Books on the Crimean War | Subject Index: Crimean War
This month in history: The Crimean War and the 1856 Treaty of Paris
On 30 March 1856, the Treaty of Paris of 1856 was signed at the Congress of Paris, officially ending the Crimean War. The “Signature of Peace” was announced in The Gazette the following day. As part of our ‘This month in history’ series, we look at the Crimean War, as documented in The Gazette.
The Treaty of Paris was signed on March 30, 1856 at the Congress of Paris with Russia on one side of the negotiating table and France, Great Britain, the Ottoman Empire, and Sardinia Piedmont on the other. The Treaty of Paris came about to resolve the Crimean War which had begun on October 23, 1853 when the Sultan formally declared war on Russia after the Tsar moved troops into the Danubian Principalities. The Treaty of Paris would have far reaching implications on the future of the Ottoman Empire, as would the ending of the war itself. At the time, it was seen as an achievement of the Tanzimât foreign policy. The Treaty saw the European Powers pledge to maintain the integrity of the Ottoman Empire, and restored the respective territories of Russian and the Turks to their prewar boundaries, neutralizing the Black Sea for open international trade.
As the first modern war came to a close after 18 long months of violence, all sides of the war wanted to come to a lasting resolution. Yet, competing goals would come to spoil the idea of a lasting and definite peace treaty. Even within the allies conflicting notions of what the peace should entail created a less solid peace deal, leading to further problems for the Ottoman Empire—especially in terms of the Turks relations with the Russian Empire and the Concert of Europe. Distrust sewn between the allied nations of France and Britain during the war effort compounded problems in hammering out a comprehensive peace plan.  With the signing of the peace deal in 1856 the Crimean War might have formally come to a close but another war became more likely with its signing than without it.  
Treaty of Paris, 30 March 1856 - History
1842 Anesthesia is used for the first time in an operation
1856 The Treaty of Paris is signed, ending the Crimean War.
1858 Hyman Lipman patents a pencil with an attached eraser.
1867 Alaska is purchased for $7.2M (Sewards Folly)
1964 Jeopardy! Game shows airs for the first time on TV
1981 President Ronald Reagan is shot in the chest outside a Washington, D.C. hotel by John Hinckley, Jr.,
1993 In the comic strip Peanuts, Charlie Brown hits his first ever game-winning home run.
1432 Mehmed II (Ottoman Sultan)
1746 Francisco Goya (Painter)
1750 John Stafford Smith (Composer of the tune to the Star Spangled Banner)
1853 Vincent Van Gogh (Dutch artist)
1945 Eric Clapton (Singer and guitarist)
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The Treaty of Paris ended the Revolutionary War between Great Britain and the United States, recognized American independence and established borders for the new nation. After the British defeat at Yorktown, peace talks in Paris began in April 1782 between Richard Oswarld representing Great Britain and the American Peace Commissioners Benjamin Franklin, John Jay, and John Adams. The American negotiators were joined by Henry Laurens two days before the preliminary articles of peace were signed on November 30, 1782. The Treaty of Paris, formally ending the war, was not signed until September 3, 1783. The Continental Congress, which was temporarily situated in Annapolis, Maryland, at the time, ratified the Treaty of Paris on January 14, 1784.
18 (30) March 1856 in Paris at the closing session of the Congress of powers the representatives of Russia (A. F. Orlov, F. I. Brunnov) on the one hand, of France (A. Walewski, F. Burkene), of Britain (G. Clarendon , G. Cowley), of Turkey (Ali Pasha, Cemil Bey), Sardinia (C. Cavour, S. Villamarina), as well as representatives of Austria (K. Buol, I. Gyubner) and Prussia (A. Manteuffel, M. Gartsfeldt), who had participated in the talks, on the other hand, signed the Treaty of Paris, which put the end to the Crimean War of 1853-1856 .
In 1854, troops of the Allied Powers with Turkey landed in the Crimea, inflicted several defeats to the Russian army and began the siege of Sevastopol. In 1855, Russia found itself in diplomatic isolation. After the fall of Sevastopol, military actions had actually stopped. 1 (13) February 1856 in Vienna was concluded a preliminary agreement on the terms of the peace treaty, which was signed 18 (30) March 1856 at the Paris Congress.
Russia was to return Kars to Turkey, in exchange for captured by allies Sevastopol, Balaklava and other cities of the Crimea it also ceded to Moldavian Principality the mouth of the Danube and a part of Southern Bessarabia.
The clause of the Paris Treaty of 1856, particularly difficult for Russia, was the proclamation of the "neutralization" of the Black Sea: Russia and Turkey, as the Black Sea powers, were not allowed to have military fleets at the Black Sea, and military forts and arsenals on its coasts. The Black Sea straits were declared closed for military vessels of all nations. Thus, the Russian Empire was put at a disadvantage with the Ottoman Empire, which had kept all of its naval forces in the Marmara and Mediterranean seas.
Treaty of Paris established the freedom of navigation for merchant ships of all countries along the Danube, which opened the door for wide distribution in the Balkan Peninsula of Austrian, British and French goods, which caused considerable damage to Russia's exports. The treaty deprived Russia of the right to protect the interests of the Orthodox population in the Ottoman Empire. Moldavia, Wallachia and Serbia remained under the sovereignty of the Sultan, and they were subordinate to the collective protectorate of the Great Powers.
3 Conventions were attached to the Treaty: the 1st one confirmed the London Convention of 1841 to close the Bosporus and Dardanelles Straits to warships of all countries, except Turkey
the 2nd one established the limited number of light military Russian and Turkish ships in the Black Sea for patrol service (Russia and Turkey could only keep 6 steam vessels of 800 tons and 4 vessels of 200 tons each for patrol) the 3rd obliged Russia not to build military fortifications on the Aland islands in the Baltic Sea.
As a result of a long diplomatic struggle of Russian Foreign Minister A. M. Gorchakov at the London Conference of 1871, Russia assured the repeal of the neutralization of the Black Sea . In 1878, under the Berlin Treaty, signed at the Berlin Congress, held up to the results of the Russian-Turkish war of 1877-1878, the Russian state was able to recover all the lost territories.
Europe 1856: End of the Crimean War
The siege of Sevastopol was poorly managed by both sides, but eventually the Allies prevailed. In 1856, under the additional threat of Austria entering the war, Russia agreed to terms. At the Treaty of Paris, the Russians ceded land to Moldavia and accepted the demilitarization of the Black Sea. In addition, all five Great Powers pledged to respect the independence and territorial integrity of the Ottoman Empire. The Crimean War was over.
26 Jan 1855 Sardinia joins Allies▲
The Kingdom of Sardinia/Piedmont joined the alliance against Russia in the Crimean War. in wikipedia
18 Jun–28 Nov 1855 Russians capture Kars▲
Forces of Russian Empire besieged and captured Kars, Ottoman Empire. in wikipedia
9 Sep 1855 Sevastopol falls▲
Following the French capture of the fortifications on the Malakoff, the Russian military was forced to evacuate the key Black Sea port of Sevastopol, Crimea, on 8 September 1855, bringing an end to the nearly one-year siege and signalling Russian defeat in the Crimean War. The following day, the Allies moved in to occupy the city. in wikipedia
3 Oct 1855 Turks land in Abkhazia▲
Ottoman forces under Omar Pasha landed at Sukhumi, Abkhazia, in an attempt to relieve Kars. in wikipedia
30 Mar 1856 Treaty of Paris▲
The Russian Empire signed the Treaty of Paris with the French Empire, the United Kingdom, the Ottoman Empire, and the Kingdom of Sardinia, bringing an end to the Crimean War. By the terms of the treaty, the Black Sea was made neutral territory, closing it to all warships and prohibiting fortifications and armaments on its shores. This weakened the power of Russia, which also had to cede land in Bessarabia to Moldavia. in wikipedia
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- made the Black Sea neutral and closed it to all warships
- forbade the building of fortifications and the presence of armaments on the shores of the Black Sea. The Black Sea became a military 'no-go' area to prevent Russia intimidating Turkey
These two clauses restored the status quo but proved only to be a truce which lasted until 1870 when Russia began to re-fortify the Black Sea and the Allies were unable to stop them.
- Russia was made to give up her claim to be the protector of the Sultan's Christian subjects. This was also a return to the status quo and meant the abandoning of the religious excuse to interfere in the Turkish Empire. It also proved to be a truce because Russia failed to honour this clause. In 1876 the Turks savagely crushed a Bulgarian rising using the Bashi-Bazooks. Following these 'Bulgarian Atrocities', Russia acted the part of protector of the Slavs and Christians and invaded Turkey. In Britain, the atrocities led to Gladstone's Midlothian campaign (1879). In 1878 Bismarck called the Berlin Conference which created an autonomous 'small' Bulgaria, and put Germany on the diplomatic map.
- the Sultan was made to promise to reform his Empire and to become less dependent on the Powers. He did nothing, and the Ottoman Empire continued to crumble and disintegrate - which was the cause of the Bulgarian rising. Turkey was dismembered piecemeal in the Nineteenth Century European areas won independence:
- Moldavia and Wallachia became the Kingdom of Romania in 1861
- Bulgaria became autonomous in 1878
- Austria-Hungary took over the administration of Bosnia-Herzegovina in 1878
The Treaty of Paris was a truce to the Eastern Question , not a peace.
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PARIS, CONGRESS AND TREATY OF 1856
Facing an empty treasury, a new French naval ordnance that might pierce the Kronstadt walls, and possible Swedish and Prussian hostilities, Alexander II and a special Imperial Council accepted an Austrian ultimatum and agreed on January 16, 1856, to make peace on coalition terms and conclude the Crimean War. Even before Sevastopol fell (September 12, 1855), Russia had accepted three of the Anglo-French-Austrian Four Points of August 1854: guarantee of Ottoman sovereignty and territorial integrity general European (not exclusively Russian) protection of the Ottoman Christians and freeing of the mouth of the Danube. The details of the third point, as well as reduction of Russian Black Sea preponderance and additional British particular conditions, completed the agreement. The incipient entente with Napoleon III, who all along had hoped to check Russian prestige without fighting for British imperial interests, was a boon to Russia.
Russia was ably represented in the Paris congress (February 25 – April 14) by the experienced extraordinary ambassador and privy councillor Count Alexei F. Orlov and the career diplomat and envoy to London, Filip Brunov. They were joined at the table by some of the key statesmen in the diplomatic preliminaries of the war from Turkey, England, France, and Austria, as well as Camilio Cavour of Piedmont-Sardinia. Russia's chief concession was to remove its naval presence from the Black Sea, but they worked out the details of its neutralization directly with the Turks, not their British allies. The affirmation of the 1841 Convention, which closed the Turkish Straits to warships in peacetime, was actually more advantageous to Russia, which lacked a fleet on one side, than to Britain, which had one on the other. Russia's sole territorial loss was the retrocession of the southern part of Bessarabia to Ottoman Moldavia, the purpose of which was to secure the Russian withdrawal from the Danubian Delta.
In addition, the Russians agreed to the demilitarization of the land Islands in the Baltic, a provision that held until World War I. The Holy Places dispute, the diplomatic scrape which had led directly to the war preliminaries, was settled on the basis of the compromise effected in Istanbul in April 1853 by the three extraordinary ambassadors, Alexander Menshikov, Edmond de la Cour, and Stratford (Canning) de Redcliffe, before Russia's diplomatic rupture with Turkey. The Peace Treaty was signed on March 20, 1856.
The British at first did not treat the Russians as complying and kept some forces in the Black Sea. However, the 1857 India Mutiny, due in part to Russian-supported Persian pressure on Afghanistan, led to British withdrawal and facilitated the unimpeded success of Russia's long-standing campaign to gain full control of the Caucasus.
As some contemporary observers noted, adherence to the naval and strategic provisions of the treaty depended upon Russian weakness and coalition resolve. During the Franco-German war of 1870 – 1871, Alexander Gorchakov announced that Russia would no longer adhere to the "Black Sea Clauses" mandating demilitarization, and a London conference accepted this change. During the Turkish War of 1877 – 1878, Russia re-annexed Southern Bessarabia to the chagrin of its Romanian allies.
See also: crimean war nicholas i sevastopol
Treaty of Paris
Treaty of Paris was an agreement to end the war between Britain and its American colonies.
The Treaty of Paris was formally signed on September 3rd, 1783 in Paris by representatives of the United States of America and King George III of Britain. It ended the war between America and Britain and recognized American independence and sovereignty.
Talks of peace negotiation began in April 1782 with the American victory at Yorktown, Virginia. This was a decisive and key victory for the Continental Army led by General George Washington and the French Army led by Comte de Rochambeau.
These preliminary negotiations were conducted behind France’s back as America and France had signed The Treaty of Alliance which stated that before either country embarked in any peace negotiations with Britain, they had to reach a mutual agreement. Consequently, America violated that clause of the Alliance and French minister Vergennes had to agree to separate negotiations as long as they were signed on the same day and did not conflict with one another.
Article 10 of the Treaty of Paris. At the bottom are the signatures of the American representatives and their respective seals.
The preliminary articles of the Treaty of Paris were signed on November 30, 1782. America was represented by John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, John Jay and Henry Laurens. Britain was represented by Richard Oswald and David Hartle. France signed preliminary articles in January 1783.
The final treaty was signed on September 3, 1783 in the Hotel d’York located on 56 Rue Jacob. On the same day France, Spain and Netherlands signed separate agreements with Britain. These separate peace treaties between supporters of America and Great Britain is known as The Peace of Paris.
The American Continental Congress ratified the Treaty on January 14, 1784, France in March 1784 and Britain in April of the same year. The ratified versions were exchanged in Paris on May 12, 1784.
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