was made a sachem of their tribe. As Sloane says, his attitude toward the Indians was French rather than English, and it was he above all men who held the Iroquois firm for the English during the French and Indian War.

Source: "History of the United States of America," by Henry William Elson, The MacMillan Company, New York, 1904. Transcribed by Kathy Leigh.


French And Indian War – Separation Of Colonies Essay

Document Based Question 1Question: After the French and Indian War, the separation of colonies from England was inevitable. To what extent do you agree?The struggle between France and England for North American sea power and colonial rule ended by the French and Indian War. The war began in 1754 in the upper Ohio Valley. Two years later, the conflict spread to Europe where it was known as the Seven Years’ War. One of the greatest battles of the war that practically ended France’s power in America was the English capture of Quebec in 1759.

The treaty of Paris, signed in 1763, formally ended the war in America, making Great Britain master of Canada and the lands between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River. These terms ended French power in the New World and made Great Britain supreme. Although the tensions between both England and its colonies were released, there was still no acknowledgment of any severance of the colonies from England. Proceeding the war, Britain passed new Acts, which colonists regarded as, for the most part, unbearable. These new Acts and the determination for colonial independence and uniformity made the separation of the colonies from England inevitable. Because colonists proved resistant to British control, British policies were forced to be relaxed.

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Even so, the colonial assemblies reluctantly continued to respond to British needs. The British Empire was in great need of organizing. With the territorial annexations of 1763, the British Empire nearly doubled in size, making it difficult to rule. Because of this, and other factors such as England’s war reparations, it was necessary that Britain seek greater control over its colonies. English government made efforts to find a way to deal with its war debt, and their effort to do this was made through raising the already high taxes.

According to Document C, this resolution “caused great uneasiness and consternation among the British subjects on the continent of America. ” In the past, England had viewed its colonial empire in terms of trade. To prevent an escalation of the fighting that might threatened western trade, the Proclamation Act of 1763 was instituted. This prevented settlers from advancing beyond a line drawn along the Appalachian Mountains.

In accordance with Document A, this line was established to keep colonists from infringing upon Native American lands. The Proclamation Act regarded England’s most important markets and investments, which were located east. British controlled colonist movement’s westward in order to modify the eastern population to benefit Britain’s markets. The Proclamation Act of 1763 was one of the first instituted acts passed By England.

As the years progressed, new Acts were passed by Great Britain to establish more control over the American colonies. Among these, the Stamp Acts was passed by the British Parliament in 1765 to raise revenue, requiring that stamps be used for all legal and commercial documents, newspapers, etc. in the American colonies. John Dickenson of Document I made clear that authorities impose duties on the colonies “for the single purpose of levying money. ” In March 1766, it was repealed because of strong colonial opposition. This step, however, was accompanied by a Declaratory Act setting forth Parliament’s supreme power over the colonies in matters of taxation as well as in all other matters of legislation (Document E).

Britain was only adding insult to injury by the creation of new acts because colonists began to adopt the idea of no taxation without representation (Document D). The reason that the colonies were able to separate from England was because of confidence and determination. Originally, the colonies were not strong enough to function on their own as an individual country, and the aid of Great Britain was essential. Document H states that “without being incorporated, the one country must necessarily govern the greater must rule the less.


Early French successes

The first four years saw nothing but severe reverses for the British regulars and American colonials, primarily because of superior French land forces in the New World. Braddock was killed and his army scattered in July 1755 when the force was ambushed while approaching Fort Duquesne. In 1756 the defenders of Fort Oswego on Lake Ontario were obliged to surrender, as were the defenders of Fort William Henry near Lake Champlain in 1757. Lord Loudoun’s amphibious expedition from New York City against the great French fortress of Louisbourg on Cape Breton Island ended in dismal failure that year. In July 1758 Gen. James Abercrombie attacked the French stronghold at the northern end of Lake George, Fort-Carillon (later renamed Fort Ticonderoga). Despite outnumbering the French defenders under Gen. Louis-Joseph de Montcalm-Grozon, marquis de Montcalm, almost four to one, Abercrombie’s army was almost destroyed. Moreover, the frontier settlements in what are now central New York, central Pennsylvania, western Maryland, and western Virginia were deserted while thousands of families fled eastward in panic to escape the hostilities.

During those years of defeat, the only notable success scored by the British and colonial forces was the capture in 1755 of the well-fortified Fort Beauséjour on the Chignecto Isthmus, a narrow strip of land connecting Nova Scotia with the mainland. British authorities held the region to be a part of Nova Scotia, ceded by France in the April 1713 treaty of Utrecht. However, the French-speaking Acadians who lived in the region not only steadfastly refused to take an oath of loyalty to the British crown but had provided Fort Beauséjour with provisions and a large labour force to aid the French in consolidating their foothold on the isthmus. As no large contingent of British soldiers was available to garrison the area and subdue the pro-French populace, the British authorities at Halifax decided to disperse the Acadians as a war measure. Transports carried most of the Acadians away from their villages in western Nova Scotia and distributed them among the British colonies to the south. Some returned to the area after the war, while others settled in French Louisiana, where their descendants became known as Cajuns. The exile of the Acadians from Nova Scotia was famously dramatized in Henry Wadsworth Longfellow’s narrative poem Evangeline (1847).


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