Kawasaki Ki-102 Army Type 4 Assault Plane

Kawasaki Ki-102 Army Type 4 Assault Plane

Kawasaki Ki-102 Army Type 4 Assault Plane

The Kawasaki Ki-102 Army Type 4 Assault Plane was a twin-engined heavy fighter developed from the Ki-45 Toryu via the single-seat Ki-96, and which saw limited service over Okinawa.

Work on the single-seat Ki-96 began in the summer of 1942, originally as the Ki-45-II, a larger version of the standard Ki-45, and retaining the earlier type's two crewmen. In December 1942 the Japanese Army ordered Kawasaki to develop the new aircraft as a single-seater, with the new designation of Ki-96. The first prototype was by then quite close to completion, and so it was completed with the original forward cockpit while the rear cockpit was faired over. Two further prototypes were completed with a purpose-built single-seat cockpit and canopy, but by the time the first prototype made its maiden flight in September 1943 the Japanese Army had changed its mind again, and Kawasaki were ordered to produce the aircraft as a heavily armed two-seat close support and ground attack fighter.

This didn't cause the Kawasaki design team, led by Takeo Doi, many problems. They simply reverted to the original layout of the Ki-45-II, restoring the second cockpit faired over on the first Ki-96 and retaining the same Mitsubishi Ha-112-II engines. Armament was increased, with the 37mm cannon of the Ki-96 replaced by a 57mm Ho-401 cannon in the nose. The two 20mm cannon in the fuselage were retained, while the second crewman was given a rear-pointing flexibly-mounted 12.7mm Ho-103 machine gun.

The first of three Ki-102 prototypes made its maiden flight in March 1944. They were followed by twenty pre-production aircraft, before production of the main Ki-102b Army Type 4 Assault Plane Model B began in October 1944. A few aircraft saw combat over Okinawa, but most were retained in Japan.

Kawasaki were also ordered to produce a high altitude pressurized version of the aircraft, as the Ki-108. It was obvious that this would take some time to produce and so in February 1944 work began on an unpressurised high-altitude version of the Ki-102, the Ki-102a. This was given the same turbo-supercharged engines as the Ki-108, and the first aircraft was completed in June 1944. Six prototypes were followed by twenty further aircraft, all produced by modifying existing Ki-102s or Ki-102bs, but the type never entered production.

The same was true for the Ki-102c night fighter, of which four prototypes were built before the end of the war.

Variants

Ki-102

The Ki-102 was the designation given to the three prototypes of February-March 1944 and to the twenty pre-production aircraft of April-October 1944. These aircraft were all originally built as ground attack aircraft, although six of the pre-production aircraft were later modified to become Ki-102a high altitude fighters. As originally built the Ki-102 was powered by two standard Mitsubishi Ha-112-II radial engines, and were heavily armed, with one 57mm Ho-401 cannon in the nose, two 20mm Ho-5 cannon in the fuselage and one flexible rear-firing 12.7mm Ho-103 machine gun controlled by the second crewman.

Ki-102a

The Ki-102a was a high-altitude fighter version of the Ki-102a developed in an attempt to fill the gap left by the long development time needed to produce the pressurised Ki-108. Work on the Ki-102a began in February 1944. It used the same turbo-supercharged Mitsubishi Ha-112-II Ru engines as the Ki-108. These engines could operate at full power at up to 26,900ft, an improvement of 8,000ft on the standard Ha-112-II. The Ki-102a was more lightly armed than the ground attack versions, replacing the 50mm cannon with a 37mm Ho-203 cannon and removing the rear-firing machine gun. The two 20mm Ho-5 cannon were retained.

Six prototypes were produced by modifying six of the Ki-102 pre-production aircraft. These were followed by twenty further aircraft produced by modifying standard production Ki-102bs. Only fifteen of this batch of twenty aircraft reached the Army.

Engine: Two Mitsubishi Ha-112-II Ru fourteen cylinder radial engines
Power (each): 1,500hp at take-off, 1,250hp at 26,900ft, 1,000hp at 32,810ft
Crew: 2 - pilot and radio-operator
Wing span: 51ft 1in
Length: 37ft 6 25/32in
Height: 12ft 1 21/33in
Armament: One 37mm Ho-203 cannon in fuselage, two 20mm Ho-5 cannon mounted obliquely
External stores: Two 44 gallon drop tanks

Ki-102b

The Ki-102b Army Type 4 Assault Plane Model B was the only version of the Ki-102 to enter full production. A total of 215 were produced between October 1944 and July 1945, of which twenty were later modified to become Ki-102as and two became the prototypes for the Ki-102c.

The Ki-102b closely resembled the original Ki-102 prototypes and pre-production aircraft, with the same Mitsubishi Ha-112-II air-cooled radial engines, and an armament of one nose mounted 57mm Ho-401 cannon, two fuselage mounted 20mm Ho-5 cannon and a rear-firing flexibly mounted 12.7mm Ho-103 machine gun. The only significant change on the Ki-102b was the introduction of a longer tail wheel strut, which reduced the time it took for the tail to settle to the ground during landing. This was introduced because the aircraft suffered from directional instability during the landing approach - the new strut reduced the amount of time that the pilot was exposed to this problem.

The Ki-102b saw very little active service. A small number were sent to Okinawa, where they were given the Allied code name 'Randy', but most were kept back in Japan, where they were to be used against the expected Allied invasion.

Engine: Two Mitsubishi Ha-112-II fourteen cylinder air-cooled radial engines
Power (each): 1,500hp at take-off, 1,350hp at 6,560ft, 1,250hp at 19,030ft
Crew: 2 (pilot and radio operator)
Wing span: 51ft 1in
Length: 37ft 6 25/32in
Height: 12ft 1 21/33in
Empty Weight: 10,913lb
Max Speed: 16,094lb
Service Ceiling: 32,810ft
Range: 1,243 miles
Armament: One 57mm Ho-401 cannon in the nose, two 20mm Ho-5 cannon in the fuselage, one flexibly mounted rear-firing 12.7mm Ho-103 machine gun
Bomb-load: Two 551lb bombs or two 44 gallon drop tanks

Ki-102c

The Ki-102c was a night fighter based on the Ki-102a. It was given a longer fuselage, a new tail and both the wing span and wing area were increased to improve high-altitude performance (a similar wing was used on the Ki-108 KAI). Turbo-supercharged Ha-112-II Ru engines were used. Radar was carried, wit the revolving antenna mounted in a Plexiglas radome above the fuselage. The Ki-102c was armed for the night fighter role, with two forward firing 30mm Ho-105 cannon and two obliquely mounted 20mm Ho-5 cannon carried behind the cockpit (to allow the aircraft to sit below an American bomber, avoiding most of its turret guns).

Two prototypes were built by modifying Ki-102b airframes. The first was completed in July 1945 and the second in August, but the end of the war meant that their flight trials were never completed.

Engine: Two Mitsubishi Ha-112-II Ru fourteen cylinder radial engines
Power (each): 1,500hp at take-off, 1,250hp at 26,900ft, 1,000hp at 32,810ft
Crew: 2 - pilot and radar operator
Wing span: 56ft 7 1/8in
Length: 42ft 9 25/32in
Height: 12ft 1 21/32in
Empty Weight: 11,464lb
Loaded Weight: 16,755lb
Max Speed: 373mph at 32,810ft
Service Ceiling: 44,290ft
Range: 1,367 miles
Armament: Two 30mm Ho-105 cannon in the nose, two 20mm Ho-5 cannon carried obliquely in the fuselage
External stores: Two 44 gallon drop tanks

Ki-108

A high altitude single-seat fighter, with two prototypes based on Ki-102b airframes and two Ki-108 KAI prototypes with expanded fuselage and wings.


Kawasaki Ki-10

The Kawasaki Ki-10 ( 九五式戦闘機 , Kyūgo-shiki sentōki, Army Type 95 Fighter) was the last biplane fighter used by the Imperial Japanese Army, entering service in 1935. Built by Kawasaki Kōkūki Kōgyō K.K. for the Imperial Japanese Army, it saw combat service in Manchukuo and in North China during the early stages of the Second Sino-Japanese War. Its reporting name given by the Allies was "Perry".

Ki-10
Ki-10 Model 1
Role Fighter
National origin Japan
Manufacturer Kawasaki Kōkūki Kōgyō K.K.
Designer Takeo Doi
First flight March 1935
Introduction 1935
Retired 1942
Status Retired
Primary user Imperial Japanese Army Air Force
Number built 588


Kawasaki Ki-102 Randy

English:
The Kawasaki Ki-102 (Army Type 4 Assault Plane) was a Japanese warplane of World War II. It was a long-range, two-seat, twin-engine heavy fighter developed to replace the Ki-45 Toryu. Three versions were planned: the Ki-102a day fighter, the Ki-102b ground attack and the Ki-102c night fighter. The Allied report name for this aircraft was "Randy"

note 1: to get on the plane you must first climb (in one jump) to the left wing next to the cabin

note 2: it has some small bugs regarding the saving of the landing gear, but they are minimal.
---------------------------------------
Español:
El Kawasaki Ki-102 (avión de asalto tipo 4 del ejército) fue un avión de guerra japonés de la Segunda Guerra Mundial. Era un caza pesado bimotor, de dos asientos y de largo alcance desarrollado para reemplazar al Ki-45 Toryu. Se planearon tres versiones: el caza diurno Ki-102a , el ataque terrestre Ki-102b y el caza nocturno Ki-102c. El nombre del informe Aliado para este avión era " Randy "

nota 1: para subir al avion hay que subir primero (de un salto) al ala izquierda al lado de la cabina

nota 2: tiene unos pequeños bugs en cuanto al guardado del tren de aterrizaje, pero son minimos.


Post by Robert Hurst » 25 Sep 2003, 12:01

Nakajima Ki-84 Hayate (Gale) - Pt 8

The top photo was taken from Fighters of World war II, the centre photo was taken from The Concise Guide to Axis Aircraft of World War II, both by David Mondey.

Post by Robert Hurst » 25 Sep 2003, 12:14

Nakajima Ki-84 Hayate (Gale) - Pt 9

Post by Robert Hurst » 26 Sep 2003, 16:23

While the first prototype of their Ki-96 twin-engined heavy fighter was nearing completion the Kawasaki design team led by Takeo Doi suggested to the Imperial Japanese Army that a version of the aircraft be built as a replacement for the Toryu used in the ground attack role. In August 1943, the Koku Hombu gave their approval to the project and instructed Kawasaki to begin construction of prototypes under the Ki-102 designation. To gain time Takeo Doi decided to retain the basic structure and powerplants of the Ki-96 in its original two-seat configuration. However, additional armour and fuel tank protection were designed into the Ki-102, and heavier armament was fitted comprising nose-mounted 57 mm (2.24 in ) Ho-401 cannon, two fuselage-mounted 20 mm (0.79 in) Ho-5 cannon and one flexible rear-firing 12.7 mm (0.5 in) Type 1 (Ho-103) machine-gun, it could also carry either two 250 kg (551 lb) bombs, or two 200-litre (44 Imp gal) drop tanks. Powered by two Army Type 4 (Mitsubishi Ha-112-II) fourteen-cyliner air-cooled radials, rated at 1,500 hp for take-off, 1,250 hp at 8,300 m (26,900 ft) and 1,000 hp at 10,000 m (32,810 ft), the first of three Ki-102 prototypes was completed and flown in March 1944.

Twenty pre-production aircraft were also built, and together with the three prototypes, initially served in the development of the original ground attack version of the Ki-102. Inflight handling characteristics and performance gave entire satisfaction, but during the landing approach the aircraft suffered from marked directional instability. To correct this the three-point attitude of the aircraft on the ground was reduced by fitting a tailwheel strut of increased length and, so modified, in October 1944 the aircraft was placed in production as the Army Type 4 Assault Plane (Ki-102b). The Ki-102b Most of the production aircraft were kept in reserve in Japan, but a few saw limited action during the Okinawa campaign, where the Ki-102b was code-named 'Randy' by the Allies. In Japan, the Ki-102b was used in the development programme of the Igo-1-B air-to-ground missile with which it was hoped to equip the aircraft prior to the anticipated Allied invasion of the Japanese homeland.

A month before the maiden flight of the first Ki-102 prototype, the Koku Hombu once again indicated their desire to obtain a heavy high-altitude version of the Kawasaki series of twin-engined aircraft. To meet this requirement, Kawasaki already had under development the Ki-108 but, as its intended pressure cabin required considerable time to be fully developed, the manufacturers were instructed by the Koku Hombu to design a straightforward version of the Ki-102 capable of operating as a high-altitude fighter. Six pre-production Ki-102s were modified as prototypes for the Ki-102a high-altitude fighter, the first aircraft being completed in June 1944. Externally the Ki-102a was identical to the Ki-102b but was powered by two 1,500 hp Mitsubishi Ha-112-II Ru radials fitted with Ru-104 turbosuperchargers, and were rated at 1,500 hp for take-off, 1,250 hp at 8,200 m (26,900 ft) and 1,000 hp at 10,000 m (32,810 ft). The Ki-102a had revised armament comprising a 37 mm (1.46 in) Ho-203 cannon and two fuselage-mounted 20 mm (0.79 in) Ho-5 cannon, the flexible rear-firing machine-gun being omitted. Following satisfactory completion of flight trials with the six prototypes, an additional series of twenty Ki-102as were built by modifying a similar number of producxtion Ki-102b airframes. However, only fifteen of these aircraft could be delivered to the Army before the end of the war, and the Ki-102a was never placed in quantity production.

By the end of 1944, when B-29 operations against Japan were intensified, the Army had so far failed to develop a specialised night fighter. As the Toryu was proving to be a satisfactory stopgap aircraft, the Koku Hombu instructed Kawaskai to produce a night fighter version of their Ki-102a, itself a development of the Toryu. This variant, designated Ki-102c, was fitted with a lengthened fuselage, a new cockpit and redesigned tail surfaces, and wing area and span were increased to improve landing characteristics for night operations. Interception radar with revolving antenna dish under a plexiglass radome above the fuselage was installed and armament completely revised to include two 30 mm (1.18 in) Ho-105 cannon in the fuselage belly and two 20 mm (0.79 in) Ho-5 cannon istalled obliquely in the fuselage behind the cockpit. Powered by a pair of turbosupercharged Ha-112-II Ru engines the first Ki-102c prototype - modified from a Ki-102b airframe - was competed in July 1945 and followed was within a month by a similar machine. Flight trials of the Ki-102c were interruoted by the end of the war and production was never initiated.

The top photo was taken from The Compete Book of Fighters, by William Green and Gordon Swanborough. The bottom photo was taken from Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War, by Rene J Francillon.

Post by Robert Hurst » 27 Sep 2003, 11:31

A smaller and lighter version of the Ki-102 to be powered by a pair of 1,900 hp Mitsubishi Ha-104 radials was designed to improve maximum speed at the expense of flight duration. Bearing the project designation Special Fighter 2 (2 meaning twin-engined design) the aircraft remained on the drawing board.

28th and 45th Sentais. 27th Dokuritsu Dai Shijugo Chutai.

Manufacturer: Kawasaki Kokuki Kogyo KK (Kawasaki Aircraft Engineering Co Ltd).
Type: Twin-engined (Ki-102a) high-altitude figher, (Ki-102b) ground attack aircraft or (Ki-102c) night figher.
Crew (2): (Ki-102a and b) Pilot and radio-operator, or (Ki-102c) pilot and rada roperator in enclosed cockpit.
Powerplant: (Ki-102b) Two Army Type 4 (Mitsubishi Ha-112-II) fourteen-cylinder air-cooled radial engines, driving three-blade constant-speed propellers, (Ki-102a and c) two 1,500 hp Mitsubishi Ha-112-II-Ru fourteen-cylinder turbosupercharged air-cooled radial engines, driving three-blade constant-speed propellers.
Armament: (Ki-102b) One 57 mm (2.24 in) Ho-401 cannon in the nose, two 20 mm (0.79 in) Ho-5 cannon in the fuselage belly and one flexible rear-firing 12.7 mm (0.5 in) Type 1 (Ho-103) machine-gun, (Ki-102a) One 37 mm (1.46 in) H0-203 cannon in the nose and two 20 mm (0.79 in) Ho-5 cannon in the fuselage belly, (Ki-102c) two 30 mm (1.18 in) Ho-105 cannon in the fuselage belly and two 20 mm (0.79 in) Ho-5 cannon mounted obliquely in the fuselage. External stores: (all Ki-102 versions)two 200 litre (44 Imp gal) drop tanks, or (Ki-102b) two 250 kg (551 lb) bombs.

Dimensions: Span (Ki-102b) 15.57 m (51 ft 1 in), (Ki-102c) 17.25 m (56 ft 7 1/8 in) length (Ki-102b) 11.45 m (37 ft 6 25/32 in), (Ki-102c) 13.05 m (42 ft 9 25/32 in) height 3.7 m (12 ft 1 21/32 in) wing area (Ki-102b) 34 sq m (365.972 sq ft).
Weights: Empty (Ki-102b) 4,950 kg (10,913 lb), (Ki-102c) 5,200 kg 11,464 lb) loaded (Ki-102b) 7,300 kg (16,094 lb), (Ki-102c) 7,600 kg (16,755 lb) wing loading (Ki-102b) 214.7 kg/sq m (44 lb/sq ft), (Ki-102c) 190 kg/sq m (38.9 lb/sq ft) power loading (Ki-102b) 2.4 kg/hp (5.4 lb/hp), (Ki-102c) 2.5 kg/hp ( 5.6 lb/hp).
Performance: Maximum speed (Ki-102b) 580 km/h (360 mph) at 6,000 m (19,685 ft), (Ki-102c) 600 km/h (373 mph) at 10,000 m (32,810 ft) climb to 5,000 m (16,405 ft (Ki-102b) 6 min 54 sec, (Ki-102c) 18 min service ceiling (Ki-102b) 10,000 m (32,810 ft). (Ki-102c) 13,500 m (44,290 ft) range (Ki-102b) 2,000 km (1,243 miles), (Ki-102c) 2,200 km (1,367 miles).
Production: A total 238 Ki-102s were built by Kawasaki Kokuki Kogyo KK as follows:

3 Ki-102 prototypes - February-March 1944
20 Ki-102 pre-production aircraft - April-October 1944
215 Ki-102b production aircraft - October 1944-July 1945
(26)* Ki-102a pre-production aircraft - June 1944-March 1945
(2)+ Ki-102c prototypes - July-August 1945

* These comprised 6 pre-production Ki-12s and 20 production Ki-102bs suitably modified.
+ These two aircraft were modified Ki-102bs

The two photos were taken from Warplanes of the Second World War Vol 3: Fighters, by William Green.

Post by Robert Hurst » 29 Sep 2003, 12:56

When in June 1944 the USAAF began daylight bombing operations against Japan, the Japanese Army found themselves without an adequate high-altitude interceptor capable of succesfully engaging the B-29s at their cruising altitude of 9,144 m (30,000 ft). This situation had been foreseen but, even in their most confident estimates, the Koku Hombu could not hope to have the specialised interceptor aircraft then under development in service much before the late summer of 1945. As a stopgap the Army had planned to use the Ki-61-II KAI which had begun flight trials two months before. However, teething troubles with the aircraft's Ha-140 engine frustrated this plan, and proven and reliable Ki-61-II KAI airframes were left unused at the Kagamigahara plant while the fighter Sentais had to defend the homeland with older aircraft. Time was of the essence and a solution had to be found to provide an alternate powerplant for the Ki-61-II KAI and for the rapid supply of a new type of interceptor fighter to the Army. Consquently, in November 1944, the Ministry of Munitions instructed Kawasaki to install a different engine in the Ki-61-II KAI.

By the end of 1944 factories producing engines with sufficiently small diameter to be mounted in a fighter aircraft already had their production facilities overtaxed by the pressing demands resulting from the war situation, and Kawasaki engineers had to find a suitable type of engine among those then being manufactured for bomber aircraft. It soon appeared that the only powerplant combining availability and reliability with a suitable output was the Mitsubishi Ha-112-II fourteen-cylinder double-row radial, rated at 1,500 hp for take-off, 1,350 hp at 2,000 m (6,560 ft) and 1,250 hp at 5,800 m (19,030 ft). As this engine had a diameter of 1.22 m (4 ft) it appeared at first difficult to install it in the Ki-61-II KAI airframe with its fuselage width of only 0.84 m (2 ft 9 1/16 in). However, the Kawasaki engineers were able to study the engine mounting of an imported Focke-Wulf Fw 190A, an aircraft in which a radial engine had been successfully fitted to a slim fuselage, and to call on the experience of the Imperial Japanese Navy which had fitted the same Mitsubishi Ha-112-II to the Aichi-built D4Y3, earlier versions of this aircraft also being powered by an inverted-vee liquid-cooled engine. Workd began immediately on the experimental modification of three Ki-61-II KAIs and the first aircraft , designated Ki-100, made its first flight on 1 February, 1945.

Compared with its forerunner the Ki-100 was lighter - empty and loaded weights being respectively reduced by 315 kg (694 lb) and 285 kg (628 lb) to 2,525 kg (5,567 lb) and 3,495 kg (7.705 lb) - and manoeuvrability and handling characteristics were markedly improved due to the lower wing and power loadings. Even though the engines of the Ki-61-II KAI and the Ki-100 had nominally the same power, the Ki-100 had slightly lower maximum speed due to its engine's larger frontal drag, but other performance figures were comparable. However, whereas the Ki-61-II KAI reached its calculated performance only now and then as its engine was temperamental, the Ki-100 benefitted from the high reliability of its engine. Accelerated flight tests taking place in February 1945 revealed that the aircraft performed even better than anticipated and a fourth Ki-61-II KAI was modified the same month to full production standard as the Army Type 5 Fighter Model 1A (Ki-100-1a). Two hundred and seventy-one Ki-61-II KAI airframes were similarly converted at the Kagamigahara plant between March and June 1945 and were immediately delivered to Service units in Japan. Under combat conditions the Ki-100-Ia proved itself to be an outstanding fighter, equally suited to intercepting high-flying B-29s and to engaging the Grumman F6F Hellcats of the US Navy which were now frequently operating in the Japanese sky. To the Allies the aircraft was a complete and unpleasant surprise, and its Nipponese pilots joined their ground crews in hailing the Ki-100 as the best and most reliable operational fighter of the Imperial Japanese Army. The aircraft was easy to handle and gave a fighting chance even to the youngest pilots who oftenn had less than 100 hours of flight training prior to joining thier operaitonal units.

The top photo was taken from Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War, by Rene J Francillon. The centre colour drawing was taken from Fighters of World War II, by David Donald, and the bottom colour drawing was taken from The Complete Book of Fighters, by William Green and Gordon Swanborough.

Post by Robert Hurst » 30 Sep 2003, 12:02

As soon as flight trials had shown that the development of the Ki-100-Ia was a success, Kawasaki began preparations to produce two new versions. Characterised by an all-round vision canopy similar to that planned for the Ki-61-III and tested on a Ki-61-II KAI, the Ki-100-Ib was no longer a conversion from existing airframes but was built to the new standard from the start. The first Ki-100-Ibs were built at the Kagamigahara and Ichinomiya factories in May 1945 but production was hampered by Allied bombing, the Ichinomiya plant being forced to cease production in July 1945 and production at the Kagamigahara plant being considerably slowed down. When Japan surrendered only 106 Ki-100-Ibs had been built at Kagamigahara and the Ichinomiya plant had delivered only twelve aircraft of this version.

In an attempt to further improve the performance of the aircraft at altitude, in March 1945 Kawasaki began the development of the Ki-100-II powered by a Mitsubishi Ha-112-II Ru turbosupercharged engine and water-methonal injection, the engine was rated at 1,500 hp for take-off, 1,370 hp at 7,000 m (22,965 ft) and 1,240 hp at 10,000 m (32,810 ft). Due to the lack of internal space the Ru-102 supercharger was fitted beneath the fuselage without provision for an intercooler and air was ducted directly from the compressor to the carburettor. The installation of the turbosupercharger necessitated the relocation of some of the fuel lines and the ventral air scoop was offset to starboard while an additional intake was mounted in the port wing root. The first Ki-100-II flew in May 1945 and within a month was joined on the flight trials by two additional prototypes. Compared with the Ki-100-I, the Ki-100-II was slightly heavier and consequently suffered a performance penalty below 5,000 m (26,250 ft). Despite the lack of intercooler preventing full advantage being gained from the installation of a supercharger, the Ki-100-II had a better performance than the Ki-100-I above 8,000 m (26,250 ft) and its maximum speed of 590 km/h (367 mph) was reached at 10,000 m (32,810 ft), the cruising alititude of the B-29s during daylight operations. It was planned to begin production of the Ki-100-II in September 1945 but the war ended before competion of this schedule.

It was fitting that this last operational fighter of the Imperial Japanese Army made the last flight for that Service when two Ki-100-Ibs of the 111th Sentai were ferried between Komachi and Yokosuka where they were shipped to the USA for evaluation.

The top photo was taken from Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War, by Rene J Francillon. The other two photos were taken fromWarplanes of the Second World War Vol 3: Fighters, by William Green.

Post by Robert Hurst » 30 Sep 2003, 12:19

5th, 17th, 18th, 59th, 111th and 244th Sentais.

Manufacturer: Kawasaki Kokuki Kogyo KK (Kawasaki Aircraft Engineering Co Ltd).
Type: Single-engined fighter and figher-bomber.
Crew (1): Pilot in enclosed cockpit.
Powerplant: (Ki-100-I) One Army Type 4 (Mitsubishi Ha-112-II, or [Ha-33] 62 fourteen-cylinder air-cooled radial engine, driving a three-blade constant-speed metal propeller, (Ki-100-II) one Mitsubishi Ha-112-II Ru fourteen-cylinder air-cooled radial engine, driving a three-blade constant-speed metal propeller.
Armament: Two fuselage-mounted 20 mm (0.79 in) Ho-5 cannon and two wing-mounted 12,7 mm (0.5 in) Type 1 (Ho-103) machine-guns. external stores: two 200 litre (44 Imp gal) drop tanks, or two 250 kg (551 lb) bombs.
Dimensions: Span 12 m (39 ft 4 7/16 in) length 8.82 m (28ft 11 1/4 in) height 3.75 m ( 12 ft 3 5/8 in) wing area 20 sq m (215.278 sq ft).
Weights: Empty (Ki-100-I) 2,525 kg (5,567 lb), (Ki-100-II) 2,700 kg (5,952 lb) loaded (Ki-100-I) 3,495 kg (7,705 kg), (Ki-100-II) 3,670 kg (8,091 lb) wing loading (Ki-100-I) 174.8 kg/sq m (35.8 lb/sq ft), (Ki-100-II) 183.5 kg (37.6 lb/sq ft) power loading (Ki-100-I) 2.33 kg/hp (5.1 lb/hp), (Ki-100-II) 2.44 kg/hp (5.4 lb/hp).
Performance: Maximum speed (Ki-100-I) 580 km/h (360 mph) at 6,000 m (19,685 ft), 535 km/h (332 mph) at 10,000 m (32,810 ft), (Ki-100-II) 570 km/h (354 mph) at 6,000 m (19,685 ft), 590 km/h (367 mph) at 10,000 m (19,685 ft) cruising speed 400 km/h (249 mph) at 4,000 m (13,125 ft) climb to 5,000 m (16,405 ft) in (Ki-100-I) 6 min, (Ki-100-II) 6 min 40 sec climb to 10,000 m (32,810 ft) in (Ki-100-I) 20 min, (Ki-100-II) 18 min service ceiling 11,000 m (36,090 ft) range - normal (Ki-100-I) 1,400 km (870 miles), - maximum (Ki-100-I) 2,200 km (1,367 miles), (Ki-100-II) 1,800 km (1, 118 miles.
Production: A total 0f 396 Ki-100s, including 275 Ki-61-II KAI conversions, were built by Kawasaki Kokukai Kogyo KK as follows:

3 Ki-100 prototypes - February 1945
272 Ki-100-Ia production aircraft - February-June 1945
106 Ki-100-Ib prodcution aircraft - May-August 1945
3 Ki-100-II prototypes - May-June 1945

12 Ki-100-Ib production aircraft - May-July 1945

The top and centre photos were taken from Warplanes of the Second World War Vol 3: Fighters, by William Green. The bottom photo was taken fro Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War, by Rene J Francillon.


Kawasaki Ki-102 Randy

English:
The Kawasaki Ki-102 (Army Type 4 Assault Plane) was a Japanese warplane of World War II. It was a long-range, two-seat, twin-engine heavy fighter developed to replace the Ki-45 Toryu. Three versions were planned: the Ki-102a day fighter, the Ki-102b ground attack and the Ki-102c night fighter. The Allied report name for this aircraft was "Randy"

note 1: to get on the plane you must first climb (in one jump) to the left wing next to the cabin

note 2: it has some small bugs regarding the saving of the landing gear, but they are minimal.
---------------------------------------
Español:
El Kawasaki Ki-102 (avión de asalto tipo 4 del ejército) fue un avión de guerra japonés de la Segunda Guerra Mundial. Era un caza pesado bimotor, de dos asientos y de largo alcance desarrollado para reemplazar al Ki-45 Toryu. Se planearon tres versiones: el caza diurno Ki-102a , el ataque terrestre Ki-102b y el caza nocturno Ki-102c. El nombre del informe Aliado para este avión era " Randy "

nota 1: para subir al avion hay que subir primero (de un salto) al ala izquierda al lado de la cabina

nota 2: tiene unos pequeños bugs en cuanto al guardado del tren de aterrizaje, pero son minimos.


Kawasaki Ki-45 Toryu

The Ki 45 was Japan’s first twin-engine fighter and its most successful night fighter. It also served capably in a variety of missions, including ground attack, antishipping, and kamikaze.

The Kawasaki Ki-45 required more time to develop and place in service than almost every other Japanese warplane of World War II. By 1937 the notion of long-range strategic fighters, capable of escorting bomber fleets to targets and back, was becoming prevalent. Germany began successfully experimenting with its Messerschmitt Bf 110, which prompted the Imperial Japanese Army to adopt similar craft. That year it invited several companies into a competition, and Kawasaki, after many trials and prototypes, originated the Ki 45 Toryu (Dragon Slayer). This was a handsome, low-wing design with a pointed nose and a long, tandem cabin housing pilot and gunner. Initial flights revealed that the craft was underpowered, so a succession of better engines ensued until the Nakajima Ha–25 was utilized. Other problems centered around the landing gear, which were weak and hand-cranked in flight. With better motors and powered undercarriage, the Ki 45 showed promise, so in 1941 it entered production. A total of 1,701 were ultimately built, and they received the code name Nick during World War II.

Takeo Doi, chief project engineer, began work on this design in January 1938 but the first production aircraft did not fly combat until the fall of 1942. When it finally entered service, the Ki-45 soon became popular with flight crews who used it primarily for attacking ground targets and ships including U. S. Navy Patrol Torpedo (P. T.) boats. The Toryu was also the only Japanese Army night fighter to see action during the war.

The Japanese did not develop a dedicated single-engined ground support aircraft the Japanese army relied on light bombers, such as the Ki-30 (‘Ann’), Ki-32 (‘Mary’), Ki-36 (‘Ida’) and Ki-51 (‘Sonia’). These were all obsolescent. However, the Kawasaki Ki-45-KAI Toryu (‘Nick’), although primarily designed as a twin-engined long-range fighter, turned out to be a quite useful attack aircraft. The Ki-45-KAIb version was armed with a 37 mm Type 98 tank gun, which fired the same ammunition as the Type 94 anti-tank gun (not to be confused with the less powerful Type 94 tank gun). The Type 98 was manually loaded. The Ki-45-KAIc instead carried a 37 mm Ho-203, less powerful than the Type 98 but equipped with a 15-round belt feed. The Ho-203 was later scaled up to the Ho-401 57 mm cannon, and this weapon (with 17 rounds) was installed in the attack version of the Ki-102 (‘Randy’) fighter, the successor of the Ki-45. Of this Ki-102b (also known as the Army Type 4 Assault Aircraft) about 200 seem to have been completed. The Ho-401 with its 520 m/s muzzle velocity was a suitable weapon for use against soft targets, but not much use against armour. Rikugun, the army aeronautical research institute, designed the Ki-93 with the Ho-402 in a belly fairing this was also a 57 mm weapon but much larger and more powerful, firing its projectiles at 700 m/s. However, only one Ki-93 was ever flown. These Japanese aircraft were no longer as unprotected as most Japanese combat aircraft had been at the start of the conflict, but they were not heavily armoured either, the designers’ priorities being performance and handling.

Japanese strategists observed the Americans and the Europeans design and build a number of twin-engine, two-seat, heavy fighters during the mid- and late 1930s. The Japanese Army needed a long-range fighter to cover great distances during any large-scale conflict in the Pacific and army planners felt that a twin-engine design could meet this need. In March 1937, the Japanese Army Staff sent a rather vague specification for such an airplane to a number of manufacturers. Kawasaki, Nakajima, and Mitsubishi responded, but the latter two dropped out of the competition to concentrate on other projects. Between October and December 1937, the army amended the specification with additional information and directed Kawasaki to begin the design work. The specification described a two-seat fighter with a speed of 540 kph (336 mph), an operating altitude of 2-5,000 m (6,560-16,405 ft), and endurance of over 5 hours. The army chose the Bristol Mercury engine, built under license, to power the new aircraft.

In January 1939, Kawasaki rolled out the first prototype but initial flight tests did not impress. The airplane was too slow to meet the army speed requirement, and it suffered mechanical problems with the landing gear and engines. Top speed remained a problem, despite major changes on the second prototype, and the army put the project on hold. In April 1940, Kawasaki substituted 14-cylinder Nakajima engines, rated at 1000 horsepower each, for the original 9-cylinder motors rated at 820 horsepower each. Engineer Doi also revised the engine nacelles and prop spinners. These modifications increased top speed to 520 kph (323 mph) but the revisions continued. Kawasaki narrowed the fuselage, increased the wing span and area, revised the nacelles again, and modified the armament package. The new aircraft did not fly until May-June 1941 but performance at last met army standards and they ordered the Toryu into production.

Kawasaki delivered the first Ki-45 Kai (modified) in August 1942 but Toryus did not reach combat units in China until October. Unlike many Japanese Navy fighter airplanes, the Ki-45 aircraft had crew armour and fire-resistant fuel tanks. These airplanes also carried a heavy gun battery that usually consisted of 20 mm and 37 mm cannons. Toryus operated in the New Guinea area against Allied shipping and attacked Consolidated B-24 Liberator bombers of the 5th Air Force. The Japanese also employed some Ki-45s as night fighters. Field personnel modified these Toryus by substituting the upper fuselage fuel tank for two 12.7 mm machine guns mounted to fire obliquely upwards at a target’s vulnerable belly. This worked so well that the army told Kawasaki to manufacture a night fighter version of the Toryu-the Ki-45 Kai (Mod. C)-with two 20 mm cannon, mounted obliquely, and a 37 mm cannon mounted in the lower fuselage.

In June 1944, 20th Air Force bomber crews flew Boeing B-29 Superfortresses on the first raids against the Japanese home islands since Doolittle’s attack back in May 1942. Bad weather and attacks by Japanese fighter interceptors, including Ki-45 Toryus, hampered these raids. On one mission, Ki-45 pilots downed eight Superfortresses.

On March 9, 1945, the 20th Air Force began flying low altitude attacks at night using incendiary bombs. These missions marked a radical departure from the traditional American high-altitude, daylight bombing strikes. The Japanese fought back with anti-aircraft gunfire and night fighter attacks. As many as six Sentais (groups) of NICK night fighters defended the home islands by war’s end. The Ki-45 Kai Hai (Mod. C) the Japanese Army’s only night fighter, operated alongside Navy night fighters including the Nakajima J1N1-S Gekko (IRVING) and P1Y1-S Byakko (FRANCIS). Examples of the IRVING and FRANCIS are also preserved in NASM’s collection. The NASM Ki-45 Kai Hai (Mod. C) is the last known survivor of 1,700 Ki-45s built by Kawasaki. The company built a total of 477 Kai Hai C night fighters.

The NASM airplane was produced in the second of three batches and the thrust-augmentation exhausts fitted to the engines to improve speed and reduce glare at night identify aircraft in this batch. This NICK was one of about 145 Japanese airplanes returned to the United States for evaluation after the war. The Navy shipped them to Norfolk, Virginia, aboard the escort carrier USS Barnes. On December 8, 1945, the Navy transferred the NICK to the U. S. Army Air Forces at Langley Field, Virginia. Personnel at Langley shipped the Ki-45 to the Air Depot at Middletown, Pennsylvania, for overhaul and flight test. During the next few months, the aircraft was extensively test-flown at Wright Field, Ohio, and Naval Air Station Anacostia in the District of Columbia. During the army’s evaluation, pilots reported that NICK handled very poorly on the ground. They also did not like the cramped cockpit, excessive vibration, and the poor visibility. Takeoff distance, climb speed, flight characteristics, approach and landing, and manoeuvrability were all rated as good to excellent.

The first Ki 45s were deployed in Southeast Asia and, despite exceptional maneuverability for their size, were at a disadvantage fighting single-engine opponents. Given their speed and heavy armament, however, they proved ideal for ground attacks and antishipping strikes. Moreover, the Ki 45 was also an effective bomber interceptor and played havoc with American B-24 formations throughout Burma and Indochina. When the B-24s switched to night attacks, the Ki 45 was converted into a night fighter by mounting heavy cannons on top of the fuselage in slanted fashion. Considerable success was achieved, which gave rise to the Ki 45 KAIc, a dedicated night-fighter version, in 1944. These machines also performed useful work against high-flying B-29s over Japan toward the end of the war. More ominously, on May 27, 1944, it fell upon four Nicks to perform the first army kamikaze attacks against American warships off Biak.

Modified operative models

Toryu: Two-seat fighter Type 2 of Army (Mark A) initial model of series, one 20mm Ho-3 in ventral position, two Ho-103 12.7mm in the nose and a flexible 7.92mm in the back position

retrofit version based on the KAIa, 20mm belly cannon replaced by a 37mm type 94 tank gun

Mark C version against naval objectives, one 37 mm (1.46 in) Ho-203 automatic cannon in the nose, one 7.92 mm (.312 in) machine gun in the back position.

Mark D, a modified Model B, night fighter version, equipped with one 37 mm (1.46 in) Ho-203 cannon in nose and two fixed 20 mm Ho-5 cannons in a Schräge Musik-style dorsal frontal position, and one 7.92 mm (.312 in) Type 98 machine gun in back position.

Single-seat fighter prototype later re-designated Ki-96.

Total production: 1,691 or 1701 units depending on source.

Specifications (Ki-45 KAIc)

Wingspan: 15.02 m (49 ft 3 in)

Wing area: 32 m2 (340 sq ft)

Airfoil: root: NACA 24015 tip: NACA 23010

Empty weight: 4,000 kg (8,818 lb)

Gross weight: 8,820 kg (19,445 lb)

Powerplant: 2 × Mitsubishi Ha-102 14-cylinder air-cooled radial piston engines, 783 kW (1,050 hp) each

Propellers: 3-bladed constant-speed propellers

Maximum speed: 540 km/h (340 mph, 290 kn)

Range: 2,000 km (1,200 mi, 1,100 nmi)

Service ceiling: 10,000 m (33,000 ft)

Rate of climb: 11.7 m/s (2,300 ft/min)

Wing loading: 171.9 kg/m2 (35.2 lb/sq ft)

Power/mass: 0.26 kW/kg (0.16 hp/lb)

1 × 37 mm (1.457 in) Ho-203 cannon, 1 × 20 mm (0.787 in) Ho-3 cannon, 1 × 7.92 mm (0.312 in) Type 89 machine gun on a flexible mount in the rear cockpit


Kawasaki Ki-64 (Rob)

Authored By: Staff Writer | Last Edited: 09/14/2020 | Content ©www.MilitaryFactory.com | The following text is exclusive to this site.

During the height of World War 2 (1939-1945), all major participants undertook various programs to further evolve existing weapons platforms. For the Japanese concern of Kawasaki, a 1943 initiative produced the experimental "Ki-64" single-seat, piston-driven fighter. The type managed to be constructed through only a single prototype offering and the program, as a whole, was abandoned shortly after a test flight ended in a forced landing due to fire. First flight of the Ki-64 was recorded sometime in December of 1943 and the aircraft was codenamed "Rob" by the Allies.

For all intents and purposes, the Ki-64 was of a conventional fighter aircraft design with a unique internal arrangement intended to promote excellent top-line speeds and performance essential to countering developments by the Americans in the Pacific. One of the most notable qualities of the design was its coupling of two Kawasaki Ha-40 Army Type 2 liquid-cooled, inline piston engines which, when mated, was recognized under the designation of "Ha-201". It is noteworthy that the Ha-40 was nothing more than a localized production copy of the excellent German-originated Daimler-Benz DB 601Aa series inline engine powering the equally-excellent Messerschmitt Bf 109 fighter - manufacturing licenses granted to both Kawasaki and Aichi Japanese concerns. The powerplant provided the Kawasaki airframe with an output of some 2,350 horsepower allowing for top speeds of nearly 430 miles per hour and an operating ceiling near 40,000 feet. Range was out to 620 miles with a rate-of-climb of approximately 3,000 feet per minute. The airframe exhibited an empty weight of 9,000lbs and a gross weight of 11,200lbs. Kawasaki classified their Ki-64 as a "heavy" fighter as a result. The Ha-40 was later redesignated to "Ha-60" following the 1944 restructured designation system.

Outwardly, the Ki-64 showcased a basic fighter form including straight, low-mounted wing apendages, a streamlined airframe and single, curved vertical tail fin. The undercarriage was wholly retractable of the "tail dragger" variety. The pilot sat ahead of amidships under a lightly-framed canopy with adequate views of the action. Due to the limited internal volume of the airframe (of slim design profile), one of the Ha-40 engines was fitted ahead of the cockpit in the usual way with the second engine added to a compartment just aft of the cockpit. The rear engine was connected to the forward system via a drive shaft running under the cockpit floor (similar to the American Bell P-39 Airacobra fighter). This allowed full output from both engines to be featured or the ability to fly on a single unit if need be. To the engine pairing was added 2 x three-bladed propeller systems arranged in a contra-rotating fashion, designed to take full advantage of performance output at speed. It is noteworthy that engine output was not combined to both propellers. Instead, the rear engine drove the frontal propeller assembly independently of the front engine driving the rear-set propeller. The forward propeller was of a variable pitch design while the rearward propeller was fixed pitch.

As a fighter intended to tackle enemy fighters in turn as well as Allied bombers pummeling Japanese territorial and mainland installations, Kawasaki considered their Ki-64 with a battery of 4 x 20mm Ho-5 series cannons or 2 x 20mm Ho-5 cannons supplemented by 2 x 12.7mm Ho-103 series heavy machine guns. In either case, this armament array would have been formidable in combat.

Testing of the Ki-64 continued into 1944. During its fifth flight, the rear engine installation erupted into fire which immediately sent the pilot into landing the aircraft. While the landing proved successful without loss of life, the impact of the crash damaged the test frame considerably. This proved an insurmountable setback for the program to which the Ki-64 was dropped from further development, leaving it to the pages of military aviation history.

Like many other programs begun prior to the end of the war in 1945 (be they aircraft or tank), the Ki-64 airframe was eventually captured and overtaken by the advancing Allies. Its design was then handed over to American engineers for study before being discarded to the scrapheap. Thus ended the short-lived reign of the Ki-64 heavy fighter.


The Mitsubishi A7MReppū was designed as the successor to the Imperial Japanese Navy's A6M Zero, with development beginning in 1942. Performance objectives were to achieve superior speed, climb, diving, and armament over the Zero, as well as better maneuverability. To meet these performance specifications its size and weight were significantly greater than its predecessor. The A7M's allied codename was "Sam".

The Kawasaki Ki-61 Hien is a Japanese World War II fighter aircraft used by the Imperial Japanese Army Air Service. The Japanese Army designation was "Army Type 3 Fighter" (三式戦闘機). Allied intelligence initially believed Ki-61s were Messerschmitt Bf 109s and later an Italian Macchi C.202, which led to the Allied reporting name of "Tony", assigned by the United States War Department. It was the only mass-produced Japanese fighter of the war to use a liquid-cooled inline V engine. Over 3,000 Ki-61s were produced. Initial prototypes saw action over Yokohama during the Doolittle Raid on 18 April 1942, and continued to fly combat missions throughout the war.

The Kawasaki Ki-100 () is a single-seat single-engine monoplane fighter aircraft used by the Imperial Japanese Army Air Service during World War II. The Japanese Army designation was "Type 5 Fighter" . It was not assigned an Allied code name.

The Mitsubishi Ki-46 was a twin-engine reconnaissance aircraft used by the Imperial Japanese Army in World War II. Its Army Shiki designation was Type 100 Command Reconnaissance Aircraft (一〇〇式司令部偵察機) the Allied brevity code name was "Dinah".

The Mitsubishi Ki-67Hiryū was a twin-engine heavy bomber produced by Mitsubishi and used by the Imperial Japanese Army Air Service and Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service in World War II. Its Army long designation was "Army Type 4 Heavy Bomber" (四式重爆撃機). Japanese Navy variants included the P2M and Q2M.

The Nakajima Ki-84 Hayate is a single-seat fighter flown by the Imperial Japanese Army Air Service in the last two years of World War II. The Allied reporting name was "Frank" the Japanese Army designation was Army Type 4 Fighter . The Ki-84 is generally considered the best Japanese fighter to operate in large numbers during the conflict. The aircraft boasted high speeds and excellent maneuverability with an armament that gave it formidable firepower. The Ki-84's performance matched that of any single-engine Allied fighter it faced, and its operational ceiling enabled it to intercept high-flying B-29 Superfortress bombers. Pilots and crews in the field learned to take care with the plane's high-maintenance Nakajima Homare engine and a landing gear prone to buckling. The difficulties of Japan's situation late in the war took a toll on the aircraft's field performance as manufacturing defects multiplied, quality fuel proved difficult to procure and experienced pilots grew scarce. Nevertheless, a well-maintained Ki-84 was Japan's fastest fighter. A total of 3,514 aircraft were built.

The Kawasaki Ki-45 Toryu was a two-seat, twin-engine heavy fighter used by the Imperial Japanese Army in World War II. The army gave it the designation "Type 2 Two-Seat Fighter" the Allied reporting name was "Nick". Originally serving as a long-range escort-fighter, the design — as with most heavy fighters of the period — fell prey to smaller, lighter, more agile single-engine fighters. As such, the Ki-45 instead served as a day & nighttime interceptor and strike-fighter.

The Kawasaki Ki-10 was the last biplane fighter used by the Imperial Japanese Army, entering service in 1935. Built by Kawasaki Kōkūki Kōgyō K.K. for the Imperial Japanese Army, it saw combat service in Manchukuo and in North China during the early stages of the Second Sino-Japanese War. Its reporting name given by the Allies was "Perry".

The Nakajima Ki-27 was the main fighter aircraft used by the Imperial Japanese Army Air Force up until 1940. Its Allied nickname was "Nate", although it was called "Abdul" in the "China Burma India" (CBI) theater by many post war sources Allied Intelligence had reserved that name for the nonexistent Mitsubishi Navy Type 97 fighter, expected to be the successor to the carrier-borne Type 96 with retractable landing gear and an enclosed cockpit.

The Kawasaki Ki-60 is an experimental Japanese World War II fighter aircraft that used a license-built (Kawasaki) DB 601 liquid-cooled engine. This was at that time an unusual choice because the majority of Japanese aircraft at that time used air-cooled radial engines.

The Tachikawa Ki-94 was a single-seat fighter-Interceptor aircraft project undertaken by the Tachikawa Aircraft Company and to be operated by the Imperial Japanese Army. The project refers to two aircraft designs: the Ki-94-I and the Ki-94-II, both of which did not advance beyond the mock-up and prototype stage respectively.

The Tachikawa Ki-36 was a Japanese army co-operation aircraft of World War II. It was a two-seat, low-wing monoplane with a single piston engine and fixed, tailwheel-type undercarriage.

The Tachikawa Ki-55 was a Japanese advanced trainer.

The Kawasaki Ki-96 was a Japanese single seat, twin-engine heavy fighter of World War II. It was intended to replace the Kawasaki Ki-45s of the Imperial Japanese Army Air Service. However, it was not adopted and only three prototypes were built.

The Nakajima Ki-49Donryu was a twin-engine Japanese bomber aircraft of World War II. The type was designed to carry daylight bombing missions, without the protection of escort fighters. Consequently, while its official name, Army Type 100 Heavy Bomber, was accurate in regard to its formidable defensive armament and armor, these features also restricted the Ki㺱 to payloads comparable to those of lighter medium bombers – the initial production variant could carry only 1,000 kg (2,200 lb) of bombs.

The Mitsubishi Ki-83 (�) was a Japanese experimental long range heavy fighter designed near the end of World War II. It did not reach production status.

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The Aichi S1A Denko was a Japanese night fighter, intended to replace the Nakajima J1N1-S Gekkou. Like the Gekkou, it was to be equipped with radar to counter the B-29 air raids over Japan. Development time for the S1A increased while trying to overcome design shortcomings, such as the insufficient power of the Navy's requested Nakajima Homare engines, resulting in no aircraft being completed before the war ended.

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The Kawasaki Ki-88 was a proposed Japanese World War II fighter aircraft intended for use by the Imperial Japanese Army Air Force. Its anticipated performance was disappointing, and only a mock-up was completed.


Mitsubishi Kinsei 62, Ha 33 Model 62, Radial 14 Engine

Mitsubishi was the first and largest series producer of Japanese engines during World War II, with a 1937 Pratt & Whitney arrangement possibly contributing to this success. Its Kinsei (Golden Star) engine saw service throughout the war, beginning at 544 kW (730 hp) and producing as much as 1,163 kW (1,560 hp) at war’s end. This artifact was removed from the left nacelle of a twin-engine Kawasaki Ki-102b, Army Type 4 Assault Plane, Model B (Allied Code Name Randy), a type which only saw limited action during the Okinawa campaign.

Other fighter, bomber, and reconnaissance aircraft using this engine included the Mitsubishi Ki-46 (Code Name Dinah), Mansyu Ki-71 (Edna), Yokosuka D4Y (Judy), Kawasaki Ki-45 KAI (Nick), Kawasaki Ki-61 (Tony), and Mitsubishi A6M (Zeke). A total of 85 Kinsei Ha 33 Model 62 engines were built between 1941 and 1945.

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Physical Description

Type: Reciprocating, 14 cylinders, 2 rows, radial, air-cooled, turbosupercharged, fuel injected


Indice

Entrò in servizio nel 1944 ma ne venne fatto solo un uso limitato. La versione principale, la Ki-102b, venne assegnata come riserva per proteggere il territorio giapponese da un possibile attacco diretto, ma si mostrò in azione anche durante la battaglia di Okinawa. La scelta tattica di non schierare il modello in servizio di prima linea era giustificata dalla speranza di utilizzarlo come vettore del missile aria-superficie guidato Igo-1-B nel caso di invasione del Giappone da parte delle forze alleate. Il progressivo collasso dell'impero giapponese gli permise di effettuare solo 26 missioni da caccia e 238 missioni da attacco al suolo [senza fonte] .