10 November 1944

10 November 1944

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10 November 1944



Western Front

US 3rd Army holds off a German counterattack


British 8th Army captures Forli


The Japanese capture the US air base at Kweilin (Kwangsi province)

Eastern Front

Soviet forces cross the Danube in force

›› Date difference from Oct 15, 1941 to Nov 21, 1944

The total number of days between Wednesday, October 15th, 1941 and Tuesday, November 21st, 1944 is 1,133 days.

This is equal to 3 years, 1 month, and 6 days.

This does not include the end date, so it's accurate if you're measuring your age in days, or the total days between the start and end date. But if you want the duration of an event that includes both the starting date and the ending date, then it would actually be 1,134 days.

If you're counting workdays or weekends, there are 809 weekdays and 324 weekend days.

If you include the end date of Nov 21, 1944 which is a Tuesday, then there would be 810 weekdays and 324 weekend days including both the starting Wednesday and the ending Tuesday.

1,133 days is equal to 161 weeks and 6 days.

The total time span from 1941-10-15 to 1944-11-21 is 27,192 hours.

You can also convert 1,133 days to 97,891,200 seconds.

The psychology of hunger

Amid the privations of World War II, 36 men voluntarily starved themselves so that researchers and relief workers could learn about how to help people recover from starvation.

By Dr. David Baker and Natacha Keramidas

In November 1944, 36 young men took up residence in the corridors and rooms of the University of Minnesota football stadium. They were not members of the football team. Rather, they were volunteers preparing for a nearly yearlong experiment on the psychological and physiological effects of starvation. Known as the Minnesota Starvation Experiment, the study was a project of the newly established Laboratory of Physiological Hygiene at the University of Minnesota, an interdisciplinary research institution with an emphasis on nutrition and human biology.

At the time, World War II was raging around the world, and so, too, were hunger and starvation. Over the centuries, people had recorded anecdotal reports of the effects of famine and starvation, but there was little in the scientific literature that described its physiological and psychological effects. Just as important, doctors and researchers didn't know how to help people rehabilitate and recover from starvation.

Eager to take on the challenge was Ancel Keys, PhD, the physiologist in charge of the Minnesota lab. The lab's chief psychologist, Josef Brozek, PhD, was responsible for gathering the psychological data on the effects of starvation. Brozek had completed his doctoral degree in 1937 at Charles University in Prague with interests in applied psychology, physiology and physical anthropology, and joined the Minnesota lab in 1941.

Among his duties, Brozek assisted in recruiting subjects for the study. In previous nutrition studies at the lab, Keys had drawn subjects from the ranks of the Civilian Public Service (CPS). During World War II, the CPS provided conscientious objectors an alternative to military combat service. These objectors were often referred to as human guinea pigs because of their willingness to serve in medical experiments. Keys knew from experience that many conscientious objectors were eager to do meaningful work that would benefit humanity and was confident that the starvation experiment would attract the needed volunteers.

Subject selection was stringent. Subjects had to be male, single and demonstrate good physical and mental health (largely based on the newly developed Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory). They also had to show an ability to get along well with others under trying circumstances and an interest in relief work. The final 36 men were selected from more than 200 volunteers and in November 1944 made their way to the University of Minnesota to begin their service.

The research protocol called for the men to lose 25 percent of their normal body weight. They spent the first three months of the study eating a normal diet of 3,200 calories a day, followed by six months of semi-starvation at 1,570 calories a day (divided between breakfast and lunch), then a restricted rehabilitation period of three months eating 2,000 to 3,200 calories a day, and finally an eight-week unrestricted rehabilitation period during which there were no limits on caloric intake. Their diet consisted of foods widely available in Europe during the war, mostly potatoes, root vegetables, bread and macaroni. The men were required to work 15 hours per week in the lab, walk 22 miles per week and participate in a variety of educational activities for 25 hours a week. Throughout the experiment, the researchers measured the physiological and psychological changes brought on by near starvation.

During the semi-starvation phase the changes were dramatic. Beyond the gaunt appearance of the men, there were significant decreases in their strength and stamina, body temperature, heart rate and sex drive. The psychological effects were significant as well. Hunger made the men obsessed with food. They would dream and fantasize about food, read and talk about food and savor the two meals a day they were given. They reported fatigue, irritability, depression and apathy. Interestingly, the men also reported decreases in mental ability, although mental testing of the men did not support this belief.

For some men, the study proved too difficult. Data from three subjects were excluded as a result of their breaking the diet and a fourth was excluded for not meeting expected weight loss goals.

The men and the study became subjects of national interest, even appearing in Life magazine in 1945. But in some ways, world events overtook the study. The war in Europe ended on May 8, 1945, barely halfway through the starvation phase of the experiment. Keys and the men worried that the data they had sacrificed for would not get to relief workers and the starving people they wished to serve in time to help them. Relief efforts were underway and there was no clear guide for rehabilitating those who were starving.

In response, members of Keys staff prepared a 70-page booklet, Men and Hunger: A Psychological Manual for Relief Workers. The book provided practical advice based on lessons learned in the lab.

The Minnesota Starvation Experiment ended in October 1945. Its results painted a vivid picture of the physical and psychological decline caused by starvation and offered guidelines on rehabilitation. In the restricted rehabilitation, calories were increased in increments. The experiment also looked at unrestricted rehabilitation and — even though participants were warned against it — some engaged in extreme overeating. Of the various diets and supplements that were studied during the rehabilitation phase of the experiment, the most reliable weight-gain strategy was high caloric intake. Simply put, starving people needed calories. Food and lots of it was the key to rehabilitation. It was as true for those released from the laboratory in Minnesota as it was for those freed from the privations of war in Europe.

In 1950, Keys, Brozek and other members of the team published their data in the two-volume set "The Biology of Human Starvation," which is still a landmark work on human starvation. The men who served as subjects went their separate ways, some into relief work, the ministry, education and other service-oriented occupations. Brozek, who had developed an interest in the history of psychology, would go on to Lehigh University and became a recognized psychology historian. Keys, who is well-known for his work on the Mediterranean diet, is also remembered for popularizing the body mass index. His contributions and visibility were significant enough to earn him a place on the cover of Time magazine in 1961.

The story of the Minnesota Starvation Experiment is many stories rolled into one. It reminds us of the privilege we have most of us can avoid the unpleasant sensation of hunger by simply reaching for something to eat. Hunger is debilitating and tragic, all the more so when it is created by human affairs. The Minnesota Starvation Experiment also tells the story of service and sacrifice among those who served in the Civilian Public Service and raised questions about the ethics of human experimentation. Mostly, it reminds us that in psychology studies of mind and body, science and practice can converge to deal with real problems in the real world.

David Baker, PhD, is the Margaret Clark Morgan executive director of the Center for the History of Psychology and professor of psychology at the University of Akron. Natacha Keramidas is a graduate assistant at the Center for the History of Psychology and a PhD student in the collaborative program in counseling psychology. Katharine S. Milar, PhD, is historical editor for "Time Capsule."

A French women welcomes an American soldier two days after liberation. Strasbourg, France, 22 November 1944. [1024 x 853]

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10 Sexy Photos From the History of Pornography (NSFW)

Robert Rosen spent the last two decades of the 20th century working in the world of adult magazines. Under the name Bobby Paradise, he edited titles like High Society, D-Cup and many more. In Beaver Street: A History of Modern Pornography, Rosen, who also wrote the John Lennon biography Nowhere Man, combines his personal tales with insight into the world of adult entertainment.

Let's take a look back at ten NSFW images that marked the late 20th century.

Credit: All images courtesy of Robert Rosen

1. Stag, 1974

The natural look of the 1970s graces the cover of this issue of Stag.

Credit: All images courtesy of Robert Rosen

2. High Society, January, 1984

Credit: All images courtesy of Robert Rosen

3. High Society, February, 1984

Totally ྌs with massive, um, hair and heavy make-up.

Credit: All images courtesy of Robert Rosen

4. Swank, November, 1984

Celebrating 30 years of Swank with pole dancing and puns.

Credit: All images courtesy of Robert Rosen

5. For Adults Only, November, 1985

The ྌs derrière, glossy and toned.

Credit: All images courtesy of Robert Rosen

6. Greg Dark, a female porn star (identity unknown), Walter Dark

Credit: All images courtesy of Robert Rosen

7. Bra Busters, 1989

For those who like buxom ladies.

Credit: All images courtesy of Robert Rosen

8. D-Cup, May, 1992

Tiffany Towers with a strategically placed scarf.

Credit: All images courtesy of Robert Rosen

9. Interactive Visual Chat advertisement

The early days of online entertainment for adults.

Credit: All images courtesy of Robert Rosen

10. Plump and Pink, 1999

Because lust comes in all sizes.

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2021 ICD-10-CM

In response to the national emergency that was declared concerning the COVID-19 outbreak, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) is implementing 6 new diagnosis codes into the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM), effective January 1, 2021.

The files in the Downloads section below contain information on the ICD-10-CM COVID-19 updates effective with discharges and patient encounters on and after January 1, 2021.

The 2021 ICD-10-CM files below contain information on the ICD-10-CM updates for FY 2021. These 2021 ICD-10-CM codes are to be used for discharges occurring from October 1, 2020 through September 30, 2021 and for patient encounters occurring from October 1, 2020 through September 30, 2021.

There is no FY 2021 GEMs file. As stated in the FY 2016 IPPS/LTCH PPS final rule (80 FR 49388), the GEMs have been updated on an annual basis as part of the ICD-10 Coordination and Maintenance Committee meetings process and will continue to be updated for approximately 3 years after ICD-10 is implemented.

We made the GEMs files available for FY 2016, FY 2017 and FY 2018.

An announcement was also made at the September 2017 ICD-10 Coordination and Maintenance Committee meeting that FY 2018 would be the last GEMs file update.

November 11th 1918

The last day of World War One was November 11 th 1918, known as Armistice Day. Despite November 11 th being the last day of the war, on many parts of the Western Front fighting continued as normal. This meant, of course, that casualties occurred even as the people of Paris, London and New York were celebrating the end of the fighting.

After three days of intense negotiations in a rail siding just outside of Compiegne (see photo), the German delegation that had been brought to the personal carriage of Marshall Ferdinand Foch was ordered by its government in Berlin to sign any terms put on the table by the Allies. Potentially serious social upheaval had forced the government in Berlin into giving out this instruction as people had taken to the streets as a result of chronic food shortages caused by the British naval blockade. Therefore, the German delegation led by Matthias Erzberger signed the terms of the Armistice.

This was done at 05.10 on November 11 th . However, the actual ceasefire would not start until 11.00 to allow the information to travel to the many parts of the Western Front. Technology allowed the news to go to capital cities by 05.40 and celebrations began before very many soldiers knew about the Armistice. In London, Big Ben was rung for the first time since the start of the war in August 1914. In Paris, gas lamps were lit for the first time in four years. But on the Western Front, many tens of thousands of soldiers assumed that it was just another day in the war and officers ordered their men into combat.

Quite a number of the final casualties were at Mons in Belgium – ironically one of the first major battles of the war in 1914. In a cemetery just outside of Mons in the village of Nouvelle, there are nine graves of British soldiers. Five are from August 1914 while four are dated November 11 th 1918.

The Commonwealth War Graves Commission (CWGC) states that their records show that 863 Commonwealth soldiers died on November 11 th 1918 – though this figure also includes those who died on that day but of wounds received prior to November 11 th .

In particular, the Americans took heavy casualties on the last day of the war. This was because their commander, General John Pershing, believed that the Germans had to be severely defeated at a military level to effectively ‘teach them a lesson’. Pershing saw the terms of the Armistice as being soft on the Germans. Therefore, he supported those commanders who wanted to be pro-active in attacking German positions – even though he knew that an Armistice had been signed. In particular, the Americans suffered heavy casualties attempting to cross the River Meuse on the night of the 10 th /11 th with the US Marines taking over 1,100 casualties alone. However, if they had waited until 11.00, they could have crossed the river unhindered and with no casualties. The 89 th US Division was ordered to attack and take the town of Stenay on the morning of November 11 th . Stenay was the last town captured on the Western Front but at a cost of 300 casualties.

The CWGC records that the last British soldier killed in World War One was Private George Edwin Ellison of the 5 th Royal Irish Lancers. He was killed at Mons (where he had also fought in 1914) at 09.30, just 90 minutes before the ceasefire.

The last French soldier to die was Augustin Trebuchon from the 415 th Infantry Regiment. He was a runner and was in the process of taking a message to his colleagues at the front informing them of the ceasefire. He was hit by a single shot and killed at 10.50. In total, 75 French soldiers were killed on November 11 th but their graves state November 10 th . Two theories have been forwarded for this discrepancy. The first is that by stating that they died on November 10 th before the war had ended, there could be no question about their family’s entitlement to a war pension. The other theory, is that the French government wanted to avoid any form of embarrassment or political scandal should it ever become known that so many died on the last day of the war.

The last Canadian to die was Private George Lawrence Price of the Canadian Infantry (2 nd Canadian Division) who was killed at Mons at 10.58. Officially, Price was the last Commonwealth soldier to be killed in World War One.

The last American soldier killed was Private Henry Gunter who was killed at 10.59. Officially, Gunter was the last man to die in World War One. His unit had been ordered to advance and take a German machine gun post. It is said that even the Germans – who knew that they were literally minutes away from a ceasefire – tried to stop the Americans attacking. But when it became obvious that this had failed, they fired on their attackers and Gunter was killed. His divisional record stated:

“Almost as he fell, the gunfire died away and an appalling silence prevailed.”

Information about German casualties is more difficult to ascertain. However, it may well be the case that the last casualty of World War One was a junior German officer called Tomas who approached some Americans to tell them that the war was over and that they could have the house he and his men were just vacating. However, no one had told the Americans that the war had finished because of a communications breakdown and Tomas was shot as he approached them after 11.00.

Officially over 10,000 men were killed, wounded or went missing on November 11th 1918. The Americans alone suffered over 3,000 casualties. When these losses became public knowledge, such was the anger at home that Congress held a hearing regarding the matter. In November 1919, Pershing faced a House of Representatives Committee on Military Affairs that examined whether senior army commanders had acted accordingly in the last few days of the war. However, no one was ever charged with negligence and Pershing remained unapologetic, remaining convinced that the Germans had got off lightly with the terms of the Armistice. He also stated that although he knew about the timing of the Armistice, he simply did not trust the Germans to carry out their obligations. He therefore, as commander in chief, ordered the army to carry on as it would normally do as any “judicious commander” would have done. Pershing also pointed out that he was merely carrying out the orders of the Allies Supreme Commander, Marshall Ferdinand Foch, that were to “pursue the field greys (Germans) until the last minute”.

The 10 biggest earthquakes in California history

The further back in time scientists look, the harder it is to pinpoint the date, place and magnitude of earthquakes.

But understanding long-term earthquake behavior and recurrence has important applications for modern risk analysis. Scientists estimate earthquake probabilities in 30-year increments so insurance companies and home buyers securing mortgages can account for the danger.

&ldquoWe scientists try to understand how the earth behaved in the past to try to forecast how the future might look,&rdquo said David Schwartz, a seismologist with the U.S. Geological Survey.

A whole branch of scientific inquiry &mdash paleoseismology &mdash is dedicated to hunting for ancient earthquakes that rumbled before the time of news reports and seismographs and diary entries.

The work often involves digging a trench along a fault and looking for disturbances in sediment layers. Where there&rsquos a rupture, paleoseismologists can carbon date things like wood, seeds and leaf pieces to determine when the ground shaking occurred, Schwartz said.

Understanding the threat, if put to good use, can yield benefits.

In the early 1980s, for instance, officials with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission wanted to know the earthquake potential of the Cascadia subduction zone &mdash an offshore fault that stretches from Vancouver Island to Cape Mendocino, where the Juan de Fuca plate is diving beneath the North American plate &mdash to decide where to locate a pair of nuclear power plants, said Brian Atwater, a USGS seismologist and affiliate professor at the University of Washington.

The query led to a groundbreaking discovery: Atwater and his colleagues found that an earthquake of roughly magnitude 9 emanating from the subduction zone rocked California and the Pacific Northwest around 1700, plus or minus 20 years. They relied on geologic evidence such as dead trees and coastal mud inundation, indicating a tsunami.

Using written records from Japan, where the tsunami also washed ashore, scientists determined an exact date: Jan. 27, 1700.

Until the discovery, no one knew the subduction zone was capable of releasing such a powerful earthquake. In recent centuries, no quake close to that magnitude has rocked California.

Here are the state&rsquos 10 biggest earthquakes &mdash by magnitude &mdash since 1800, according to the USGS and California Geological Survey.

Fort Tejon, 1857

Magnitude 7.9

The earthquake, centered 45 miles northeast of San Luis Obispo, ruptured a length of 225 miles along the San Andreas fault on the morning of Jan. 9, 1857 and shook the ground for an estimated one to three minutes. One person was killed when an adobe house in Los Angeles County collapsed.

At Fort Tejon, an army post four miles from the fault, two buildings were completely destroyed, and others were badly damaged. Elsewhere, trees were uprooted and structures collapsed.

San Francisco, 1906

Magnitude 7.9

Aftermath of the 1906 San Francisco Earthquake Looking down California Street from Stockton St. The Merchant's Exchange, with the flagpole. Photo ran April 18, 1953 p. 3 photographer unknown / The Chronicle 1906

The 10 biggest landslides in presidential election history

As we learned in the 10 closest elections of all time, many races are close and we don’t know until Election Night who won.

But some campaigns are over before they really ever begin. Here’s a look at the 10 biggest landslides in U.S. presidential history.

10. Lyndon Baines Johnson over Barry Goldwater (1964)

Electoral college results: 486-52
Electoral college vote percentage: 90.33

LBJ won 44 states and 61.1 percent of the popular vote, the highest percentage since the election of 1820 (which you’ll learn more about below).

9. Ronald Reagan over Jimmy Carter (1980)


Electoral college results: 489-49
Electoral college vote percentage: 90.89

Carter’s performance over the previous four years and the rise of the modern American conservative movement paved the way for Reagan to enjoy a huge victory. Reagan is the only non-incumbent to appear on this list.

8. Abraham Lincoln over George McClellan (1864)

Electoral college results: 212-21
Electoral college vote percentage: 90.99

Only 25 states participated in this election since 11 had seceded from the Union. Lincoln easily won re-election over former Union general George McClellan.

7. Thomas Jefferson over Charles C. Pinckney (1804)

Electoral college results: 162-14
Electoral college vote percentage: 92.05

The popular Louisiana Purchase buoyed Jefferson’s re-election bid. He won 72.8 percent of the vote against Federalist opponent Charles C. Pinckney from South Carolina.

6. Richard Nixon over George McGovern (1972)

Electoral college results: 520-17
Electoral college vote percentage: 96.65

Nixon won the election that spawned Watergate in a walk, taking 60.7 percent of the popular vote and winning every state except one (Massachusetts).

5. Ronald Reagan over Walter Mondale (1984)

Electoral college results: 525-13
Electoral college vote percentage: 97.58

A strong economy lifted Reagan to a decisive re-election victory in every state except Mondale’s native Minnesota. His winning total of 525 electoral votes remains the highest number of electoral votes ever received by a presidential candidate.

4. Franklin Delano Roosevelt over Alf Landon (1936)

Electoral college results: 523-8
Electoral college vote percentage: 98.49

FDR won his first re-election bid easily as New Deal policies like Social Security and unemployment were hugely popular. Roosevelt won every state except for Maine and Vermont.

3. James Monroe (1820)

Electoral college results: 231-1
Electoral college vote percentage: 99.57

Monroe had an easy path to re-election as the Federalists were unable to put forward a candidate. Monroe would’ve been unanimously elected, were it not for a lone elector who gave his vote to John Quincy Adams.

1 and 2. George Washington

Washington ran unopposed twice for the newly-created position of president and won every electoral vote on each occasion.

Exhibits & Events

Examine the bold experiment to create a government “of the people, by the people, and for the people” in American Democracy: A Great Leap of Faith.

Mister Rogers’ Neighborhood

Visit the Special Collections Gallery to see original set pieces and exclusive artifacts from "Mister Rogers' Neighborhood."

History Uncorked: Night at the Museum

Save the date! The Heinz History Center’s 23rd annual History Uncorked: Night at the Museum, presented by BNY Mellon, will return on Friday, June 25, 2021.

“How to Improve Your Family Tree with Collaboration on Geni.com” with Randy Schoenberg

In this session with Randy Schoenberg, he will provide insights into using the Geni platform to make connections and conduct genealogical research.

Independence Day Celebration

Celebrate the spirit of America with historical demonstrations and period games at Meadowcroft’s 18th century frontier area and 19th century rural village.

Watch the video: Eastern Front of WWII animated: 19441945


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