History of Emma - History

History of Emma - History


Former name retained.

(ScStr: t. 350: 1. 166': b. 21': dr. 9'4" s. 12 k.: a. 6
24-pdr. how., 2 12-pdr. r.)

The first Emma, a screw steamer, was captured 24 July 1863 while running the blockade by the Army transport Arago; purchased by the Navy from the New York prize court 30 September 1863; fitted out at New York Navy Yard; and put to sea on 4 November 1863 Acting Master G. B. Livingston in command.

Emma arrived at Newport News, VA., 7 November 1863 to patrol with the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron until the end of the war. Enforcing the blockade, she played a significant role in the Navy's indispensable contribution to victory through isolating the South from oversee sources of supply. Emma joined in the destruction of blockade runner Ella off Wilmington, N.C., 6 December 1864, and the attacks on Fort Fisher of 24 and 25 December 1864 and 13 to 16 January 1865.

On 26 April 1866, Emma sailed from Fort Caswell, N.C., with an urgent message from General W. T. Sherman to Rear Admiral J. A. Dahlgren, commanding the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron, which warned the Admiral that Confederate President Davis and his cabinet, not yet located, might attempt to escape by way of Florida to Cuba. Emma put in to Key West on this cruise, then returned to patrol the Carolina coast until 24 August, when she arrived at Boston. There she was decommissioned 30 August 1866 and sold 1 November 1865.

The second Emma (No 1223), a wooden motorboat, patrolled in the 5th Naval District in 1917 and 1918 in a non commissioned status.

Emma (given name)

Emma is a feminine given name. It is derived from the Germanic word ermen meaning "whole" or "universal". Emma is also used as a diminutive of Emmeline, Amelia or any other name beginning with "em".

It has been among the top names given to baby girls in the United States, England, Wales, Northern Ireland, Scotland, Ireland, France, Sweden, Belgium, Russia, Canada, Australia, Norway, New Zealand, Hungary, Finland, Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands, and Spain in the past 10 years. It began gaining popularity in the United Kingdom during the 1960s. By 1974 it was the fourth most popular name for girls in England and Wales. It was still in the top 10 as late as 1995, but had fallen out of the top 20 by 2005 and in 2009 it ranked at 41st. [1]

It became popular in the United States later in the 20th century, reaching the top 100 names for girls in the late 1990s. It has been among the top five names given to girls since 2002, and was the most popular name for girls in 2008, 2014, and 2015. [2]

Emma reportedly dated musicians, fellow actors, and businessmen

The Telegraph reported that Emma Watson was linked to Angus Willoughby, a drama student she met at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Arts in London in 2007. Life and Style explains that in 2008 she had a flirtation with "Made in Chelsea's" Francis Boulle. However, he told Heat magazine, "I didn't want to be the boyfriend of some child actress."

Pop Sugar writes that in November 2009 rumors started to circulate that Watson had met and struck up a relationship with fellow Brown student Rafael Cebrian. However, they parted ways after six months. Us Weekly reported that in 2010 Watson met One Night Only frontman George Craig at a modeling shoot. The pair hit it off and she even appeared in one of their music videos. She told BBC Radio One, "I couldn't believe (how good the music was). I'm a big fan. Everything he did was amazing."

Distractify writes that during her time at Brown University and Oxford University, Watson was linked to Matthew Janney and Will Adamowicz respectively before dating actor Roberto Aguire in 2015. Us Weekly reported that following her breakup with Aguire, Watson struck up a relationship with William 'Mack' Knight.

They were together for two years and speaking about her love life to Vanity Fair she said, per Grazia, "I've noticed, in Hollywood, who you're dating gets tied up into your film promotion and becomes part of the performance and the circus."

Activism in America

Under suppression of radical politics by the government, and family pressure to marry, Emma Goldman left for America in 1885 with her half-sister Helen Zodokoff, where they lived with their older sister who had emigrated earlier. She began working in the textile industry in Rochester, New York.

In 1886 Emma married a fellow worker, Jacob Kersner. They divorced in 1889, but since Kersner was a citizen, that marriage was the basis for Goldman's later claims to be a citizen.

Emma Goldman moved in 1889 to New York where she quickly became active in the anarchist movement. Inspired by the events in Chicago in 1886, which she had followed from Rochester, she joined with fellow anarchist Alexander Berkman in a plot to end the Homestead Steel Strike by assassinating the industrialist Henry Clay Frick. The plot failed to kill Frick, and Berkman went to jail for 14 years. Emma Goldman's name was widely known as the New York World depicted her as the real brains behind the attempt.

The 1893 panic, with a stock market crash and massive unemployment, led to a public rally in Union Square in August. Goldman spoke there, and she was arrested for inciting a riot. While she was in jail, Nellie Bly interviewed her. When she got out of prison from that charge, in 1895, she went to Europe to study medicine.

She was back in America in 1901, suspected of participating in a plot to assassinate President William McKinley. The only evidence that could be found against her was that the actual assassin attended a speech Goldman gave. The assassination resulted in the 1902 Aliens Act, classifying promoting "criminal anarchy" as a felony. In 1903, Goldman was among those who founded the Free Speech League to promote free speech and free assembly rights, and to oppose the Aliens Act.

She was the editor and publisher of Mother Earth magazine from 1906 until 1917. This journal promoted a cooperative commonwealth in America, rather than a government, and opposed repression.

Emma Goldman became one of the most outspoken and well-known American radicals, lecturing, and writing on anarchism, women's rights, and other political topics. She also wrote and lectured on "new drama," drawing out the social messages of Ibsen, Strindberg, Shaw, and others.

Emma Goldman served prison and jail terms for such activities as advising the unemployed to take bread if their pleas for food were not answered, for giving information in a lecture on birth control, and for opposing military conscription. In 1908 she was deprived of her citizenship.

In 1917, with her long-time associate Alexander Berkman, Emma Goldman was convicted of conspiracy against the draft laws, and sentenced to years in prison and fined $10,000.

In 1919 Emma Goldman, along with Alexander Berkman and 247 others who had been targeted in the Red Scare after World War I, emigrated to Russia on the Buford. But Emma Goldman's libertarian socialism led to her Disillusionment in Russia, as the title of her 1923 work says it. She lived in Europe, obtained British citizenship by marrying the Welshman James Colton, and traveled through many nations giving lectures.

Without citizenship, Emma Goldman was prohibited, except for a brief stay in 1934, from entering the United States. She spent her final years aiding the anti-Franco forces in Spain through lecturing and fund-raising. Succumbing to a stroke and its effects, she died in Canada in 1940 and was buried in Chicago, near the graves of the Haymarket anarchists.

Working-Class History

Emma Griffin charts the postwar emergence of working-class history as a scholarly discipline and argues that, thanks to the torch-bearers, the rationale for it has ebbed away.

When history emerged as a scholarly discipline in British universities at the end of the 19th century, it rarely took working-class people as its focus. History was about the great and the good – about kings, queens, archbishops and diplomats. Historians studied reigns, constitutions, parliaments, wars and religion. Although some historians inevitably strayed from the mainstream, they rarely organised their ideas around the concept of ‘the working class’. For example, Ivy Pinchbeck’s Women Workers and the Industrial Revolution, 1750-1850 (1930) and, with Margaret Hewitt, Children in English Society (1969) certainly foreshadowed the concerns of a later generation of social historians, yet took ‘women’ and ‘children’, rather than the ‘working class’ as their subject.

This changed with the emergence of the social history movement in the second half of the 20th century. At the end of the Second World War and – a decade or so later – as the universities expanded, the historian’s remit widened enormously. Poor and disenfranchised subjects, such as the working women and orph-aned children that Pinchbeck had studied, swiftly moved from the intellectual margins to the mainstream. The newly-formed social history movement splint-ered into numerous branches – black history, subaltern studies, women’s history, urban history, rural history and so on. Soon working-class history had also emerged as a distinct historical specialism. The Communist Party History Group (founded 1946) and the Society for the Study of Labour History (1960) together consolidated its place in the universities. The History Workshop movement, established in the late 1960s with a slightly broader remit, provided an important platform for the study of ordinary people. Now historians of the working class enjoyed all the trappings of a modern academic sub-discipline, with their own societies, annual conferences and journals.

The cause of this fledgling historical strand was greatly advanced through association with some of the leading scholars of the age, including the Communist Party History Group members Christopher Hill, Eric Hobsbawm, Raphael Samuel and E. P. Thompson. These four were also part of the group that founded the journal Past & Present, now widely regarded as one of the most important historical journals published in Britain today. Thompson’s monumental The Making of the English Working Class (1963) was arguably the single most significant contribution to working-class history, but it is easy to forget that he was just one part of a larger community of scholars with a shared interest in the emergence and experiences of the working class at the time of the British Industrial Revolution.

Much of Hobsbawm’s early work was devoted to explaining the absence of a working-class revolution in Britain. He made his entry to academia with the influential essays ‘General Labour Unions in Britain, 1889-1914’ (1949) and ‘The Tramping Artisan’ (1951) in the Economic History Review ‘The Machine Breakers’ in Past & Present (1952) and ‘The labour aristocracy in 19th-century Britain’, which appeared in John Saville’s, Democracy and the Labour Movement: essays in honour of Dona Torr (1954). Like Thompson, he was part of a much larger community of scholars interested in the working class. Hobsbawm’s interventions on the ‘standard of living debate’ in Economic History Review in the late 1950s and 1960s only achieved such prominence because the question of what happened to the working class during the Industrial Revolution was a question of enormous academic interest in those years.

Working-class history does not arouse the passions that it once did and, although historians continue to question what happened to working people during the Industrial Revolution, for the most part they do so without the vitriol that characterised debate in the 1960s. There are a number of reasons for this. An important essay by Gareth Stedman Jones, ‘Rethinking Chartism’, published in his Languages of Class: Studies in English Working-Class History, 1832-1982 (1983), caused scholars to question a core working assumption of historians of the working class, namely whether such a thing as a ‘working class’ actually existed. Stedman Jones asked, what if the emergence of this term was a linguistic and rhetorical development rather than a reflection of a new social reality? This incendiary suggestion struck at the core of the Marxist account of class that had long underpinned working-class history. For a number of years afterwards, historians were distracted by debating whether or not the working class actually existed, rather than thinking about what happened to those working people during the Industrial Revolution (a debate played out at length in the pages of the journal Social History in the 1990s). At the same time, the 1980s saw a waning of the initial energy and enthusiasm of the social history movement and a shift towards a much more apolitical style of writing. Impassioned, angry scholarship and the figure of the activist-cum-scholar were becoming increasingly rare across the profession.

Working-class history as originally established has not disappeared completely. The Society for the Study of Labour History and History Workshop movement still exist, as does the successor to the Communist Party History Group, the Socialist History Society. All three publish journals and remain committed to the study of the working class broadly conceived. Nonetheless, most historians studying working people in 19th- and 20th-century Britain do not publish under the working-class history banner. Much of the work published today with working people as its focus takes a quantitative form and comes from practitioners who consider themselves to be economic historians rather than working-class ones. Others find an intellectual home in the broader traditions of social and cultural history, which illustrate the diverse interests of historians of the working class today, such as Andrew August’s The British Working Class, 1832-1940 (2007) Julie-Marie Strange’s Fatherhood, Attachment and the British Working Class, c.1871-1914 (2013) and Selina Todd’s The People: The Rise and Fall of the Working Class, 1910-2010 (2014). My own Liberty’s Dawn: A People’s History of the Industrial Revolution (2013) looked at hundreds of autobiographies written by working people to reconsider the question of what happened to them during the Industrial Revolution, but framed the research around questions of experience, family and culture rather than ‘class’. In this respect, ‘working-class history’ has shared the fate of many of the other branches that splintered from the social history tree in the 1960s. Thanks to their efforts, we no longer need to justify our interest in marginalised groups. Now that the working class has been firmly established as a legitimate topic for serious academic enquiry, the rationale for being a separate sub-discipline has simply ebbed away.

Emma Griffin is Professor of History at the University of East Anglia. She is writing a history of working-class life during the Industrial Revolution for Yale.

Wrisë D. Booker

The "Mentor to Leaders"

It with great sadness that we share the news that longtime EBF friend and cable industry leader, known as the “Mentor to Leaders” and President of Reid Dugger Consulting, Wrisë D. Booker, passed away on March 31st, 2020.

Booker had an accomplished career, from serving as the first Director of Organizational Development at the Times Mirror Cable Television to simultaneously managing and expanding industry trade organizations, including NAMIC (National Association for Multi-Ethnicity in Communications), and the Cable and Telecommunications Human Resources Association (C2HR). Beyond this, she influenced and shaped many individuals and industry mentoring initiatives with her passion for accelerating leadership capacity and cultivating a future generation of top talent.

Wrisë Booker was an essential member of the Emma Bowen Foundation’s leadership development team for more than eleven years. She designed and then facilitated the Foundation’s Link Mentoring program from 2003 to 2014. The program united Foundation fellows with seasoned industry managers to provide insights on corporate life and professional development. Key elements of the Link program included a DISC personal profile for each participant, a case simulation that introduced concepts such as institutionalizing diversity, defining star qualities, utilizing differences, developing mentoring relationships, exercising initiatives and overcoming resistance to change. Mentees, with the help of their mentors, were then encouraged to develop a personal plan. The Fabulous Forum, which offered candid discussions about work life and networking, balanced out the program. More than 500 Foundation Fellows and 150 mentors participated in the program.

Most recently, Ms. Booker attended the inaugural Emma Bowen Alumni Reunion weekend in October 2019 and reconnected with alumni from the classes of 1997 to 2019. Her impact and connections were so profound that she was offering free group mentorship to the EBF Alumni Association up until her untimely passing.

The EBF community is forever grateful to her. We will remember Booker’s impact and cherish her legacy.

To have an audio experience of the history of Wrisë D. Booker, click here.

Merging Technology with Art

In the late 1960s, Polaroid recruited the world&rsquos best-known artists&mdashAnsel Adams, David Hockney, and Andy Warhol&mdashto test its products. It provided them with free film and studio space and invited them to snap photos of whatever they wanted, as long as they returned the finished prints to the Collections Committee. The idea was also brought to Europe, where cameras and film were given to leading photographers such as David Bailey, Sarah Moon, and Helmut Newton. These works became the basis for the International Polaroid Collection. Through the 1970s and 1980s, the collection grew as more and more artists applied for camera and film grants. The epic collection was later displayed as The Polaroid Project in 2018 at Museum für Kunst und Gewerbe Hamburg in Hamburg, Germany.

Emma Groeneveld

I've always loved reading, and historical novels were among the very fist books I picked up, which kick-started my passion for history. After going through Utrecht University completing a BA in History, for which my BA thesis was published, and a Research Master in Ancient History, I did a teaching master too to become a qualified teacher. However, my real passion lies with writing and research. I'm drawn to ancient history for its wealth of interesting politics and relations and gripping ancient sources. Specifically the ancient courts with all their juicy intrigue and paths of influence do not cease to fascinate me.

Besides the more traditional scope of ancient history, my interests have always gone back way further in time than what was offered in my courses at Uni. Dinosaurs, but even more so human evolution &ampamp prehistory are topics I have always kept a close eye on and read as much as possible about, whenever I could. Since finishing my studies a few years ago I have really been making an effort to catch up on the last couple of years' publications in the field of evolutionary palaeoanthropology. I'm especially fascinated by the Neanderthal-Modern Human connection.

The Woman Who Made History by Answering the Phone

T he first telephones were hard enough to use without the added harassment of the teenage boys who worked as the earliest switchboard operators &mdash and who were, per PBS, notoriously rude.

It was Alexander Graham Bell himself who came up with a solution: replacing the abrupt male operators with young women who were expected to be innately polite. He hired a woman named Emma Nutt away from her job at a telegraph office, and on this day, Sept. 1, in 1878, she became the world&rsquos first female telephone operator. (Her sister, Stella, became the second when she started work at the same place, Boston&rsquos Edwin Holmes Telephone Dispatch Company, a few hours later.)

As an operator, Nutt pressed all the right buttons: she was patient and savvy, her voice cultured and soothing, according to the New England Historical Society. Her example became the model all telephone companies sought to emulate, and by the end of the 1880s, the job had become an exclusively female trade.

Many women embraced the professional opportunity, which seemed like a step up from factory work or domestic service. But the work wasn&rsquot easy, and telephone companies were draconian employers, according to the Massachusetts Foundation for the Humanities, which notes:

Merely to get the job, a woman had to pass height, weight, and arm length tests to ensure that she could work in the tight quarters afforded switchboard operators. Operators had to sit with perfect posture for long hours in straight-backed chairs. They were not permitted to communicate with each other. They were to respond quickly, efficiently, and patiently &mdash even when dealing with the most irascible customers.

It soon became clear to these operators why the teenage boys who preceded them had so often talked back to their customers. One woman, in an anonymous 1922 op-ed for the New York Times, reported saying &ldquonumber please&rdquo an average of 120 times per hour for eight hours a day (and sometimes at night) &mdash and biting her tongue when she was excoriated for every possible connection problem, &ldquoincluding the sin of sending your party out to lunch just when you wanted to reach him.&rdquo

Working under these conditions for impossibly meager pay (Nutt herself made $10 a month working 54 hours a week) ultimately drove the women to organize. In 1919 they went on strike, paralyzing the telephone-dependent New England region &mdash and winning a wage increase.

Nearly a century after Nutt first connected a call, switchboards remained almost entirely staffed by women. In 1973, a group of women filed a complaint with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission about this hiring disparity &mdash and the corresponding dearth of women employed in other telecommunications positions. The EEOC persuaded the American Telephone and Telegraph Company (later known as AT&T) to sign an agreement opening every job in the company to both sexes.

The agreement backfired in its intended effect, however. &ldquo[It] is producing many more male operators than female linemen or telephone installers,&rdquo TIME observed later that year. Boys, it seemed, had retaken their place at the switchboard.

Read more about the 1973 case, here in the TIME archives:Crossed Wires at Bell

History of Emma - History

White County Illinois

Genealogy and History

History of
Emma Township

From the History of White County Illinois, 1883

This township embraces a fine farming district, and is situated in the southeastern corner of White County. It comprises fifty-eight square miles, and consists of township 6 south, range 10 east, and the north half of township 7 south, range 10 east. It is mostly timbered land, with some prairie land near the center. The Great Wabash River bounds it on the east, while the Little Wabash runs through the western portion. The Louisville & Nashville Railroad crosses the Big Wabash in the northeastern corner of the township.

The first settler was probably Robert Land, who moved here with his wife and four children in 1809, a more extended account of whom is given in Chapter II. Among the early settlers may be mentioned James Dorsey, Miles W. Burris, Joseph Garrison, Charles Mobley, George Alexander and Thomas Logan.

Aaron Franks, now a resident of Wabash Station, came to this county in 1832. He was born in West Virginia, about fifty miles below Wheeling after living in Ohio about thirteen years, he came to this county, settling about half a mile southeast of where Wabash Station now is, during the Black Hawk war. His nearest neighbors at that time were Thomas Stephens, about a quarter of a mile west of him, in the little prairie Mr. Goodin and his son Joseph, about a quarter of a mile distant John Holderby, also in the little prairie and Joel Abshier. All these are now deceased.

Mr. Franks is still living, his residence being on the bank of the Big Wabash, 200 or 300 yards from the saw-mill. To him we are indebted for some of the facts of history in this volume, especially those relating to improvement of navigation in the Wabash.

John Marshall, of Marshall's Ferry, is also an old resident, and one of the most prominent men of the township. He has in his possession a sword, which is one of those ordered by the State of Illinois and presented to the officers of the Mexican war. It has this inscription: "Presented to Major Samuel D.Marshall for services in the Mexican war." The sword is beautifully engraved, the battle of Cerro Gordo being represented on one side. It is very heavily plated with gold, as is also the scabbard, the whole being encased in satin in a fine rosewood case. He was an intimate friend of Abraham Lincoln was in the Legislature with him one term, and was with him on the Harrison electoral ticket in 1840. John Marshall has in his possession a letter from Mr. Lincoln written in February, 1849, to Major Samuel D. Marshall, Shawneetown, Ill.

There are also many relics of antiquity found in this township. Two skeletons were recently found on Colonel Crebs's land at the Little Chain,supposed to be those of Indians how they came there no one knows.

Concord, Emma P. O. At the first settlement of Southern Illinois, Concord was the garden spot of Egypt. She had her Logans, Lands, Slocumbs, Hannas, Nevitts. Shipleys, Pomeroys, McCoys, and other families of great worth. Rev. Charles Slocumb was one of the grandest men in the whole community. George Logan was one of the ablest men in Southern Illinois. He represented White County in the Legislature with great ability. These are the men, with many others, that felled the forest and reared the first houses in what to-day is known as Emma Township.

It was laid out Sept. 23,1869, by Hail Storms, County Surveyor, for Matilda Shelby, John G. Robinson, James M. Jackson and Medora M. Jackson, and is located on the northeast quarter of the northeast quarter of section 29, town 6 south, range 10 east. The village had existed long before this survey, and had been a point of considerable note. It is stated that Charles and Stephen Slocumb settled here as early as 1815, and that a thriving village existed but after their death the property changed hands a number of times, and now J. McCallister owns a greater part of the village. There are two general stores, one owned by Mr. McCallister and the other by William II. Gray one blacksmith shop, a wagon repair shop, also a warehouse on the banks of the Wabash, where considerable grain is purchased. An office has been built here for the use of the township. Wm. R. McDonald owns the north half of the village, and has lots for sale. It was named by Rev. Charles Slocumb, as of peaceful or religious significance.

Residents of Emma Township


Daniel Absher
Henry Absher
Joel M. Abshier
John Absher
Hieronimus Aman
Robert W. Boyd
John S. Brumblay
Solomon Bryant
George W. Clark
James A. Clark
Joel Clark
James J. Corcoran
James Dawsey
John Eply
Joseph Garrison
William Hall
Benjamin Land
S.L. Logan
John Marshall
Jarret McCallister
Weslley Mc Callister
Henry H. McMullen
Nathaniel McMullen
William P. McMurtry, M.D.
Josiah L. Nelson
William Newton
James O'Neill
James Madison Pumroy
Frederic Roser
Clifford Rudd
R. Coleman Seals
Thomas Stephens
George W. Taylor
Joseph Tuggle
Joseph Ward
William Willis
Chauncey Ward



Alexander Williams


William John Smith


Alexander Williams


James M. Jackson


Alexander Williams


Wesley McCallister


John Epley



R. A. Mayhew


Geo. W. Gaddy


James A. Clark


Charles Whittlesey


B. B. York


Jarrett McCallister


William H Gray


William C. Absher



A. L. Garrison


John B. Graw


Daniel M. Absher


Joseph Garrison


Wyatt Williams Jr.


Joseph Garrison



James A. Miller


John S. Brumblay


Alex. S. Garrison


James M. Jackson


G. W. Clark


Joseph Ward


William P. McMurtry


Robert K. Logan


Highway Commissioners

William Hall
Charles N. Skinner


James O'Neal


William Hall


Martin Richter
J. B. Bennett


Samuel Chastain
Solomon Bryant


JR. E. Seals
J. F. McHenry


G. W. Chastain


Joseph Tugle
George W. Clark


J. W. Gilbert


Joel M. Abshier



Wesley McCallister
J. M. Campbell


Wesley McCallister
Daniel M. Absher


James M. Absher
James Edwards


James O'Neal



R. W. Muiisey
Jarrett McCallister


James M. Williams
James Edwards


James Edwards
Wyett Williams


James Edwards
Barney B. York


Wabash Station, Marshall's Ferry P.O. , is a station on the Louisville & Nashville Railroad. No village is laid out here, although there are two stores, a postoffice, blacksmith shop, and a portable saw-mill. The station was located about twelve years ago, and there are now about a dozen houses, of no very pretentious appearance.

Elm Grove.
In 1844 Elm Grove first appeared as a place of business. William L. Garrison erected a storehouse, 12x14, under an elm-tree that stood by the roadside, and from which the place was named. He opened up a stock of dry goods, groceries, etc., and from this miniature establishment sprang the village of Elm Grove.
It is located on the Garrison farm, sections 20 and 17, and was laid out by measurement, and lots sold, in 1849 subsequently it was laid out by County Surveyor John Storms.

From 1861 to 1865 this place was the center of a large territory, the inhabitants of which came here to trade. Business was very lively.

[The Garrison Family Cemetery still stands behind a small concrete wall. There is an old barn still standing where the Garrison family farm once was.]

There were three stores and two saloons it was also a sporting location, especially that of the turf. There is scarcely anything now except a few dilapidated buildings, all is silent as the grave. There is a Methodist church in the village, the only one in the township, and there is preaching every Sunday all else seems dead. Even the old elm-tree is dead and returning to its original dust.

Among the first settlers may be mentioned Charles Mabley, James Garrison, George, Alexander and Thomas Logan.

Rising Sun. This village is located on the west bank of the Big Wabash River, just north of Marshall's Ferry. It is situated on the southeast quarter of section 18, and was platted by Hail Storms for Maxfield Huston, who sold most of the lots at auction. Mr. H. died in August, 1873. There is a blacksmith shop, shingle machine, and a school-house, used also for church purposes. There are the ruins of an old saw and flouring mill, built in 1858 by John Marshall and run for several years the machinery has been taken out and moved to Kansas. The village is surrounded by good farming land and good timber.

Marshall's Ferry. This was the first ferry across the Great Wabash in White County, and was first called Codd's Ferry. Mr. Codd sold his claim to John Marshall, and the latter took out his patent for the south half of section 18, and the whole of fractional section 17. This is John Marshall's home. A store and postoffice were opened here in an early day, and were the first in White County. This ferry is about midway between the Grand Chain and the Little Chain, and about two miles east of Clear Lake, where hundreds go every year to hunt and fish.

Mr. Marshall built the first house in the village. The first blacksmith was James M. Kroh he is said to have made the first sorghum molasses in the State of Illinois, and was one of the first to distribute the sorghum seed throughout the United States and Canada.

The first school in this vicinity was a subscription school, taught by Mrs. Rowe and Adam Goodwin. The first district school was taught by Miss Mary Aldrich, of Posey County, Ind., now Mrs. Solomon Nesler, of Emma Township. John Field is the present teacher.

There is an old graveyard at or very near Marshall's Ferry. The date when this spot was first used as a burying place is unknown.
The earliest date known is marked by a plain sandstone slab, on which is engraved: "sacred to the memory of Grooinbright Bailey born in Baltimore, Md., May 1, A. D. 1732, Died , A. D. 1817." This and nothing more is known of this man's life or death, or how he ever came here at this early day, or who buried the body and erected the slab. Another broken sand slab, lying close beside the wagon track daily travel passing over the grave bears the name, "Robert Boss, born in Northwick, England Departed this life Feb. 8, 1820."

Marshall Ferry's Cemetery

On the top of this stone is cut a square and compass. There is the appearance of some forty or fifty graves scattered among the large timber within ten to fifty feet of the banks of the Wabash River, on a high ridge above the overflow of this stream. The place has not been used as a burial spot for over thirty years, and is entirely neglected.

In the winter of 1809-'10, near Thomas Miller's, an Indian shot and killed a fine deer at a distance of eighty yard, with a bow and arrow, the latter having a flint point.

Methodist Episcopal Church. This society was organized in August, 1866, by Revs. Sutton, Sellers and Stephen B. Slocumb. The first officers were: James C. Huston, Class-Leader and Steward. Rev. Sellers was pastor, and served there three years was succeeded by C. "W. Sabin two years Rev. Elam, one year Marcus L. King, three years Rev. R. H. Monierse, three years Rev. Baird, two years Rev. Mr. Field, two years the latter is the present pastor. Services are held in the school-house. John W. Devers is the present Steward and Class Leader, also Superintendent of the Sabbath-school, in which there are about forty scholars.

Old Christian or New Light Church was organized in 1879. James Schemmerhorn is the present pastor, and George W. Williams, Clerk. There is a membership of eleven persons.
In the summer of 1872 a Christian church was organized, but owing to various causes it is now defunct.

Near Marshall's Ferry there is a circle of earth thrown up about two feet high, and about sixty feet across, with a mound in the center two feet high. This is unmistakably the work of human hands. On the circle there is an old black oak-tree about four feet in diameter. There are many mounds within a mile of the river, and gives an appearance of an old burying ground for people to history unknown.

Old church in Maunie

The cholera of 1832 carried off two or three persons in the vicinity of Williams' Ferry, among them the wife of the elder Mr. Stephens. There may have been other cases in the township.

The Old Schoolhouse
The Pathfinder, October 20, 1923

There are old familiar pictures
Painted fair in mem'ry's frame
There are voices hushed in silence,
I so long to hear again.
There's a house of logs and benches
Shaded well by lofty trees--
"Tis the old school house of childhood,
Where I learned my A, B, C's.

Oh, the old familiar schoolmates
Scattered far from this dear place
I can hear their shouts at ev'ning,
I can see each happy face
When the teacher had dismissed them,
And the day's dull tasks were done,
As long the lanes they loitered,
Heedless of the setting sun.

I have wandered back since childhood
To review that sacred ground,
And found some schoolmates lying
Near the place--'neath mossy mound.
And I looked to where the schoolhouse
Stood in days of long ago,
In its place another building,
Dear old schoolhouse lying low.

Now the silent ev'nings whisper
Of the ones I love the best
They repeat the old, old story:
Some are scattered--some now rest
Where we played the games of childhood,
Free from sorrow, pain and care,
When we knew no dread tomorrow,
Free as children of the air.

Mem'ry often loves to travel
Trails I tramped in boyhood days,
'Cross the fields and through the forests
Where now run the wide highways.
Gone the sacred home of childhood,
Gone the schoolhouse down the lane
Where the monarchs of the forest
Sheltered me from sun and rain.

This was penned by E.R. Robinson of Lonoke, Ark. He dedicated the poem to the first school he and his brother, Sen. Joseph T. Robinson, ever attended. He described the school as follows:

It was a little log hut, 18 feet square, with one door, one window, and with split logs for seats. It has long ago crumbed back to dust, but just in front of where it stood is the Concord Methodist Church, and in front of this church is the old cemetery that contains the dust of our beloved dead. This log school was erected by our father 80 years ago, and the land on which schoolhouse, church and cemetery stood, was given by him to the community.

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