Yokosho K1Y Navy Type 13 Trainer

Yokosho K1Y Navy Type 13 Trainer

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Yokosho K1Y Navy Type 13 Trainer

The Yokosho K1Y Navy Type 13 Trainer was produced to replace the existing I-go Ko-gata and Avro 504 seaplane trainers, and was in use from the mid 1920s until the early part of the Pacific War, although in decreased numbers from 1930.

The Yokosho I-go Ko-gata was a twin float trainer introduced in 1920 and largely withdrawn from service in 1924.The Avro 504 had been introduced into Japan in 1921 and put into production as both a land plane and a float plane.

Work on the new design began in 1924. The aim was to produce a single aircraft that could take interchangeable wheels or floats, avoiding the need for two pools of training aircraft. Chief Designer Masasuke Hashimoto produced a two-bay biplane, using a wooden framework for both fuselage and wings, with fabric covering. It was powered by a 130hp Gasuden Benz engine. The new design was a success, and it was accepted for production in October 1925.

Around 104 were built. Yokosho built six in 1925. The first forty or so production aircraft were built in 1925. Kawanishi produced another batch of 48 in 1928-33, with the internal designation Type 0. Finally Watanabe produced ten aircraft in 1933-34.

The aircraft was known as the Type 13 Land-based trainer K1Y1 in its land plane version. When given twin floats (and a small tail float) it became the Type 13 Seaplane Trainer K1Y2. The seaplane was somewhat heavier and slower.

Type 13 Land-based trainer K1Y1
Engine: Gasuden Benz six-cylinder water-cooled inline engine
Power: 130hp
Crew: 2
Span: 33ft 5.75in
Length: 25ft 11in
Height: 10ft 4in
Empty weight: 1,477lb
Loaded weight: 2,046lb
Max speed: 89mph
Climb Rate: 52min 4sec to 9,843ft

Type 13 Seaplane Trainer K1Y2
Engine: Gasuden Benz six-cylinder water-cooled inline engine
Power: 130hp
Crew: 2
Span: 33ft 5.75in
Length: 28ft 5.75in
Height: 11ft 4.5in
Empty weight: 1,922lb
Loaded weight: 2,328lb
Max speed: 80.6mph
Climb Rate: 42min to 6,562ft
Endurance: 3 hours

Design and development [ edit | edit source ]

In 1924, the Yokosuka Naval Air Technical Arsenal was tasked with designing a replacement for the Imperial Japanese Navy's Yokosuka I-go Ko-gata and Avro 504 floatplane trainers. The resultant design was a single-engined two-bay biplane of fabric-covered wooden construction. It was powered by a Gasuden-built 130 horsepower (97 kW) Benz six-cylinder water cooled inline engine, and could be fitted with either a conventional landing gear or floats. It first flew in 1925 and was accepted into service as the Navy Type 13 Trainer, [nb 1] with the short system designation E1Y. ΐ]

Operational history [ edit ]

After acceptance in October 1925, about 40 were built by Nakajima, Α] with 48 more built by Kawanishi from 1928 to 1928 to 1932, Β] and 10 by Watanabe in 1933–34, which together with six aircraft built by Yokosuka, gave a total of about 104. ΐ] The type remained the standard floatplane trainer of the Imperial Japanese Navy until it was replaced by the Yokosuka K4Y from 1933, Γ] although a few remained in use until the early years of the Second World War. ΐ]


  • Francillon, René J. (1970). Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War. London: Putnam & Company Ltd. ISBN  0-370-00033-1 .
  • Mikesh, Robert C. Abe, Shorzoe (1990). Japanese Aircraft, 1910-1941. London: Putnam Aeronautical Books. ISBN  0-85177-840-2 .

Information as of: 25.06.2020 08:24:50 CEST

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Yokosho K1Y Navy Type 13 Trainer - History

In 1921 The Master of Sempill's British Aviation Mission took thirty Avro 504 primary trainers to Japan for use by the Japanese Navy. These consisted of twenty Avro 504K landplane trainers (now called 504L), and ten seaplane trainers (504S), both types being outstanding in their class. The Japanese Navy decided to adopt these as its standard primary trainer and put them into production.
To prepare for production, the Navy sent several of its officers to Avro to study the process. Among them were Capt (Ordnance) Ryuzo Tanaka, Capt (Ordnance) Tomasu Koyama, Lieut Kishichi Umakoshi, Lieut Misao Wada, and Engineer Katsusuke Hashimoto. The Navy purchased the manufacturing rights from A V Roe, and supplied both Nakajima and Aichi with actual sample aircraft and manufacturing drawings for their production when placing its orders. The Avro trainer for the Navy was in Nakajima production from 1922 to 1924 during which time the company built 250 in various versions.
Aichi built thirty 504s fitted as twin-float seaplane trainers. The land-version was generally referred to simply as the Avro L and the seaplane model was the Avro S however, the official Navy designation was Avro Land-based Trainer and Avro Seaplane Trainer.
After the introduction of this aircraft by the Sempill Aviation Mission, it had a long life as the Japanese Navy's typical primary trainer. The later model, the 504N, developed into the Navy Type 3 Primary Trainer. Around 1927-28, a number of these Avro-designed trainers were released for civil use and were highly regarded. They had good stability and control, and were good aerobatic aircraft. A few were still flying as late as 1937 and were the last of the rotary-powered aircraft in regular flying operations.

Single-engine land- and seaplane trainer biplane. Wooden structure with fabric covering. Student and instructor in open cockpits.
120hp-130hp Le Rhone nine-cylinder air-cooled rotary engine, driving a two- or four-bladed wooden propeller.
One dorsal flexible 7. 7mm machinegun, (optional).
Span 10.98m (36ft) length 8.57m (28ft 1 1/2in) height 3.03m (9ft 11 1/4in) wing area 30.7sq m (330.462sq ft).
Empty weight 557kg (1,228Ib) loaded weight 830kg (1,830Ib) wing loading 27kg sq m(5.5Ib sq ft) power loading 6.9kg hp (15.2Ib/hp).
Maximum speed 78kt (90mph) cruising speed 64kt (73.6mph) landing speed 30kt (34.5mph) climb to 3,000m (9,843ft) in 23min service ceiling 4,340m (14,238ft) endurance 3hr range 185nm (213sm).
250 built by Nakajima 1922 to 1924 (wheel and float versions), thirty by Aichi from 1922 (float version).

Великобритания Felixstowe F.2 - F.5 1917

Hirosho (Hiro Naval Arsenal) (Hiro Kaigun Kosho)

The Hiro Arsenal was established on 1 August, 1920, under the name of the Aircraft Department, Hiro Branch Arsenal, Kure Naval Arsenal, as the Navy's first real aircraft repair and manufacturing factory. At that time, two Naval aircraft factories were operating at Yokosuka and Sasebo, but space was very limited. To increase production capability for the Navy, the Kure NavaI Arsenal expanded by establishing the Hiro Branch Arsenal three miles southeast of Kure on flat ground between the mouths of two rivers, the Hiro Ohkawa on the west and the Misakaiji-gawa on the cast. This new factory, known by its acronym Hirosho, was completed in October 1921, and licence-production of the F.5 Flying-boats was begun. On 1 April, 1923, the Hiro Branch Arsenal was upgraded to the Hiro Naval Arsenal to which the Aircraft Department belonged.

As a result of the British Aviation Mission that helped train the japanese Naval air force during 1921 and 1922, approximately ten types of British aircraft were taken to Japan by sea for instruction purposes. Among these was the Felixstowe F.5 built by Short Brothers, the aeroplane reputed to be the best of the large flying-boats. At that time, the Navy intended to build these aircraft for its own use, and had invited to Japan twenty-one engineers from Short Brothers for that purpose. This group, led by Shorts' engineer Dodds who arrived in Japan in April 1921, began work at the Ordnance Department of the Yokosuka Arsenal where the flyingboats were to be built. The japanese contingent under British leadership were Capt (Ordnance) Ryuzo Tanaka, Capt (Ordnance) Tomasu Koyama, Lieut Kishichi Umakoshi, Lieut Misao Wada, Engineer Masasuke Hashimoto and others. The manufacture of the F.5 was the start of many years of large flying-boat construction in Japan.
In addition to the licensed manufacturing rights, Short Brothers supplied partially built assemblies to complete the first six of the F.5, in addition to assembly tooling and instruction in the manufacturing process. These F.5s were assembled at Yokosuka Arsenal, with the first one completed in April 1921. Since the F.5 was already renowned throughout the world as an excellent twin-engined all-wood flying-boat, it was no surprise that those assembled in Japan had excellent performance. When the first of them visited Tokyo, with a fly past in October 1921, there was impressed public reaction to their, then, enormous size.
Following these imported and japanese-assembled aircraft, the flying-boat was put into full production at the Aircraft Department of the Hiro Naval Arsenal in the Kure area, beginning in October 1921. An additional forty F.5s were built by Aichi up until 1929.
The engines initially used in these aeroplanes were the imported Rolls-Royce Eagle, which developed 360hp. As work developed, the Engine Factory of the Hiro Arsenal manufactured their first licence-built 400hp Lorraine engines in August 1924. In 1925, the Hiro Arsenal experimentally installed these new engines in one of the flying-boats and designated it the F.1. As the power rating of the Lorraine was increased to 450hp, another flying-boat was equipped with them, to become the F.2. Although the Hiro Arsenal expected that both the F.1 and F.2 would be adopted as standard equipment, the prototype aircraft were never put into production because the design of the airframe was already considered obsolete as it was based on First World War construction concepts. In addition to the prototypes, there were modifications of others, primarily in engine configurations, one version being powered by two 360hp Eagle direct-drive engines with faired nacelles, two-bladed propellers and Lamblin-type radiators.
Only the F.5 version was taken into Japanese Naval air service. They were used as long-range patrol aircraft from 1922 to 1930, from bases at Yokosuka and Sasebo. They gave impressive service during their operational life, and numerous newspaper accounts covered their long-range over-water flights but also during this time there were numerous accidents with deaths and injuries, the result of engine problems, improper maintenance, and bad weather. Nevertheless, the F.5 made its mark in Japanese aviation history.

Twin-engined biplane flying-boat. All wooden construction with ply covered hull and fabric-covered wings, tail and control surfaces. Originally crewed by four two pilots, observer/bow gunner and flight engineer/rear gunner. Later crewed by six, adding navigator and radio operator.
Two 360hp Rolls-Royce Eagle twelve-cylinder vee water-cooled engines, driving four-bladed wooden propellers.
Two flexible 7.7mm machine-guns.

Aircraft Technical Order Japanese Navy Data
Span 31.59m (103ft 8in) 31.59m (103ft 8in)
Length 15.03m (49ft 4in) 15.16m (49ft 8 3/4in)
Height 5.75m (18ft 10 1/4in) 5.75m (18ft 10 1/4in)
Wing area 131.3sq m (1,413.347sq ft)
Empty weight 3,720kg (8,201lb) 3,784kg (8,342Ib)
Loaded weight 5,627kg (12,405Ib) 5,800kg (12,786lb)
Wing loading 42 7kg/sq m 44.1kg/sq m
(8.7Ib/sq ft) (9Ib/sq ft)
Power loading 8.04kg/hp (17. 7Ib/hp) 8.05kg/hp (17.7Ib/hp)
Maximum speed 89kt (102mph) 78kt (90mph)
Climb to 2,000m (6,562ft) 1,000m (3,280ft)
16min 06sec 15min
Service ceiling 3,550m (11,646ft)
Range 620nm (712sm)
Endurance 7hr 8hr

Ten built by Yokosuka Arsenal (including six imported unassembled, ten (approx) by Hiro Arsenal, forty by Aichi.

Великобритания Short Type 184 / Type 225 1915

Navy Short Reconnaissance Seaplane (Short 225 Seaplane, Type S.184)

Recognizing the capability of the Royal Navy's Short 184 seaplane, the japanese Navy dispatched Capt Shiro Yamauchi to England to purchase one, as well as a Sopwith fighter seaplane. The Short arrived in Japan in November 1916 and was referred to as the Short Reconnaissance Seaplane, even though the British used it as a torpedo bomber from 1915 to the end of the First World War.
The japanese Navy used the aeroplane extensively for testing various engines such as the 230hp Salmson A9, 220hp Renault V8, 225hp Sunbeam V 12, and the 200hp Peugeot V8. As an experiment, the Aeroplane Factory, Department of Ordnance, Yokosuka Naval Arsenal, built a few of these aeroplanes with various engine installations but it was not put into quantity production.

Single-engine twin-float reconnaissance three-bay biplane. Wooden structure with fabric covering. Auxiliary floats beneath wingtips and tail. Rearward folding wings for stowage. Crew of two in open cockpits.
One dorsal flexible 7.7mm machinegun. Bomb load: Maximum 235kg (518Ib), or one 14in torpedo.
Various engines driving two-bladed wooden propellers. The data here are for the 230hp Salmson powered aircraft.
Span 19.50m (63ft 11 3/4in) length 12.735m (41ft 9 1/4in) heIght 3.76m (12ft 4in) wing area 63.9sq m(687.836 sq ft).
Empty weight 1,472kg (3,245Ib) loaded weight 1,976kg (4,356Ib).
Maximum speed 63kt (72.5mph) climb to 1,000m (3,280ft) in 11 min 20sec.
Three built.

Великобритания Sonoda biplane 1912

Takehiko Sonoda was one of the early civilian aviators who were typical in coming from distinguished and affluent Japanese families. He was born in London when his father, Kokichi Sonoda, was with the Japanese consulate in England. After he returned to Japan where he finished his secondary school education, he went back to Britain and later graduated from the Glasgow Polytechnic in mechanical engineering. He accepted several jobs in various factories and a shipyard, all the while developing an interest in aviation. Eventually he was employed by the Handley Page Aircraft Co.

The British pioneer Frederick Handley Page was always interested in new design ideas for his aeroplanes. As an employee in the summer of 1912, Takehiko Sonoda influenced Handley Page's aeroplanes with a significantly improved approach in aircraft design.
Sonoda had designed an advanced two-seat biplane and wanted Handley Page to build it. Apart from providing useful paid work for Handley Page, Sonoda's design was of great interest because he had incorporated ailerons in the upper wing in place of the Handley Page practice of using wing warping for lateral control. Handley Page was so impressed by their advantages that after exhibiting his own Yellow Peril monoplane at the 1913 Olympia show, he fitted it with wide-chord ailerons which gave it much improved handling qualities.
The Sonoda Aeroplane was a wood and fabric two-bay unequal-span biplane with marked stagger. The covered fuselage was mounted on short struts above the lower wing and in its nose was the 60hp Green water-cooled inline engine which Sonoda had bought with his father's financial assistance. The fuel tank was above the upper wing centre section, and there was a large radiator on each side of the fuselage near the centre of gravity. The undercarriage was conventional and had a central skid to prevent nosing-over. A deep tailskid held the Sonoda at about flying attitude while on the ground.
The aeroplane was finished in duck-egg blue, had the name Sonoda on the fuselage in large capital letters and the Japanese rising-sun flag was painted on the rudder.
The Sonoda biplane was built at Barking in Essex and taken to the London Aerodrome at Hendon for assembly. It was apparently rolled-out on 7 July and is reported as being first flown on 7 September, 1912, by Handley Page's pilot Cyril W. Meredith. The aeroplane was included in a line-up of types on the Naval and Military Aviation Day at Hendon on 28 September and soon after that was badly damaged in a forced landing following engine failure. Unfortunately no technical data are known to have survived.
Thus Sonoda's flying experience ended and he returned to Japan, keeping the promise that by having his father's financing of the engine, that this would be his only aeroplane and that he would not become an aviator. This engine was later installed in Einosuke Shirato's Asahi-go for flying demonstrations at various locations around Japan. Baron Takehiko Sonoda later became a member of the House of Peers.

Великобритания Sopwith Schneider/Baby 1914

Navy Ha-go Small Seaplane (Sopwith Schneider Fighter Seaplane)

Capt Shiro Yamauchi acquired a Sopwith Schneider fighter floatplane while on his aviation inspection tour in England in August 1915. As a direct descendant of the famous Schneider Trophy winner it became known as the Schneider and bore a close resemblance to its predecessor, the Tabloid, which could also be float equipped. Also known as a Sopwith Baby, the aeroplane arrived in Japan by ship in May 1916 and became the japanese Navy's first fighter seaplane.
Originally this aeroplane was powered by a 100hp Gnome engine, but those manufactured by Aichi under the Naval designation Ha-go Small Seaplane were powered by the 110hp Le Rhone engine. Training for aerial combat with this aeroplane was begun in March 1918 by Sub-Lieut Shirase, and the first loop by a japanese Naval officer was made by Lieut Torao Kuwahara with one of these aeroplanes.

Single-engine twin-float fighter biplane. Three-float undercarriage. Wooden structure with fabric covering. Pilot in open cockpit.
100hp Gnome nine-cylinder aircooled rotary engine, or one 110hp Le Rhone eleven-cylinder air-cooled rotary engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller.
One nose-mounted fixed 7.7mm machine-gun.
Span 7.223m (23ft 8 1/4in) length 6.634m (21 ft 9in) height 3m (9ft 10in) wing area 22 .3sq m (240sq ft).
Empty weight 528kg (1,164Ib) loaded weight 697kg (1,536Ib).
Maximum speed 78kt (90mph) at sea level climb to 1,500m (4,92Ift) in 13min endurance 2 1/2hr.
Ten built beginning 1921.
Weights and performance with Gnome engine.

Германия Hansa-Brandenburg W.29 1918

Navy Type Hansa Reconnaissance Seaplane

After the First World War, the Japanese Navy received from Germany a Hansa-Brandenburg W 33 reconnaissance seaplane as part of war reparations. By 1922, the Navy decided to adopt this aeroplane as standard equipment and placed orders for their production with Nakajima and Aichi. The original Hansa seaplane, designed by Dr Ernst Heinkel, was considered to be very advanced structurally and have excellent performance. To make it better suited to Japanese needs, modifications were made in the Nakajima production model.
The Type Hansa was adopted to replace the Navy Type Yokosho Ro-go Ko-gata Reconnaissance Seaplane. This was the Navy's first low-wing ship-based monoplane. They were easily identifiable by their unusual tail configuration, having the vertical surfaces below the tail plane. Pilots who flew these aeroplanes disliked their water-handling because of poor directional control and inadequate downward visibility. They also had other shortcomings.
These were the first reconnaissance seaplanes to be carried on the battleship Nagato, beginning in 1926. Many remained in Navy service until around 1927 and 1928 when they were replaced with the Yokosho and Nakajima-built Type 14 and Type 15 Reconnaissance Seaplanes.
When the Hansas became surplus the Ando Aeroplane Research Studio and Japan Air Transport Research Association converted some of them into cabin passenger aircraft with three to five seats.

Single-engine twin-float low-wing monoplane. Wooden structure with fabric covered wing and tail, with ply-covered fuselage. Crew of two in open cockpits.
170-210hp Mitsubishi Type Hi twelve-cylinder water-cooled vee engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller.
One dorsal flexible 7.7mm machinegun.
Span 13.57m (44ft 6 1/4in) length 9.287m (30ft 5 1/2in) height 2.996m (9ft 10in) wing area 31.3sq m (336.921 sq ft).
Empty weight 1,470kg (3,240Ib) loaded weight 2,100kg (4,629Ib) wing loading 67.1kg/sq m (13.7Ib/sq ft) power loading 10.5kg/hp (23.1lb/hp).
Maximum speed 91 kt (104. 7mph) climb to 3,000m (9,843ft) in 23min service ceiling 4,500m (14,763ft).
Approximately 310 built with 160 by Nakajima 1922-25 and 150 by Aichi.

Германия Rumpler Taube 1911

Isobe Rumpler Taube Aeroplane

After resigning from the Navy, Onokichi Isobe was one of the principals in the establishment of the lmperial Flying Association formed on 23 April, 1913. The Association sponsored his travel to Germany to receive flying instruction, and to buy two Rumpler Taubes through Mitsui & Co.
When Japan became involved in the First World War, the Army purchased these two aeroplanes from the Association in October 1914 and sent them with an Army contingent to the Tsingtao campaign and Isobe was engaged by the Army to accompany the two aeroplanes and serve as an instructor. One Taube was damaged when flown by 2-Lt Jiro Takeda while still in Japan during flying training, and the other, to be flown by Isobe, arrived at Tsingtao too late to
participate in the battle.
Now that the Association was without its aeroplanes, it purchased a 90hp Austro Daimler six-cylinder inline water-cooled engine from Britain for use in a japanese-version of the Rumpler Taube they built in the Imperial Flying Association's hangar at Tokorozawa. Taking charge of design, Isobe made modifications to modernize the structure to some degree. Instead of having the flexible dove-like wings with negative incidence at the wingtips for control, Isobe incorporated hinged-ailerons. The empennage had hinged flying control surfaces instead of the larger flexible bamboo structure of the original Taube. The forward half of the two-seat fuselage structure was made of welded-steel tubing, the rear section having a wooden framework. The sides of the cockpit and part of the wing root where the pilot's position was located were covered with celluloid sheeting to provide a downward view.
This aeroplane, completed on 5 April, 1915, was commonly called the Kaizo (meaning modified) Rumpler Taube, and used mostly by Isobe and Toriumi in their engineering work with the Association. Later it was used as a trainer by students Yukiteru Ozaki and Takeji Senno. (see Ozaki Aeroplane) On 30 May, 1915, while Isobe was flying solo at Tokorozawa, a gust of wind caused the port wing of the Taube to strike the ground, causing heavy damage to the aircraft. Only the front part of the fuselage and its engine could be salvaged. The parts were stored for a while and later used in the Ozaki Soga-go Aeroplane. Following the loss of its aeroplanes the Imperial Flying Association was soon re-equipped with Type Mo 1913 and Type Mo-4 aircraft through the assistance of the Army.
One month after his accident with the Kaizo Rumpler Taube, Onokichi Isobe resigned from the Imperial Flying Association and joined the French Army. He entered the Premier Regiment Etranger before being assigned as a pilot with SPA 57. Flying Nieuport 11 Bebes with this unit, (Flight) Lieutenant Isobe was severely wounded on 6 March, 1917, while on patrol. For his service, he was awarded the Legion d'Honneur and Croix de Guerre with citations that described him in part as being ' . as a foreigner fighting for the cause of France, he showed exemplary military qualities in the Squadron by demonstrating his aggressiveness in combat.' He resigned from the French Army in December 1917 and withdrew from aviation, but became involved again in Japan by establishing the Nippon Glider Club (later Nippon Glider Association) in April 1929 as an active promoter of sailplane activities. He died on 14 February, 1957, at the age of 80.

США Curtiss A 1911

Navy Type Ka Seaplane (Curtiss 1912 Seaplane)

Having been ordered to return early from a flying school in the United States, Lieut Sankichi Kohno was only halfway through his training at the time. Along with a Farman Seaplane, the Curtiss Seaplane which Kohno brought with him was to be demonstrated during a naval review on 12 November, 1912, to give official recognition to aviation as part of the japanese Navy. Hastily assembled, the Curtiss was first flown by Kohno on 2 November, but a few flights later, while he was gaining experience and carrying a passenger, the aeroplane overturned when struck by a wave and had to be hastily dismantled and repaired.
Recognizing that the water around Oppama was too rough for his limited experience, Kohno decided to leave for the Naval demonstration from the calmer waters around Yokohama. The British trading firm, Sale & Frazar Ltd, co-operated by providing a building for the reassembly of the aeroplane and a ramp for its launching. As a result the demonstration flight over the japanese fleet by Lieut Kohno was made without incident, marking the first of the official Navy flights, with the Farman flown by Lieut Kaneko. The flights covered 17 nautical miles and lasted 35 minutes.
In addition to the two Curtiss 1912 Seaplanes imported from the United States, other aircraft of the type were built at the Department of Ordnance, Yokosuka Naval Arsenal, under the designation Type Ka Seaplane, later re-designated I-go Otsu-gata Seaplane. Their service life was short, being phased out of the Navy inventory by mid-1915.

Single-engine pusher biplane seaplane. Wooden structure with fabric covered wings and tail. Pilot and one passenger in open seats.
75hp Curtiss O eight-cylinder vee water-cooled engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller.
Span 11.348m (37ft 2 3/4in) length 8.458m (27ft 9in) height 2.496m (8ft 2in) wing area 33sq m (355.22sq ft).
Empty weight 535kg (1,180lb) loaded weight 745kg (1,642Ib).
Maximum speed 43kt (50mph) endurance 3hr.
Several built.

США Curtiss JN-4 Jenny 1916

Oguri-Curtiss Jenny Trainer

Oguri contracted with the Akabane Aeroplane Manufacturing Works at Kishi Airfield, to build him an aeroplane from parts of the Curtiss JN-4 Jenny, presumably a Canadian-built Canuck, he had acquired in the United States. When completed, it was flown at the Susaki reclaimed ground in Tokyo on 26 December, 1919. It performed well, demonstrating its aerobatic qualities, including loops.
With this aeroplane, Oguri established the Oguri Flying School at Susaki in June 1920. To distinguish his aeroplane from other competing fliers, he painted on it a black-cat insignia, basing it on one he had seen on aeroplanes in the United States. In Japan, he was often referred to as 'the American-minded pilot.' He made his flying activities as visible as possible by practices such as special crosscountry flights including Tokyo to Shizuoka, 100 miles to the southwest, and generally catering to female passengers. He lost his aeroplane, however, in a crash in which he was injured, while giving a flight to a geisha. While seated in the pupil's cockpit she became frightened, clung to the control column and caused Oguri to lose control of the aeroplane.

Single-engine biplane trainer. Wooden structure with fabric covering. Pupil and instructor in open cockpits.
90hp Curtiss OX-5 eight-cylinder water-cooled engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller.
Span, upper 14.55m (47ft 9in), lower 11.32m (37ft 1 3/4in) length 8.11 m (26ft 7 1/4in) height 3.31m (10ft 10 1/4in).
Empty weight 711kg (1,567lb) loaded weight 975kg (2, 149Ib).
Maximum speed 65kt (75mph) landing speed 39kt (45mph) service ceiling 3,300m (10,826ft).
One built in December 1919.

США Standard H-3 1917

In search of proven trainer aircraft, the PMBRA purchased two Standard H-3 Trainers from the US Army in May 1917. The H-3 was a two-bay biplane with large gap and 10-degree sweep back to the wings, and powered by 125hp Hall-Scott A-5 engines. Only nine were built, and the type had been carried over from the former Sloan Aircraft Co Inc that became the Standard Aero Corporation.
Three more of these aeroplanes were built in Japan, with the higher powered 150hp Hall-Scott engine. Production was limited because the aeroplane was considered dangerous. They were used for flying training from May 1917 to March 1918, beginning at Tokorozawa and later at the newly opened Kagamigahara Airfield. Fifteen pilot officers received training in them.

Single-engine tractor biplane trainer. All-wooden construction with fabric covering. Pupil and instructor in open cockpit.
150hp Hall-Scott L-4 six-cylinder inline water-cooled engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller.
Span 12.25m (40ft 1in) length 8.22m (27ft).
Loaded weight 1,225kg (2,700Ib).
Maximum speed 71 kt (82mph) endurance 6hr.
Three or more built.

Франция Farman Farman-IV 1910

Франция Maurice Farman MF.7 Longhorn 1912

Army Type Mo (Maurice Farman Type) 1913 Aeroplane

Army Lt Kenjiro Nagasawa and Lt Shigeru Sawada were sent to France to study aviation during the period july 1912 to Februry 1913. At the end of their stay in Europe, they bought a Maurice Farman 1912 aeroplane which arrived in Japan by ship in May 1913. This new aeroplane proved superior to all other imported aeroplanes and japanese-made Kaishiki types in stability, control and reliability. This prompted the purchase of four more of this type, which by then, a year later, had been improved and were referred to as the Maurice Farman 1913 models.
When these disassembled parts arrived they were studied by the PMBRA with the idea of manufacturing them in Japan. Under the guidance of Nagasawa and Sawada of the PMBRA, the Tokyo Army Artillery Arsenal in Koishigawa, Tokyo, built the airframes and the 70hp Renault rotary engines under the supervision of Army Capt Haruhiko Uemura of the Arsenal. Aeroplane number five in this Type Mo 1913 series was completed in September 1913. Eight additional aircraft were built in 1914, and beginning with No.7, steel spring heels were attached to the rear of the undercarriage skids. These could be made to dig-in and reduce the landing run. Also quite noticeable with the Type Mo 1913 was the raised seat behind the student, giving the instructor better visibility. When required, a third person could sit on the fuel tank behind the instructor. These became the first production aircraft in Japan.
In response to Japan's participation in the First World War with action against the Germans in Tsingtao, China, the Provisional Air Corps was organized and used the Mo Type 1913 aircraft as its primary equipment. Of the five aeroplanes sent to the Tsingtao campaign in September and October 1914, four were of this type, the other being a Nieuport NG. Of these four, three were imported, and the fourth japanese-built. During this campaign, these aircraft undertook reconnaissance and bombing missions, dropping 15kg (33lb) from six bomb racks, and occasionally their crews firing pistols against rifle fire from a German Taube in air-to-air combat. This experience brought later improvements to what then became the Type Mo 1913 Armed Aeroplane with one automatic rifle and provision for six 10kg (22lb) bombs. By having a 'wireless' communication system on board one of the aerocraft, in july 1913 they effectively directed artillery fire from the air for evaluation purposes.
These Type Mo aeroplanes were continually used for distance records, connecting major cities on flights punctuated with frequent emergency landings along the way, and experiencing other delays due to weather. But they held the spotlight in news coverage and were popular topics of conversation. In March 1915, the most distinguished combat aircraft of the Tsingtao campaign, the third Type Mo 1913, was put on display in the Yushukan Military Museum in Kudan, Tokyo, perhaps the world's first exhibit of an aeroplane with a combat record.

Single-engine pusher sesquiplane trainer with crew nacelle. Wooden structure with fabric covering. Elevators at nose and tail. Skid-type undercarriage with dual wheels. Crew of two in open cockpit.
70-80hp Renault eight-cylinder vee air-cooled engine, driving a Chauviere two-bladed wooden propeller.
Span 15.54m (50ft 11 3/4in) length 11.28m (37ft) height 3.45m (11ft 3 3/4in) wing area 53.8sq m (589.117sq ft)
Empty weight 580.6kg (1,280lb) loaded weight 855kg (1,885Ib) wing loading 15.9kg/sqm 3.25Ib/sq ft) power loading 12.21kg/hp (26.91lb/hp).
Maximum speed 51 kt (59mph) cruising speed 38kt (44mph) service ceiling 3,000m (9,843ft) endurance 4hr.
Four imported, twenty-two built by Army Arsenal and four built by PMBRA and others.

Converted Type Mo (Maurice Farman Type) Aeroplane

When originally built as the seventh aeroplane in May 1914 in the hangar of Tokorozawa Airfield this aeroplane was like all the other Type Mo 1913 aircraft. Flown by 2-Lt Jiro Takeda in the newsworthy flight to Tokyo on 22 May, 1914, it also established an altitude record of 2,200m on 9 june flown by 2-Lt Morikichi Sakamoto. It was then exhibited to the Crown Prince (later Emperor Showa) after landing at the Komazawa Parade Grounds. At the time Lt Sawada converted this aeroplane he had felt that it was a very lucky aeroplane, and since it was the seventh of the Type Mo, again the auspicious number, he painted number 7 on the tail.
However, on 26 July, 1914, the aeroplane ran out of luck, for it crashed and was badly damaged at Tokorozawa Airfield while being flown by Capt Tokugawa, and for a while, its remains sat idle in a hangar. At a time when much of the military strength at Tokorozawa was participating in the Tsingtao campaign in September 1914, Lt Sawada remained behind and was put in charge of pilot training and aircraft maintenance. Taking the initiative, he reassembled what he called the lucky aeroplane from its unbroken parts and replaced many others, only this time eliminating the front elevator. When completed on 19 January, 1915,this 7th Type Mo 1913 became known as the Sawada Type No.7, or more officially because of this radical modification, Kaishiki the 3rd Year Model. This change demonstrated improvements in reconnaissance capability, an increase in stability, improved maneouvrability and higher speed. By placing a machine-gun in the front-seat location no longer restricted by the front elevator, this became the first Japanese Army aircraft to be so armed.
This aeroplane was used extensively at Tokorozawaa for flight testing, until 26 May, 1915, when, being flown by Capt Naranosuke Oka, it crashed in a wheat field at Kitada, Tomioka Village, 4km north of the airfield, and the aeroplane was destroyed. However, because of the proven success of Sawada's modifications it introduced radical design changes in future Japanese aeroplanes.

Single-engined pusher sesquiplane trainer with crew nacelle. Wooden structure with fabric covering. Rear elevator only. Skid-type undercarriage with dual wheels. Crew of two in open cockpit.
70-80hp Renault eight-cylinder vee air-cooled engine, driving a Chauviere two-bladed wooden propeller.
One nose-mounted flexible machinegun.
Span 15.50m (50ft 10 1/4in) length 9.35m (30ft 8in) height 3.66m (12ft) wing area 60sq m (645.85sq ft).
Empty weight 485kg (1,069Ib) loaded weight 765kg (1,686lb) wing loading 12.7kg/sq m (2.6Ib/sq ft) power loading 9.45kg/hp (20.8Ib/hp).
Maximum speed 58kt (67mph) endurance 4hr.
One conversion in January 1915.

Akabane Aeroplane Manufacturing Works (Akabane Hikoki Seisakusho) (Kishi)

This company was founded by Doctor Kazuta Kishi, MD, an extraordinary man with numerous diverse interests which included aviation. In 1914, he served as the director of the ear hospital (ENT) at Akashi-cho, Tsukiji, Tokyo, and was in addition known for his interests as an inventor of various machines, and an enthusiast for automobiles and swords. Achieving success in discovering a molybdenum vein in Tsurugigadake (Sword Mountain), Toyama Prefecture, he managed a refinery and undertook the manufacturing of the 70hp Renault engine using his molybdenum steel alloy. Assisting him in the technical aspects of these major undertakings were Aijiro Hara BSc and Rikichi Sasaki BSc, both graduates of Tokyo Imperial University, Department of Engineering.
At about this time, Tsunejiro Obata, the oldest son of Iwajiro Obata, a noted civil contractor of Fushimi, Kyoto, built the airframe of a Maurice Farman 1913, financed by his father. The aircraft needed an engine, and a Kishi-Renault engine was soon mated to it. In December 1915, the aeroplane was successfully flown by Army Lt (Reserve) Takesaburo Inoue at Okinohara, Yokaichi City, near Lake Biwa. In March 1916, flown by Ieyasu Nakazawa, it was used in japan's first motion picture in which an aeroplane was part of the plot. With this, the success of the aeroplane, although punctuated by the unreliability of the Kishi-built engine, was confirmed.

Kishi No.1 Tsurugi-go Aeroplane

Involving himself more deeply in aviation, Doctor Kishi established an aeroplane manufacturing shop in his hospital grounds, and hired Etsutaro Munesato to be in charge. The shop produced a Maurice Farman 1913 in May 1916 and Kishi named it the Tsurugi-go, later to be known as the No.1 Tsurugigo, meaning Sword-type. Taking the finished aeroplane to the Susaki reclaimed ground in eastern Tokyo, the aeroplane, piloted by Lt Inoue, flew for 1hr and 12min on 2 july of that year. With its success proven, it was taken on an exhibition tour of parts of northern central Honshu, Kyushu and Shikoku to promote aviation knowledge and to demonstrate the reliability of the Kishi-Renault engine.

Франция Maurice Farman MF.11 Shorthorn 1913

Army Henri Farman Type Model 4 Aeroplane (Army Type Mo-4 Aeroplane)

The introduction of this aeroplane into Japanese military service, was the zenith of the Farman pusher biplanes in Japan. Earlier Farman types were already established, but one Henri Farman 1914 aeroplane which the Association imported from France in November 1914 would develop as a noteworthy type. The PMBRA decided to develop the aircraft further by making a new aeroplane using many of the changes perfected on the earlier converted Type Mo and Kaishiki No.7. Although Lt Shigeru Sawada was killed in the earlier Kaishiki No.7 Small Aeroplane, many development projects were being undertaken simultaneously, and Lt Sawada was in charge of this new design which used many of his earlier innovations. Noticeable differences with his redesign included the raising of the fuselage nacelle above the lower wing and providing a small triangular rudder and shorter undercarriage skids. It was completed in November 1915 three months after beginning the design. It was later discovered that similar conversions were being made in France without the knowledge of either user.
The Association called the new design the Sawada Type B 7, but it was officially designated Kaishiki 4th Year Model. These Association-built aircraft had a Japanese-made 70hp Renault engine installed which gave more power than the French-built aeroplane.
Participating in the military review held by the Emperor on 2 December, 1915, Lt Morikichi Sakamoto of the Association flew one of these new aeroplanes over the Komazawa Parade Grounds in winds gusting up to 45mph. Stability and performance were easily apparent when comparing the difficulties being experienced by the older Type Mo 1913s, and as a result the Type Mo 4th Year Model was regarded as revolutionary. Meeting with strong approval, the type was put into production at the Association's factory at Tokorozawa, as well as the Tokyo Army Artillery Arsenal and the Atsuta Army Weapon Manufacturing Works of Nagoya Army Ordnance Arsenal.
The aeroplane had a number of designation changes, beginning as the Type Mo 1914, followed by the Type Mo 4th Year Model, and after 1918 becoming the Type Mo4. They were used first as trainers at Tokorozawa for navigation, scouting and bombing, later to replace the Type Mo 1913s of the balloon company (squadron equivalent) and flight company that had been formed at Tokorozawa in December 1915 as part of an air battalion. When the Japanese Army deployed its 12th Division to Siberia in 1918, several air units were organized, one of which was sent to northern Manchuria, then to Siberia for patrol duties using eight Type Mo-4s, six Mo-6s and nine Sopwith 1A2 reconnaissance aircraft imported from England.
In time, a number of the Type Mo-4 aircraft passed into civil hands and were used as trainers with the Imperial Flying Association and Kishi Aeroplane Manufacturing Works (later Akabane Aeroplane Manufacturing Works). The former modified a Type Mo-4 with an additional fuel tank in the second crew position making it a single-seat aircraft. Called the No.2 Mie-go, it made a nonstop record flight between Tokyo and Osaka. Piloted by Masao Goto, it left
Tokorozawa and landed at the Osaka Joto Parade Grounds, in 6hr 28min, on 1 April, 1918, a remarkable record for duration and distance in Japan for that period. The Type Mo-4s remained popular from when they were first manufactured in the autumn of 1915, and were put into production again in 1919 and 1920.

Single-engine pusher sesquiplane reconnaissance aircraft with crew nacelle. Wooden strucrure with fabric covering. Tail elevator only. Skid-type undercarriage with dual wheels. Crew of two in open cockpit.
70-80hp Renault eight-cylinder vee air-cooled engine, driving a Chauviere two-bladed wooden propeller.
One machine-gun when necessary.
Span 15.50m (50ft 10 1/4in) length 9.14m (29ft 11 3/4in) height 3.18m (10ft 51 1/4in) wing area 58sq m(624.327sq ft).
Empty weight 563kg (1,241lb) loaded weight 778kg (1,715lb) wing loading 13.4kg/sq m (2.7Ib/sq ft) power loading 9.73kg/hp (21.4lb/hp).
Maximum speed 49kt (56mph) climb to 2,000m (6,562ft) in 25min service ceiling 3,000m (9,843ft) endurance 4hr.
Eighty-four built: nine PMBRA, Fifty-one Army Arsenals (Tokyo and Nagoya), twenty Tokorozawa Branch, Supply Dept, three Imperial Flying Association (civil use), one Kishi Aeroplane (civil use).

Army Maurice Farman Type Model 6 Aeroplane (Army Type Mo-6 Aeroplane)

Another stage of development came from advanced aero engines of 100hp or more, products of the First World War. To take advantage of these, Japan imported several liquid-cooled engines including the 90hp Curtiss OX-5 and the 100hp Daimler, each of which was tested by installing them in a Type Mo-4 Aeroplane. Impressed by the Daimler engine, the Army Artillery Arsenal began its manufacture in 1916, completing the first in the spring of 1917.
This Daimler-type engine was installed in an aeroplane that was newly designed for it. Since the aeroplane powered by this engine had had its start in May 1916, the PMBRA designated it the Type Mo6-Year Model, but later the Army's official designation became the Type Mo 6th Year Model for the year of Taisho. In 1918 it was redesignated as the Type Mo Model 6, or the Type Mo-6 in short.
Outwardly, the Type Mo-6 was almost identical to the Type Mo-4, but was slightly larger and heavier and had coolant radiators on each side of the engine. Production models had shorter front skids and the front supporting diagonal strut to the skid was eliminated. On the production model there was an increase in fuel-tank capacity which made the loaded weight higher than that of the Mo-4, but the Mo-6 had a marked increase in speed from 49kt to 60kt. Production began in the autumn of 1917 at which time Mo-4 production was terminated. The Mo-6 became the Army's first Japanese-designed reconnaissance/trainer to be produced in quantity.
The new Army aeroplane made a good start when the first of the series, No.101, set a two-seat altitude record of 2,800m (9,186ft) on 25 May, 1917, while being flown by Lt Morikichi Sakamoto and Army Engineer Shuhei Iwamoto.
All did not continue well, however, for this new aeroplane. During the November 1917 Army Special Manoeuvres on the Ohmi Plain near Lake Biwa, of the fourteen newly built Type Mo-6 aircraft participating, twelve crashed or made emergency landings because of engine malfunctions among other things. As a result, the Army Department of Aviation organized an investigating committee of twenty-five officers and specialist engineers with twenty-four pilot officers. Many problems became evident, among them the need to improve engine research and development, use of better materials, improve training for engineers, and better communications between PMBRA and the operational flying units. Many of the problems were corrected, thus extending the aircraft's operational life long past their practicality as combat aircraft.
However during their service life, these Type Mo-6 Aeroplanes became the Army's last biplane pusher aircraft. When the 2nd Army Air Battalion was being organized, in December 1917, Type Mo-6s from Tokorozawa became its initial equipment. This unit was formed at the Army's newly activated airfield at Kagamigahara in Gifu Prefecture, better known after the Pacific War as Gifu Air Base, north of Nagoya. Air battalions at Tokorozawa and Kagamigahara used their Type Mo-6s for reconnaissance and training until around 1923. When the Army sent units to Siberia and northern Manchuria in August 1918, four of the twelve aeroplanes of the 2nd Army Air Battalion were Type Mo-6s. However, because of the severe cold of the ensuing winter, they could not be used because the engine coolant froze.
One of the Type Mo-6 Aeroplanes, No.266, survived for many years by having been dismantled and stored in the rafters of what had been the Nukiyama Laboratory, of the Department of Engineering, Tohoku University, where it escaped destruction during the Second World War. It was later restored and is now preserved in the Yasukuni Shrine in Tokyo.

Single-engine pusher reconnaissance biplane with crew nacelle. All-wooden construction with fabric covering. Crew of two in open cockpit.
100-110hp Daimler six-cylinder inline water-cooled engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller.
One nose mounted Hotchkiss flexible 7.7mm machine-gun.
Span 16.13m (52ft 11 in) length 9.33m (30ft 7 1/2in) height 3.10m (10ft 2in) wing area 62sq m (667.364 sq ft).
Empty weight 75 kg (1,671lb) loaded weight 1,060kg (2,336Ib) wing loading 17.1 kg sq m (3.5Ib/sq ft) power loading 9.64 kg/hp (21.2Ib/hp).
Maximum speed 60kt (69mph) cruising speed 49kt (56mph) climb to 2,000m (6,562ft) in 25min service ceiling 3,500m (11,482ft).
134 built 1917-1921: PMBRA thirty-five Army Arsenals forty seven Tokorozawa Branch, Supply Dept forty-eight Akabane Aeroplane Manufacturing Works four.

Army Maurice Farman 5 Aeroplane

This aeroplane was identical to the Army Maurice Farman 1914, Type Mo-4 Aeroplane, but was equipped with dual controls for primary pilot training. With the exception of the length being extended from 9.14m to 9.38m it hardly warranted a redesignation. This became the Army's first primary trainer to be built expressly for this purpose.
Production became the responsibility of the Army Artillery Arsenal. Six were manufactured in 1919 and the Tokorozawa Branch of the Department of Supply built an additional five in 1920. However, in that year, licence rights for manufacturing the Nieuport 81E2 primary trainer came into effect and with this the Army organized a new system of flying training and, as a result, there was no further need for the Farman trainers. A few were retained at the Tokorozawa Aviation School until about 1923.

Single-engine pusher biplane primary trainer with crew nacelle. Wooden construction with fabric covering. Crew of two in open cockpit.
70-80hp Renault eight-cylinder vee air-cooled engine, or 100hp Daimler six-cylinder inline water-cooled engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller.
Span 15.52m (50ft 11 in) length 9.38m (30ft 9 1/4in) height 3.17m (10ft 5in) wing area 58sg m (624.327sg ft).
Loaded weight 778kg (1,715lb) wing loading 13.4kg sg m (2.74Ib sg ft) power loading 9.73 kg hp (21.4lb/hp).
Maximum speed 49kt (56mph) climb to 2,000m (6,562ft) in 35min endurance 4hr.
Data for Renault-powered version.
Eleven built 1919-1920: Army Artillery Arsenal six Tokorozawa Branch, Dept of Supply five.

Kishi No.3 Tsurugi-go Aeroplane

Suspecting the unsafe design of the sweptback wing used on the No.2 Tsurugi-go, this new aeroplane used the conventional straight wing, very much like that of the Army Maurice Farman Type Mo-4. Although the centre cockpit nacelle was original in design structure, other parts of the airframe were identical to the Type Mo-4.
After its first public flying demonstration on 11 February, 1917, japan's National Foundation Day known as Kigensetsu, Kishi designated the aeroplane as the No.3 Tsurugi-go. Acting as flying instructor, Lt Inoue used it to introduce many people to the experience of flying an aeroplane. Because of its activity at the Susaki Airfield on reclaimed ground, the site became known as Kishi Airfield. Eventually, this aeroplane went to Itoh Airfield.

Kishi No.6 Tsurugi-go Aeroplane

In the autumn of 1918, the Akabane Aeroplane Manufacturing Works was awarded an initial Army contract for four Maurice Farman Type Mo-6s. At about that time, through the influence of Viscount Shimpei Goto, Dr Kishi received the support of a noted businessman, Soichiro Asano, and they reorganized and expanded the company, undertook the manufacture of automobiles, and established a flying-cadet programme for schoolage boys at the aerodrome.
Less attention was given to the production order for the new No.6 Tsurugi-go Aeroplane, and therefore the design reverted to the earlier Maurice Farman Type Mo4 so as to use existing parts. At this time, the Kishi iron ore mining business at Osore-yama in Aomori Prefecture, had failed, and Kishi became heavily in debt. The popular period of the Farman biplanes had passed and the Army cancelled further orders, forcing the Akabane Aeroplane Manufacturing Works and its flying activities to be closed in March 1921. Dr Kishi abandoned aviation and became a director of the Electricity Bureau of Tokyo, thus ending the name of Kishi in aviation.

Франция Maurice Farman MF.9 / MF.7bis 1913

Navy Type Mo Small Seaplane

The first two Maurice Farman Seaplanes were imported into Japan by the Navy and assembled at Oppama for initial flying demonstrations in October and November 1912. An additional two were purchased and used for flying training over a considerable period. The relatively simple construction was soon copied by the Yokosuka Naval Arsenal which added a small number to the four already imported. Being of the same type as that of the Army, they received the same short designation Type 10 Small Seaplane. These had fabric-covered wooden structures and were equipped with twin Tellier-type wooden floats. The two seats were in tandem in a fuselage pod, with a 70hp Renault pusher engine in the rear.
When the Tsingtao Campaign erupted in September 1914, three of the imported Type Mo Small Seaplanes, together with one imported Type Mo Large Seaplane, were carried by the seaplane tender Wakarniya to participate in the campaign. They were soon joined by a fourth aircraft which was a japanese-made Type Mo Small Seaplane of the same type. These aeroplanes, manned by seven pilots during this two-month operation, succeeded in making 49 sorties during which they dropped 199 bombs. Working with Army aircraft in these air operations, they were unsuccessful in attacks on their most important target, the cruiser Kaiserin Elisabeth, but did succeed in sinking one small torpedo-boat with bombing attacks.

Single-engine twin-float pusher biplane reconnaissance/bomber. Wooden structure with fabric covering. Crew of two in open cockpit.
70hp Renault eight-cylinder vee aircooled engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller.
Span 15.50m (58ft 10 1/4in) length 10.14m (33ft 3in) height 3.80m (12ft 5 1/2in) wing area 56sq m 602.798sq ft).
Empty weight 650kg (1,433Ib) loaded weight 855kg (1,884Ib).
Maximum speed 46kt (53mph) at sea level climb to 500m (1,640ft) in 11min service ceiling 1,500m (4,921ft) endurance 3hr.
Several built beginning in July 1913.

Navy Type Mo Large Seaplane (Maurice Farman 1914 Seaplane)

This was a large seaplane with a 100hp engine which the Navy imported from France in 1914. Designated Type Mo Large Seaplane, it was superior in general performance to the Type Mo Small Seaplane, particularly in its operational altitude of 3,000m (9,843ft). The aeroplane was larger than the 1912 model and could carry a crew of three.
Soon after its arrival from France the aeroplane was deployed aboard the seaplane tender Wakamiya in support of the Tsingtao Campaign in September 1914, along with the three Type Mo Small Seaplanes. They were used in this operation for reconnaissance, spotting of German mines, and bombing missions.
Production of the Type Mo Large Seaplane was undertaken by the Yokosuka Naval Arsenal with few changes. Most noteworthy was the change of engine to the 100hp Benz instead of the 100hp Renault installed in the imported example. Eventually these Type Mo Large Seaplanes were redesignated Ro-go Otsu-gata.
It was only natural to continually test the capabilities of these and other aircraft with long-distance and duration flights. On 4 March, 1915, Lieut Kishichi Umakoshi piloted one of the Ro-go Otsu-gata (serial No.2) for nearly eight hours over a closed course Oppama, Yokosuka, Yokohama, Bohsou coastline, Miura Peninsula, and back to Oppama. This endurance record was soon broken by a similar aircraft that recorded a duration of 10hr 5min, covering 434nm (500 sm), and, with another, an altitude of 3,500m (11,500ft) was recorded.
The first fatal accident involving japanese Naval aviators occurred with one of the Yokosho-made aircraft (serial No.15) when it crashed at sea on 6 March, 1915, with Sub-Lieuts Tozaburo Adachi and Takao Takerube along with W/O 3/c Hisanojo Yanase on board, killing all three.

Single-engine twin-float pusher biplane reconnaissance/bomber with enclosed crew nacelle. Wooden structure with fabric covering. Crew of three in open cockpit.
100hp Benz six-cylinder inline watercooled engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller.
Span 19.02m (62ft 5in) length 9.43m (30ft 11 1/4in) height 4m (13ft 1 1/2in) wing area 50sq m (538.213sq ft).
Empty weight 995kg (2,193Ib) loaded weight 1,363kg (3,004Ib).
Maximum speed 52kt (59.8mph) at sea level climb to 1,000m (3,280ft) in 25min endurance 4 1/2-6 1/2hr.
At least fifteen built.

Франция Nieuport Nieuport-17/21/23 1916

Army Type Ko 1 Trainer (Nieuport 81-E2)

French influence on the Japanese Army resulted in an influx of imported French aircraft for training, starting in January 1919. Among these were 40 Nieuport 81-E2s and as their numbers diminished the Japanese Army decided to supplement them with others built in Japan.
Nieuport 81-E2s and 83-E2s were the standard Army trainers and they were initially manufactured under licence in Japan by the Army at Tokorozawa. But recognizing that manufacturing aircraft was not a function of the military, the production of the Nieuport 81E2 was transferred to Mitsubishi which had recently begun building Navy aircraft, and production of the Nieuport 83-E2 went to Nakajima, a newly formed aircraft manufacturer. All drawings and specifications were furnished by the Army and both aeroplanes remained identical to the French-built aircraft. The first of the Mitsubishi-built aircraft was completed in May 1922.
The identity of these two aircraft changed from the French system beginning in November 1921 when the Army established a new designation system, giving a separate identity symbol to each foreign manufacturer's name: Type Ko for Nieuport, followed by a sequential number for each separate type. The Nieuport 81-E2 therefore became the Ko 1 and the Type 83-E2 became the Ko 2.
These Army trainers served at Tokorozawa from the time the Tokorozawa Army Flying School was opened in 1922. Others served at the Kagamigahara Airfield and with some Air Regiments, some remaining operational until around 1926. These two types, with the Nakajima Ko 3, were the main trainers for the Japanese Army during its initial expansion period. After service with the Army, many were released to civil flying schools.

Single-engine sesquiplane trainer. Wooden structure with fabric covering and some plywood and metal. Crew of two in open cockpits.
80-100hp Le Rhone nine-cylinder air-cooled rotary engine, driving a Regy-type two-bladed wooden propeller.
Span 9.20m (30ft 2 1/4in) length 7.20m (23ft 7 1/2in) height 2.60m (8ft 6 1/4in) tail down wing area 23sq m (247.578sq ft).
Empty weight 490kg (1,080Ib) loaded weight 760kg (1,675lb) wing loading 33kg/sq m (6.759Ib/sq ft) power loading 7.6kg/hp (16.7Ib/hp).
Maximum speed 70kt (81 mph) at sea level service ceiling 4,000m (13,123ft).
Fifty-seven built.

In November 1921 the Army developed and used a new identifying system for its standard equipment. In the case of Nieuport aircraft, they were all given the designator Type Ko, making the Nieuport 81 E.2 the Ko 1, and the Nieuport 83 E.2 the Type Ko 2. As with the Nakajima-built Type Ko 3, already described, the Type Ko 1 and 2 were needed in greater numbers than could be imported, so licence-manufacture was planned for these aircraft as well. In keeping with the usual practice, production was started at Tokorozawa, but by this time aircraft manufacturing was being shifted to civil companies. The Army remained responsible for the licence agreement with Nieuport and transferred all production materials to respective companies. In doing this, the Army contracted with Mitsubishi to build the Nieuport 81 E.2 as the Type Ko I, and with Nakajima to build the Nieuport 83 E.2 as the Type Ko 2 in addition to the Type Ko 3.
The first of the Nakajima-built Type Ko 2s was completed in March 1922, and was identical to the Nieuport 83 E.2. Subsequent trainers of both the Type Ko 1 and 2 types were delivered and assigned to Army Flying Schools at Tokorozawa and Kagamigahara, and some Flight Regiments beginning in 1922. They remained in service until around 1926. After that a number was released to civil flying schools.

Single-engine sesquiplane fighter. Wooden structure with fabric covering. Pupil and instructor in open cockpit.
80-100hp Le Rhone nine-cylinder air-cooled rotary engine, driving a Regy fixed-pitch wooden propeller.
Span 8.11 m (26ft 7 1/4in) length 7.035m (23ft 1in) height 2.9m (9ft 6in) wing area 18.40sq m (198.062sq ft).
Empty weight 440kg (970Ib) loaded weight 710kg (1,565Ib) wing loading 38.5kg/sq m(8Ib/sq ft) power loading 8.8kg/hp (19.4Ib/hp).
Maximum speed 76kt (87.5mph) at sea level service ceiling 5,000m (16,404 ft) endurance 2hr.
Forty built from March to July 1922.

Франция Nieuport Nieuport-17bis/24/27 1917

Army Type Ko 3 Fighter/Trainer

Following the First World War, the Japanese Army imported a number of aircraft that had proved themselves in combat. Among these was the SPAD S.VII, imported in 1918, the (100) SPAD S.XIIIs in 1919, (50) Sopwith Pups in 1919, and the Morane-Saulnier A.I in 1922. Additionally, there were French Nieuport 24.C1 and 27.C1 fighters, imported in 1917. These were found to be the most manoeuvrable, and as a result the Army adopted the Nieuport 24.C1 as its standard fighter.
This brought the need for additional aircraft of this type for Army service. They were built under licence agreement at the Tokorozawa Branch of the Army Supply Depot beginning in March 1919, but, later, production of these fighters was transferred to Nakajima. Le Rhone engines to power the aircraft were licence-manufactured by Tokyo Gasuden.
There were actually two missions assigned to these Nieuport designed fighters. The Nieuport 24.C1 was used as a single-seat trainer powered by an 80hp Le Rhone engine the other, the Nieuport 27.C1, equipped with a 120hp Le Rhone, wa used as a fighter. Both were so identified by markings on their tails. The Japanese Army referred to both as the Type Ni-24 the Ni being the first kana in the word Nieuport. In November 1921, a new designation system for Army aircraft was enacted, and both became the Ko 3.
The first of the Nakajima-built aircraft was completed in July 1921. Structurally it was identical to the Nieuport 24.C1. These were a signed to fighter units beginning in June 1922 to replace the Type Hei 1 (SPAD XIII) Fighters and remained operational until the later years of the Taisho reign which ended in 1926, replaced then by the Type Ko 4 Nakajima Nieuport 29-C-1 fighters.
As the Ko 3 was phased out of Army service, some were released to the civil market and used as single-seat sports aircraft until around 1933.

Single-engine single-bay biplane fighter. Wooden Structure with fabric covering. Pilot in open cockpit.
80-93hp Le Rhone or 120-130hp Le Rhone nine-cylinder air-cooled rotary engines, driving two-bladed wooden propellers.
One fixed forward-firing 7.7mm machine-gun.
Span 8.22m (26ft 11 1/2in) length 5.67m (18ft 7 1/4in) height 2.40m (7ft 10 1/2in) wing area 15sq m (161.463sq ft).

With 80hp Le Rhone With 120hp Le Rhone
Empty weight 415kg (915Ib) 450kg (992Ib)
Loaded weight 595kg (1,311Ib) 630kg (1,389Ib)
Wing loading 39.7kg sq m 42kg sq m
(8.1lb/sq ft) (8.6lb sq ft)
Power loading 7.44kg hp (16.4Ib hp) 5.25kg hp (11.5lb hp)
Maximum speed 74kr (85mph) 88kt (101 mph)

Nakajima production only: thirty in 1921, forty-seven in 1922, twenty-five in 1923.

Франция Nieuport-Delage Ni-D-29 1918

Immediately after the First World War, the Nieuport company introduced it new fighter, the Nieuport 29-C-1, then acclaimed the best fighter in the world, and it became the standard equipment of the Armee de I'Air. The Japanese Army imported some of these fighters in 1923 to replace the Type Hei 1 and Type Ko 3 Fighters as its standard equipment. To provide the additional aircraft necessary, Nakajima procured the licence to manufacture them in Japan, as the Type Ko 4 Fighter.
These aircraft were markedly different in structure from previous Army fighters in that the Nieuport 29-C-1 had a very advanced well streamlined wooden monocoque fuselage.
The first was assembled from imported components in December 1923. Production began with some Japanese modifications and continued until January 1932, 608 being delivered to the Army. It was the Army's first mass-produced fighter, and the lack of changes in its outward appearance from that of the original Nieuport 29-C-1 confirmed its excellent design. The slim fighter had a very smooth skinned fuselage, Lamblin radiator, and dihedral on the upper wing only. Armament consisted of two Vickers 7.7mm machine-guns on top of the forward fuselage. The type entered operational service with Japanese Army units in 1925 and remained as standard equipment until about 1933, being replaced by the Nakajima-built Army Type 91 Fighter.
The Ko 4 was excellent in general performance, but it had peculiarities such as a tendency to slide-slip and stall at speeds greater than normal stalling speed. Many pilots experienced emergency landings because of engine problems and they preferred the earlier Type Ko 3 with the better flying qualities. The wooden monocoque fuselage caused new difficulties when requiring repair.
Type Ko 4 Fighters participated in the Manchurian and Shanghai Incidents, making them the first Japanese fighters to be sent overseas for combat however, they did not engage the enemy because there was no air opposition. Following their military service life, some were released to civil operators and remained in flying schools until as late as 1937.

Single-engine single-seat single-bay biplane fighter. Wooden monocoque fuselage with fabric-covered wooden wing. Pilot in open cockpit.
300-320hp Mitsubishi-Hispano-Suiza eight-cylinder vee water-cooled engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller.
Two forward-firing fixed 7.7mm machine-guns.
Span 9.70m (31ft 9 3/4in) length 6.44m (21ft 1 1/2in) height 2.64m (8ft 8in) wing area 26.80sq m (288.482sq ft).
Empty weight 825kg (1,818Ib) loaded weight 1,160kg (2,557Ib) wing loading 43.3kg/sq m (8.8Ib/sq ft) power loading 3.84kg/hp (48.4Ib/hp).
Maximum speed 126kt (145mph) cruising speed 92kt (106mph) landing speed 50kt (59mph) climb to 4,000m (13,123ft) in 13min 30sec service ceiling 8,000m (26,246ft) endurance 2hr.
608 built from December 1923 to January 1932.

Франция Salmson Sal.2 1917

Army Type Otsu 1 Reconnaissance Aircraft (Kawasaki-Salmson 2-A.2)

At the end of the First World War, the president of Kawasaki Dockyard, Kojiro Matsugata, received a strong indication that the Army intended acquiring a number of Salmson 2-A.2 aircraft. The Army was impressed by this aeroplane of which several were taken to Japan by the Mission Francaise d' Aeronautique in January 1919 and in which Japanese pilots and crews were trained by the French. Wishing to enter the aircraft manufacturing market, Matsugata went to Paris and acquired the manufacturing rights for the Salmson 2-A.2 reconnaissance aeroplane along with its engine. He also shipped two of these aircraft and one Salmson 7A.2 to Japan, arriving there in August 1919.
Before their arrival, Kawasaki secured a contract from the Army for the manufacture of the Salmson. In 1920, in order to study the Salmson manufacturing process, the company sent to the Salmson factory in France, Engineer Suzuki, and senior mechanics of the automobile section, Kasahara and Nishida along with Engineer Miwa and chief mechanic Hayashi of the head office, and they returned with the knowledge and materials needed for Salmson production. At the same time, the Army wanted to begin its own manufacture of this aircraft but only had a licence to build the engine. Army aircraft production began however, under the guise of 'aircraft repair.' Salmson filed a protest, and mediation by the manager of Kawasaki's Aeroplane Deparnnent, Tomokichi Takezaki, cleared the way for continued Army production.
The two production sources worked in collaboration. The Army completed its first Salmson 2-A.2 in late 1920 at Tokorozawa and officially accepted it in December 1921 as the Type Otsu 1 Reconnaissance Aircraft. Kawasaki sent engineers Suzuki and Arai to Tokorozawa to learn ways of speeding its own production and this enabled Kawasaki to complete its first two prototypes in November 1922. One, assembled from Army parts, the other built solely by Kawasaki, received serial numbers 1001 and 1002 respectively.When flight tests were successfully accomplished, the Army placed an order for 45 with Kawasaki, followed by further orders reaching 300 aircraft before production terminated in August 1927. These Japanese aircraft were identical to the French Salmson 2A.2 with the exception of some with modifications around the engine cowling and seats. Kawasaki imported fifty-six engines from Salmson for installation in early production aircraft, but after 1923 all airframes were equipped with Kawasaki-built engines. In time, the Army fitted some with dual controls to use them as trainers. Some variants had a forward-firing fixed machine-gun, or wing-mounted shackles for six small bombs or small flare bombs.
In April 1923, when production of the Type Otsu 1 was well underway, Kawasaki began a performance-improvement project calling for modification of existing aircraft. Withdrawing two Type Otsu 1 aircraft from production and the imported Salmson 7-A.2, which was the French improved version of their 2-A.2, modifications were made on them, including the use of the more powerful 300hp Salmson AZ-9 engine, and a radiator change to the Lamblin type. Dimensions remained the same but the modified aircraft were 100kg heavier in empty weight. However, with the added power, an increase in performance was expected, but engine overheating problems brought a decision to retain the original 230hp Z-9 engines.
As the Army reorganized its air units according to the French system, the Type Otsu 1s were assigned to bomber units as interim light bombers. The first combat from the Army Type Otsu 1 took place in October 1922 while operating in Siberia. In the Manchurian and Shanghai Incidents, the Type Otsu 1s were also very active, not only in their original reconnaissance role, but for bombing, liaison, light cargo transport, message pick-up and dropping, smoke-screen laying and ration re-supply. Because of their large numbers they remained in service as the Army's primary aircraft until replaced by the Type 88 Reconnaissance Aircraft around 1933. Those released to civilians as surplus aircraft were popular during the biplane era together with Avro 504Ks and Hanriots.

Single-engine two-bay reconnaIssance biplane. All-wood structure with fabric covering. Crew of two in open cockpits.
230-260hp Kawasaki Salmson Z.9 nine-cylinder water-cooled radial engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller.
Single or twin dorsal flexible 7. 7mm machine-guns, with optional forward-firing fixed 7.7mm machine-gun.
Span 11.767m (38ft 71/4in) length 8.624m (28ft 3in) height 2.90m (9ft 6in) wing area 37.27sq m (401.174sq ft).
Empty weight 930kg (2,050Ib) loaded weight 1,500kg (3,306Ib) wing loading 40.2kg/sq m (8.2Ib/sq ft) power loading 6.51 kg/hp (14.35Ib/hp).
Maximum speed 101 kt (116mph) at 2,000m (6,562ft) climb to 3,000m (9,843ft) in 11 min 42 sec service ceiling 5,800m (19,028ft) endurance 3 1/2-7hr
300 built by Kawasaki from November 1922 to August 1927 and approximately 300 built by Tokorozawa Branch of Army Supply Dept.

Франция SPAD S.XIII (Spa 13 C-1) 1917

Ishibashi SPAD XIII Racing Aircraft

In an effort to make good some of the loss of the three SPAD XIIIs, Ishibashi built a Japanese version of the type by using salvaged parts and making new parts and structures from manufacturing drawings. Assisting him were his engineer Tsuruzo Takeda and apprentice Ryo Kitazato. Unable to replace the 220hp Hispano-Suiza engine, he bought a 180hp Hispano from Sale & Frazar Ltd as a substitute. A larger fuel tank was installed in the under-fuselage of this single-seat aeroplane to extend the range for his planned competitions. This gave the aeroplane a much fatter appearance than the standard SPAD XIII.
Upon completion, Ishibashi entered the Fourth Prize-winning Airmail Flying Contest which was flown between Kanazawa on the central northwest coast and Hiroshima on the southwest coast of Honshu on 3 November, 1921. On the way, he was forced to make an emergency landing at Fukuyama, Hiroshima Prefecture, because of lack of fuel caused by stronger than expected headwinds. A year later, Ishibashi entered his aeroplane in the Tokyo-Osaka Airmail Roundrobin Flight Competition. It demonstrated its superior performance with its high speed capability but lost the first place because of an infringement of the rules.

Япония Aihara glider 1909

Япония Awazu No.2 Seicho-go 1919

Awazu Flight Research Studio (Awazu Hiko Kenkyusho)

Minoru Awazu, an aviation enthusiast, was the third son of one of the chief guardians of the Ohtani families of the Higashi Honganji Temple in Kyoto and this social status gave Awazu the opportunity to pursue interests which were denied to those whose primary purpose had to be that of survival. He founded the Kyoto Flight Education Society, and because of his continued enthusiasm, this expanded to the manufacture of aeroplanes and later, to a flying training business.
Using his educational background acquired at an industrial arts school, he made a makeshift workshop in a room in the temple and, around 1918, established an aeroplane company that he called the Awazu Flight Research Studio. With his first and only aeroplane, and a taxi-ing trainer, Awazu embarked upon the flying training business at the area that was known as Katsuragawa Airfield (later called Awazu Flying School) on the dry bed of the Katsura River in Kyoto, managed by aviator Ginzo Nojima.

Awazu No.2 Seicho-go Aeroplane

Having acquired a 70hp Mercedes Daimler engine confiscated from the Germans during the Japanese-German encounters in Tsingtao in China, Awazu and Nojima began the design of their new aeroplane. The propeller and the radiator were fashioned according to technical documents brought back from China with the engine. When their design was completed, construction was turned over to Terutaka Tamai, a younger brother of the late Seitaro Tamai, an established builder of aeroplanes under this name.
When the aeroplane was completed in March 1919, the high-priest of the Higashi Honganji Temple, Kouen Ohtani, named it the Seicho-go, meaning Bluebird. To have a safe place for making its first flight, the aeroplane was moved by rail to Tokyo and the sandy triangular ground at Haneda where Seitaro Tamai had established a flying field for his Nippon Flying School. Satisfied with success after several flights made by Terutaka Tamai, Awazu had the aeroplane shipped again, this time to Yokkaichi on Ise Bay, south of Nagoya, home of the Tamai family and aircraft
On a commemorative flight on 26 August, 1919, however, after taking off from the Chikko reclaimed ground, Tamai had to make an emergency landing due to rapidly deteriorating weather, and the aeroplane turned over upon landing. After repair, he made a flight over Kyoto from the Fukakusa Parade Grounds in October 1919 at Awazu's request, and delivered the aeroplane to Awazu.
With the aeroplane to hand, Awazu Flight Research Studio became the Awazu Flying School at the so-called Katsuragawa Airfield situated on the Katsura Riverbed. For flying training, he used this Seicho-go Aeroplane and the 35hp Franklin powered Awazu No.3 Ground Taxi-ing Trainer. As instructors, he acquired the services of Sadajiro Okamoto and Fumisaburo Kataoka, both former members of the Tamai Airfield.
This location for flight training became impractical when the river filled, causing interruption of flying lessons. After much criticism from the students, flying was moved to the Fukakusa Parade Grounds in Kyoto, but coupled with poor management influenced by Awazu's weak and vacillating character, many students left the school and eventually the airfield and flying school were closed.
Converting the Seicho-go to a floatplane, Awazu used the aeroplane on nearby Lake Biwa, the first seaplane operation there, and established a seaplane base.

Single-engine tractor biplane. Wooden structure with fabric covering. Two seats in open cockpits.
70hp Mercedes Daimler four-cylinder inline water-cooled engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller.
Span 11.54m (37ft 10 1/4in) length 7.22m (23ft 8 1/4) height 2.88m (9ft 4 3/4in) wing area 27. 7sq m (298.17sq ft).
Empty weight 453kg (998lb) loaded weight 726kg (1,600lb).
Maximum speed 61 kt (70mph) climb to 1,000m (3,280ft) in 10min endurance 1hr.
One built, in March 1919.

Япония Hino No.1 / No.2 1910

One of the members of the Provisional Military Balloon Research Association (PMBRA) established in 1909, was Army Capt (Infantry) Kumazo Hino from Hitoyoshi, Kumamoto Prefecture. As has already been described in the section on the PMBRA and in the introduction to this history, Hino was the first japanese to make a flight in Japan (although recorded as unofficial). His interest in aviation long preceded his official preparation for his flight, and also prevailed long after, to the extent that it interfered with his official duties. Hi personal attempts in building aircraft ended in failure, but these failures led to the success of others' and are therefore worthy of record.

Aside from his official duties, Hino studied foreign reports on the design and building of aircraft, an interest in which he was deeply involved. Obtaining space at the Hayashida Wood Works at Gokencho, Ushigome-ku, Tokyo, in late 1909, he began building his single-seat aeroplane. The structural members were made of bamboo and japanese cypress (hinoki), giving the aeroplane a wing span of 8m (26ft 3in) and length of 5m (16ft 5in). He designed and built his own engine for his project called the Hino two-cycle engine developing 8hp and installed it as a tractor on the front of the airframe. Empty weight of the aeroplane was 110kg (242lb) and when loaded it weighed 180kg (396lb). From 6 to 18 March, 1910, at Toyamagahara in Tokyo, he relentlessly attempted to make the aeroplane become airborne, but because of insufficient power, it would only taxi. Nevertheless, the PMBRA purchased the aeroplane from Hino so that it could be used for further experIments.

It was after Capts Hino and Tokugawa were sent to Europe to study aviation and each to bring back an aeroplane, that Hino began the design on his second attempt to build a successful aeroplane of his own. A year after his part in the history-making first flight in Japan in 1910, he built an aero-engine in a laboratory of the Tokyo Army Technical School during his time off between military duties. This engine was a water-cooled, precompression four-cylinder 30hp type, but actually developed only 18hp.
While developing this engine, he devoted much attention to the building of his second aeroplane in which the engine was to be installed. The aeroplane was a monoplane with a canoe-like pod to accommodate the pilot and the pusher engine. It had a wing span of 9.20m (30ft 2 1/2in) and length of 5.70m (18ft 8 1/2in). A skid extended from the undercarriage rearward to support the empennage. This design was purely original in all aspects.
Test flights were attempted from 23 to 25 May, 1911, at the Aoyama Parade Grounds but without success. After modifications, further attempts were made at the Yoyogi Parade Grounds from 23 to 25 August, sponsored by the Kokumin Shimbunsha (Nation's Newspaper) to bring attention to aviation, but again without success. Tests were repeated at Kawasaki Stadium, but the aeroplane refused to fly. The reason for failure was insufficient engine power, for it produced approximately half of what was expected. Empty, the aeroplane weighed 170kg (374lb) and loaded it weighed 320kg (705lb).
Obsessed with these efforts to the detriment of his military duties, the situation was resolved when he was promoted to Major and was 'reassigned to an infantry regiment in Fukuoka in December 1911. The PMBRA also purchased this aeroplane for their experiments.

Япония Hino No.3 / No.4 Kamikaze-go 1912

Kamikaze-go Aeroplane Hino's efforts to construct a successful aeroplane continued while at Fukuoka. What became the Hino No.3 Aeroplane was actually a modification of an Iga Maitsuru-go. He first tested the aeroplane at Fukuoka on 20 April, 1912, with poor results, then modified it into a seaplane with 2.20m (7ft 2 1/2in) long floats. Giving the aeroplane the designation Hino No.3 Kai or No.4 Kamikaze-go, he made attempts to fly on 25 September, 1912, at Nezumijima Island near Nagasaki, but again, his aeroplane would not become airborne. Disappointed with three consecutive failures and being criticized for being distracted from his military responsibilities, Hino gave up his interest in aviation. His interest was rekindled and he created a tailess glider in 1937, the development of which was taken over by Kayaba Manufacturing Works (Kayaba Seisakusho) and then by Hidemasa Kimura of the Aeronautical Research Institute of Tokyo Imperial University. Designated HK-1 (Hino Kayaba), it was built by Itoh Aeroplane Co Ltd.
Kumazo Hino, despite the lack of success with his early designs is looked upon as a major pioneer of japanese aviation. He died on 15 january, 1946, at his home in Azabu, Tokyo, at the age of 67.

Япония Hoshino Aeroplane 1914

Yonezo Hoshino of Tamachi, Akasaka-ku, Tokyo, was a graduate from Sloane Flying School at Hempstead, Long Island, USA, in 1913 from which he earned international licence No.231. He returned to Japan in july of that year.

With financial assistance from Kanzaburo Aijima, a member of the japanese Diet, he built his first and original design of a tractor biplane in a warehouse of the Yamashina Maritime Industry Co (Yamashina Kaiji Kogyo Kaisha) in Kobikimachi, Kyobashi-ku, Tokyo. In appearance it resembled an early Curtiss tractor biplane, having its ailerons mounted at mid-point on the wing struts. This single-seat aeroplane had a wing span of 12m (39ft 4 1/2in), was 7.90m (25ft 11in) long, and had an empty weight of 390kg (860lb). It had two mainwheels and a small one at the front of the skid provided to prevent nose-overs. For an engine, always the most critical factor in building an aeroplane, Hoshino borrowed a 50hp Gnome air-cooled rotary from his friend Tetsusaburo Tsuzuku, also a builder of aircraft.
Completed in August 1914, Hoshino's aeroplane was first flown very successfully at Inage across the bay from Tokyo. During a later flight on 13 September of that year, he attempted a flight to Tokyo, but while flying in fog and having to stay very close to the surface to maintain visual contact around Tsukijima, his port wingtip hit a post that was standing in the water, and he was forced to make an emergency landing nearby on a muddy area of reclaimed land. This enforced landing damaged the nose and propeller of the aeroplane and Hoshino was injured.
After the aeroplane was repaired, he redesignated it Hoshino No.2 Aeroplane, although only minor changes had been made. Beginning in October 1914, he took the aeroplane on an exhibition tour starting at Shizuoka and Gifu. Again, Hoshino sustained injuries and damaged his aeroplane when the engine failed on 31 October. With repairs made, undaunted he flew on to Hamamatsu, Maisaka and Hamanako, all on 30 November, and to Fukui on 10 to 12 December. By now, however, he was committed to return the borrowed engine to Tsuzuku who needed it to power an aeroplane ordered by the Chinese revolutionary army. Thus, without an engine, he was also without an aeroplane, so he assisted his friend Tetsusaburo Tsuzuku with the delivery of the Tsuzuku No.3 Aeroplane to Shantung in northeast China, and served as an instructor pilot.
The Hoshino No.2 Aeroplane remained at Inage, was soon given a 70hp Gnome rotary engine and converted into a two-seat aircraft. It is known to have flown from the Tokyo Aoyama Parade Grounds on 22 September, 1916, in this configuration, but no further details are known.

Япония Ichimori Monocoque 1919

Yoshinori Ichimori was born into a wealthy family in Higashi Tengajaya, Osaka. An early hobby was that of automobiles and related driving. Soon, his attention turned to aviation and in early February 1919 he acquired the Tamura Tractor from the estate of the late Toshikazu Tamura. After it was destroyed (see Shirato Takeru-go Aeroplane) his desire was to build an aircraft of his own and in order to do so he constructed a building on the family property.

Ichimori Monocoque Aeroplane

In early 1919, Ichimori purchased a US-built 100hp Maxim engine around which he designed a biplane with the help of a close friend and aviator, Ginzo Nojima. This had a single-seat fuselage with monocoque construction which closely resembled the pfalz D XII fighter of the First World War. Since very little plywood was available in Japan, he made his own laminations with three-layers of Japanese cypress (hinoki) with isinglass, imported from the United States, as an adhesive. The wing design used the USA 2 aerofoil and the wings and empennage were fabric covered. Dope was applied to the fabric surfaces. For a homebuilt-aeroplane the design was impressive.
Completing his aircraft in November 1919, Ichimori prepared it for flight at Okinohara Airfield in
Yokkaichi, southeast of Lake Biwa. While Noburu Fujiwara was preparing to make the maiden flight and about to start the engine, the aircraft caught fire as the result of a fuel leak and was completely destroyed in less than a minute, the loss of an investment of 18,000 yen. (see other misfortunes of Noburu Fujiwara under Itoh Emi 6 Aeroplane.)

Single-engine homebuilt biplane. Fuselage of plywood monocoque construction, wings and empennage of wood with fabric covering. Pilot in open cockpit.
100hp Maximotor six-cylinder inline water-cooled engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller.
Span upper 8.84m (29ft), lower 8.53m (27ft 11 1/2in) length 6.55m (21ft 5 1/4in) wing area 25.55sq m (275.026sq ft).
Empty weight 499kg (1,100lb) loaded weight 683kg (1,505lb).
Maximum speed 78kt (90mph) minimum speed 39kt (45mph) endurance 2 1/2hr. Estimated figures.
One built in 1919.

Япония Iga Maitsuru-go 1911

One of three barons in early Japanese aviation history, Ujihiro Iga was a family member of the Tosa-Sukumo clan, born around 1886. During his enlistment in the Army, he had an idea for a flying machine that could be used as a scout. He applied for a patent for his idea on 23 April, 1910, which was granted on 4 October of that year (Pat N.18633). After his discharge from the Army in March 1911 he built a model of his concept that he called the Iga Flying Device which closely resembled a biplane.
Iga's next venture was a monoplane glider with bamboo frame and fabric covering. The glider had an 8m (26ft 3in) wing span and weighed 90kg (198 1/2Ib). This was tested by being towed behind a car at Itabashi Race Track, Tokyo, on 16 March, 1911, with perhaps little success since the undercarriage was damaged during this attempt and nothing further was recorded.

In the summer of 1911, Baron Iga began the construction of a powered monoplane. At that time, a publishing company, the Science World Co (Kagaku Sekai Sha) was promoting aviation by publishing a special issue called Air Flying. The editor, Orito, became a sponsor of Iga and his flying machine, and the financier of the publishing company, Kihei Yanagihara, supported part of the construction expense. For an engine, Narazo Shimazu, the manager of Tankin, the long-established ornamental silverware store in Osaka, had built an Anzani fan-type three-cylinder 25hp engine which was then used for this aeroplane.
Named Maitsuru-go Aeroplane, meaning Dancing Crane, it closely resembled a reduced-span Bleriot monoplane. Iga had written to Louis BIeriot who kindly sent him drawings of his aeroplane which he used as reference. With this design concept, the flexibility of the wings was gained by using bamboo for wing ribs whose fabrication was assisted by a master bow-maker, Yasaku Ishizu. When completed in December 1911, it could truthfully be said that this aeroplane was built entirely from Japanese materials, something of note in these early times of Japanese-built machines.
On 24 December, 1911, a test flight attempt was made at the Tokyo Yoyogi Military Parade Grounds, being witnessed by Dr Aikichi Tanakadate and Capt Yoshitoshi Tokugawa, the latter having been the first man to fly in Japan the year before. Causing disappointment but not urprise, the aeroplane did not fly, because of engine problems, the norm in these early days rather than the exception.
Following this attempt, Iga ended his aviation research at his family's insistence. As a result, the airframe was handed over to Capt Kumazo Hino, the strong advocate of aviation and a member of the Provisional Military Balloon Research Association. (see Hino No.3 Aeroplane.)

Single-engine Bleriot-type monoplane. Primarily bamboo construction with fabric covering. Pilot in open cockpit.
2Shp Shimazu Anzani-type three-cylinder fan-type air-cooled engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller.
Span 8m (26ft 3in) length 7.50m (24ft 7 1/4in).
Empty weight 205kg (452Ib).
One built in December 1911.

Япония Inagaki Tractor 1917

Yasuji Inagaki, was the second son of Buntaro Inagaki, a civil contractor in Kyoto. It was Yasuji Inagaki's intention to design and build a biplane as a home-type project. As problems with the aeroplane continued to develop so did Inagaki's frustrations, Otojiro Itoh of the Itoh aircraft company was asked to assist with the project and make the aeroplane flyable at the Yokaichi Airfield, followed by exhibition flights over Kyoto.
Itoh accepted the request but with the provision that his work be done at his company location at Inage, in Chiba Prefecture, and that no deadline be set for the date of the test flight. The fee would have been somewhere between 500 and 600 yen. Reluctantly, Inagaki sent the airframe to Inage where Itoh began his work. This included almost rebuilding the fuselage for the increased strength thought to be necessary, along with other modifications. To assure a better chance of success, Itoh installed his 80hp Hall-Scott engine. After three months, the task was completed.
The aeroplane was test flown on 7 August, 1917, by Itoh attaining a rewarding altitude of at least 30m (100ft). With this success and his continued obligation to Inagaki, Itoh planned exhibition flights at Kyoto for the middle of September of that year as agreed, but Inagaki was not meeting his promise to Itoh for payment. As a result, on 14 December, 1917, Itoh removed his engine from the aeroplane after test flying it at Osaka in conjunction with his own demonstration flights in the Itoh Emi 2 Aeroplane. Inagaki frequently asked Itoh to make further demonstrations of his aeroplane at Kyoto the next January, but Itoh refused.

Япония Isobe Seaplane / No.2 Aeroplane 1910

Born on 14 August, 1877, at Zaimoku-cho, Kanazawa City, Ishikawa Prefecture, Onokichi Isobe developed his interest in aviation around 1908 when he was the chief engineer of the third reserve ship Anekawa as a Lieut-Cdr in the japanese Navy. While stationed aboard this ship, he designed and built a small glider equipped with floats that he would drop, with ballast, from the ship to alight on the water. Since this worked successfully, he then attempted to tow the model behind a torpedo-boat but this ended in failure.
At his request, Isobe was reassigned to the first reserve ship Otoha (formerly a cruiser) with home port at Yokosuka. On this assignment, his senior officer was Cdr Odagiri, an officer who shared his interest in aeronautical theory and gave Isobe encouragement and assistance.

Onokichi Isobe designed and built a Henri Farman type seaplane with help from seamen stationed at, and materials acquired from, the Yokosuka Naval Engineering School. A most noticeable feature of this biplane design was the use of a single-interplane strut instead of the conventional two parallel struts. This was accomplished by using bracing-wires to prevent vertical twisting of the wing on the single strut. It was a seaplane glider at first, equipped with a pair of inflatable rubber-lined canvas floats made for him by the Meiji Rubber Co in Shinagawa, Tokyo. For this combined design, he applied for a patent on 8 April, 1910, which was granted on 16 November of that year (No.18825) as the Isobe Aeroplane.
When used as a two-seat glider, it was launched on the water at Shirahama beach, at Yokosuka, on 19 April, 1910. After confirming its stability while afloat, Isobe then had it towed by a steamboat at a speed of approximately 18 knots. The glider became airborne to a height of about 3m and flew for approximately 60m. At that point the glider went out of control and hit the water, wingtip first. Although this test ended in failure, it proved that an aeroplane could take off from and alight on the water in this fashion. It was to be another year before imported aircraft would be flown by the Navy for the first time from the Naval facility at Oppama. It is assumed that this Isobe aircraft was eventually repaired and had an engine installed.

With this taste of success, Isobe began immediately to build his second man-carrying aircraft. As soon as the airframe was completed, he asked the Provisional Military Balloon Research Association to let him borrow an engine for his new aeroplane. This request from outside the PMBRA was granted reluctantly, for the members looked upon Isobe's work as that of an amateur and unauthorized. It was with the help of Dr Aikichi Tanakadate that assistance was granted. (see Iga Maitsuro-go Aeroplane for details of Tanakadate)
A number of taxi-ing tests were made at Shirahama beach, but when Admiral Sotokichi Uryu, Commander of Yokosuka Naval Station, was there, Isobe attempted to fly the aeroplane, but at the point of take off, the nose dug into the water and the aircraft turned over due to a design flaw in the control system and was severely damaged. Isobe planned to build a No.3 Aeroplane to correct the flaws that were suspected, but with his personal funds already exhausted, he was forced to abandon further plans. He left the Navy on 1 December, 1911, at age 33.

Single-engine tractor biplane seaplane with fore and aft stabilizers. Wooden structure with fabric-covered wings and empennage. Pilot seated in open structure.
25hp Anzani three-cylinder fan-type air-cooled engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller.
Span 8m (26ft 3in) length 8.30m (27ft 2 3/4in) height 2.70m (8ft 10 1/4in).
Empty weight 410kg (903Ib).
One built in April 1910.

Япония Itoh Emi 1 1915

Itoh Aeroplane Research Studio (ltoh Hikoki Kenkyusho)

The Itoh Aeroplane Works came into being on 30 January, 1915. It was his enthusiasm for and love of flying that prompted Otojiro Itoh to become involved with aviation and eventually to create his own aircraft manufacturing company. This is in sharp contrast to other aircraft companies in Japan whereby the more prominent ones had their beginnings with military contracts that assured success. Never a large company or builder of aircraft in quantity, Itoh was one of the earliest prominent companies and the first established aircraft manufacturer in Japan.
While employed as a young man by the Sadoshima Copper and Iron Company in his hometown of Osaka, Otojiro Itoh became inspired with flight when seeing the Wright brothers' success in a film. He wrote to the Japanese aviation pioneer Sanji Narahara, asking him what was needed to get into the field of aviation. He was advised that he should have schooling in mechanical engineering and Itoh diligently obeyed by attending night school.
At the age of 19, in 1910, ltoh left home and moved to Tokyo where he worked as a mechanic at the Narahara aeroplane company. Impressed with his eagerness and interest in aviation, Narahara made ltoh an assistant to Einosuke Shirato, who had worked exclusively for Narahara as a pilot. This association was interrupted when Itoh reached the age of 20 because, like all other young Japanese men, he was conscripted for a one year term of service in the military. Upon returning to Narahara in 1912, he assisted in the manufacture of the aeroplanes and accompanied demonstration flights around Japan as a ground crewman.
As spare-time employment, ltoh assisted Shigesaburo Torigai with the manufacture of the Torigai Hayabusa-go Aeroplane which eventually crashed in September 1913. ltoh borrowed this aeroplane, quit his job and moved with the aeroplane to Inage, on Tokyo Bay just north of Chiba City. There he made repairs and modifications to the aeroplane, and began to learn to fly with the help of two others. The sandy beach there proved an excellent runway, but its availability was dependent upon the height of the tide. After three months of flying training, maintaining and repairing his own aircraft, he had accumulated a total of a mere 3 hours of flying.
Pilot licences, or, for that matter, any regulations concerning flying and aeroplanes were yet to come. Therefore, Itoh established a flying school on the beach at Inage in February 1915, and called it the ltoh Kyodo Hiko Renshusho (Itoh Co-operative Flight Training Ground). The ltoh Aeroplane Research Studio and Training Ground were both known to the public as ltoh Airfield. For flying training, he used the Torigai Hayabusa-go Aeroplane after it had been modified. To supplement his income, Itoh joined part time with Shirato, formerly with the Narahara company, who now was building his own aeroplanes. This added income allowed ltoh to begin his commercial construction of aircraft and by the autumn of 1915 he completed his first the Itoh Emi I.

This was the first aeroplane built by the young aviator Otojiro Itoh, assisted by Toyokichi Daiguchi, Toyotaro Yamagata, and a hired carpenter. The work was begun in September 1915 and the aeroplane was flown for the first time on 11 November that year at Inage Beach. The engine was the French-designed 45hp Gregoire Gyp purchased in August 1914 from Shigesaburo Torigai.
The aeroplane was a three-bay biplane with fabric-covered wooden structure and four-wheel undercarriage. Since today's common dope was not then available, primer paint was mixed with gelatine and Formalin, and external 'paint' was paraffin dissolved in petrol. The cost of building this aeroplane was about 400 yen, plus 1,200 yen for the engine, extremely cheap when compared to equivalent imported aeroplanes then costing over 10,000 yen.
This was a time when there were few prepared airfields other than Tokorozawa Army Base. Aviation events normally took place on Army parade grounds, racecourses and dry river beds. Undercarriages had to be designed with sufficient strength for take off and landings from rough surfaces, and normally consisted of twin dual wheels and skids. Ground transport between events was normally by rail, and therefore the airframes were designed for ease of assembly and disassembly as well as repair.
Overcoming these difficulties, Itoh made a daring flight on 8 january, 1916, from his base at Inage Beach to Tokyo, a distance requiring 55 minutes' flying, making this event the first flight by a civil aeroplane to Tokyo. This was the first of fifty-eight cities which he visited to demonstrate his aeroplane and create air mindedness in Japan. This was the second successful japanese-made civil aeroplane, following the Narahara 4 Ohtori-go Aeroplane.
The success of the Emi 1 was not only due to Itoh's excellent design but also to his own flying ability. To express his appreciation to sponsors in Ebisu-cho, Osaka, where he was born, he named his aeroplane Emi-go (Emi and Ebi are the same when written in Kanji) and continued to use this name for his aircraft. Later the Emi 1 was used by Masaaki Fujiwara who replaced the engine with a 50hp Hino Type engine and used it for flying training at Inage.

Single-engine tractor biplane. Wooden structure with fabric covering. Pilot in open cockpit.
35-45hp Gregoire Gyp four-cylinder water-cooled inline engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller.
Span 11.50m (37ft 8 3/4in) length 6.65m (21 ft 9 3/4in) height 2.50m (8ft 2 1/2in) wing area 33sq m (355.22sq ft).
Empty weight 350kg (771lb).
Maximum speed 41kt (47mph).
One built in 1915.

Япония Itoh Emi 2 1917

These early aircraft were noted for their short life span, so, early in 1917, Otojiro Itoh designed and built what he called the Emi 2 Aeroplane as a replacement for the ageing Emi 1. The engine and the propeller were those removed from the Emi 1. The new aeroplane was smaller than the earlier craft in the hope of increasing general performance. The wings were changed from three-bay to two-bay configuration, and an aerofoil with less drag was used. The undercarriage was changed from twin dual-wheels to a single wheel each side, and bungee cords were used for shock absorbers. The aeroplane was completed in April 1917 and on its first flight climbed to an altitude of 5,000m in 3min 40sec.
After making flying demonstrations at many locations around Japan beginning at Tsuyama in May 1917, Itoh made a triumphal flight over Osaka, visiting his home town in September 1917. While there, the coast of Tokyo Bay was hit by a typhoon and a tidal wave on the night of 30 September - 1 October, 1917, destroying his hangar on the east side of the bay at Inage Beach. Fortunately for Itoh, the Emi 2 Aeroplane and his staff, normally based there, were safe in Osaka. (see fate of NFS Tamai 2 Trainer).
After many demonstrations, the aeroplane was used as a trainer at Itoh Airfield which had by then been moved to nearby Tsudanuma Beach from Inage on 12 April, 1918. Eventually, the aeroplane passed into the hands of new operators at faraway Fukunaga Airfield at Kakezuka-cho, Iwatagun, just east of Hamamatsu. After training in the Emi 2, aviator Asao Fukunaga took the aeroplane to the Osaka area for demonstrations in August 1919. Misfortune plagued this inexperienced aviator. On one occasion, after taking off from Ikeda City to fly over his hometown of adjacent Toyonaka, the aircraft nosed over and turned onto its back after landing on the parade grounds. (This is thought to be the site of the present Osaka International Airport.) Although badly damaged, the Emi 2 was soon repaired. In the following May, soon after taking off from Osaka's Joto Army Parade Grounds, the aeroplane levelled off too soon and struck the roof of a private house, bringing a sudden end to the Emi 2.

Single-engine two-bay biplane. Wooden structure with fabric covering. Pilot in open cockpit.
35-45hp Gregoire Gyp four-cylinder water-cooled inline engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller.
Span 9m (29ft 6 1/4in) height 2.25m (7ft 4 1/2in) wing area 25sq m (269.106 sq ft).
Empty weight 250kg (551Ib)
Maximum speed 46kt (53mph).
One built in 1917.

Fukunaga Aeroplane Manufacturing Works (Fukunaga Hikoki Seisakusho)

One of few privately financed companies to be classed as a manufacturer of aircraft was founded by Asao Fukunaga from Ikeda-cho, Osaka. He was first associated with aviation when in 1917 he imported a Bleriot 25 which he called the Tenryu 1. He then built an imitation of a Caudron-type tractor biplane in the hangar of the former Sempu Flying School in Yokkaichi, southeast of Lake Biwa. Designated Tenryu 2, it failed to fly because it was underpowered with a 25hp Anzani engine. It was used instead as a ground taxiing trainer. Recognizing his need for further knowledge and experience in aviation, Fukunaga attended the ltoh Flying School in April 1918 at Tsudanuma and acquired a graduate certificate within two months of starting his training.

Fukunaga Tenryu 3 Trainer

To help Fukunaga establish a flying school of his own, ltoh released the Emi 2 Aeroplane to him and took it to Osaka. Using numerous fields in trying to find a suitable place for his flying school, the aeroplane was frequently damaged and repaired. Eventually Fukunaga settled on the dry river bed of Tenryu River in Kakezuka-cho, Iwata-gun, Shizuoka Prefecture, near his family's place of origin, where he established in November 1919 what was at first the Fukunaga Aeroplane Research Studio. Because of the many repairs and modifications, his aeroplane was so unlike the original Emi 2 Aeroplane that he renamed it the Tenryu 3 Aeroplane, a name he applied in retrospect to the two previous aircraft and continued to use, numerically sequenced, to those that followed.
The Tenryu 3 was used to provide flying training for his younger brothers, Shiro and Goro, followed by other students who were merely allowed to taxi the aeroplane since the 1911 Gregoire Gyp engine was all but worn out and difficult to adjust. (see ltoh Emi 2).

Single-engine tractor biplane trainer. Wooden structure with fabric covering. Student and instructor in open cockpit.
45hp Gregoire Gyp four-cylinder inline water-cooled engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller.
Span, upper 9.75m (32ft) lower 7.92m (26ft) length 5.93m (19ft 5 1/2in) wing area 20.8sq m (223.896sq ft).
Maximum speed 48kt (55mph).
One built in 1917.

Япония Itoh Emi 3 Seaplane 1917

In 1916, with the failure of Ikunosuke Umino to provide aerial demonstrations with his Christofferson Flying-boat because of its unreliable Hall-Scott engine, newspaper reporter Kokutempu Koyama of the Asahi Shimbun urged Itoh while performing at Iida-cho, Nagano Prefecture, to equip his Emi 1 Aeroplane with floats for water operations. While touring, he purchased the Hall-Scott engine from Umino, despite the problems it caused while installed in the Christofferson Flying-boat including an inflight fire.
Using his experience of land-based aircraft, Otojiro Itoh designed a seaplane with twin wooden floats and built it at Inage Beach. Assisted by Toyokichi Daiguchi and Toyotaro Yamagata, and with the help of student pilots, the aeroplane was completed in August 1917 and proved to have excellent flying characteristics. It was then dismantled and transported to Osaka by rail.
In preparation for demonstration flights, the Emi 3 Seaplane was assembled and maintained in a hangar located on the beach at Nishinomiya, just west of Osaka. It proved a successful venture for Itoh with frequent visitors paying to see this seaplane in operation. This became known as japan's first civil float aircraft, and it had a reputation for good stability and flying performance. Itoh named the Emi 3, Kamome-go, meaning seagull.

Single-engine twin-float biplane. Wooden structure with fabric covering. Pilot and one passenger in open cockpit.
80hp Hall-Scott eight-cylinder vee water-cooled engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller.
Span 15.41m (50ft 6 1/2in) length 7.27m (23ft 10 1/4in) height 4.51 m (14ft 9 1/2in) wing area 46.5sq m (500.53sq ft)
Empty weight 580kg (1,278Ib)
Maximum speed 43kt (50mph).
One built in 1917.

Япония Itoh Emi 6 1918

Itoh Emi 6 Aeroplane) (Fujiwara Tsubame-go)

This was a typical two-bay sports biplane of the period, having a simple, light-weight wooden structure with fabric covering. Completed in May 1918 with a 40hp Elbridge four-cylinder inline watercooled engine, it was built at the request of Masaaki Fujiwara, from Tsuyama-cho, Okayama Prefecture. Fujiwara (who later changed his first name to Noburu) was one of the top bicycle racers in Japan, and had won the cycle racing championship in the Far East Olympic Games in Shanghai in 1916. Early in 1917, he decided to be an aviator, and took his training at the Itoh Airfield.
With the help of sponsors in Kobe, Fujiwara purchased this Itoh Emi 6 which he named Fujiwara Tsubame-go (Swallow), after the brand name of his favourite bicycle. Fujiwara moved to Kobe, taking his aircraft with him. While test flying this aeroplane from the Naruo Horse Racing Track west of Osaka on 13 November, 1918, he overshot on landing and badly damaged it. After major repairs and following a safe test flight on 14 December, he decided on a new name for his aeroplane, the Kobe-go.
Flying mishaps continued for Fujiwara. On 5 january, 1919, immediately after taking off from Naruo enroute to Kobe, the aeroplane stalled and crashed. Fujiwara survived, but the aeroplane did not yet it is said that the misfortunes of Fujiwara in flying this and other aircraft established a new record of continuous air accidents for any one person. (see Ichimori Monocoque Aeroplane).
These misfortunes did not dampen Fujiwara's spirits, for he continued to fly with second-hand aircraft such as other Itoh Emi aeroplanes, Nakajima Type 5, converted Navy Type 10 Carrier Fighter, Type 14 Reconnaissance Seaplane and others, with repeated accidents and damage to the aeroplanes. To satisfy his mounting debts, he sold the six bath-houses he owned and withdrew from active participation in aviation. According to his own account, after 1,040 flying hours, he was involved in three total crashes, twelve over-turning on take off or landing, and four emergency landings. This became a classic case of 'quitting while still ahead' (and alive).
Technical data are not available.

Япония Itoh Emi 9 1918

A number of new student pilots arrived at the Itoh Aeroplane Research Studio after it relocated to Tsudanuma Beach following the tidal wave. A new two-seat trainer became a necessity. A frequent visitor to ltoh Airfield, Tomotari Inagaki involved himself with this project and, while still not employed by the company, he created a stable and practical two-seat trainer powered by an 80hp Hall-Scott engine which had been installed in the Emi 3 Seaplane. This was designated the Emi 9, and became the first authentic trainer aircraft at the Itoh Airfield.
The design was started in the summer of 1918. To case manufacture, the two-bay wings were without taper, dihedral, and stagger. Ailerons were on the upper wing only. The fuselage was also of simple design, to a large extent based on the Emi 5 with similar nose configuration and side radiator arrangement.
To obtain more effective control, horn-balances were used on the rudder and elevators, the first on a japanese-built civil aeroplane.

Single-engine two-bay biplane. Wooden structure with fabric covering. Pupil and instructor in open cockpit.
80hp Hall-Scott eight-cylinder vee water-cooled engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller.
Span 9.80m (32ft 2in) length 7.45m (24ft 5 1/4in) height 2.30m (7ft 6 1/2in).
Empty weight 350kg (771Ib).
Maximum speed 60kt (69mph).
One built in 1918.

Япония Itoh Tsurubane No.1 1918

Itoh Tsurubane No.1 Aeroplane

Following the move of the company from Inage to nearby Tsudanuma after the tidal wave of 1 October, 1917, the next aeroplane was the Tsurubane No.1 Aeroplane. The aeroplane was to be flown by Toyotaro Yamagata, ltoh's assistant, who showed good qualities as an aviator and was well suited to the task.
The design evolved around the 50hp Gnome engine from the Tamai No.3 Aeroplane that crashed at Shibaura, Tokyo, in May 1917. This engine was obtained by Yamagata's uncle, Shigesaburo Torigai, with the intention of letting Yamagata design his own aeroplane around it. Eventually, Otojiro Itoh was asked to take over the project, using Yamagata's sketches of the intended design. It was a very simple single-seat two-bay tractor biplane, having as an important feature a very rugged undercarriage. It also had the inherently stable flying qualities which made ltoh's aircraft acknowledged as successful trainers. The name of the aeroplane Tsurubane (Crane's wing) came from Tsurubane Shrine to which Yamagata belonged in his hometown of Hiroshima. This name was painted on the rudder, and No.1 was painted on the sides of the fuselage.
When the aeroplane was completed on 8 May, 1918, Yamagata took the aeroplane to Hiroshima for early flying demonstrations. From there, after arrangements were made by Asahi Shimbun reporter, Soten Abe, Yamagata visited Korea for nearly the full month of November and made exhibition flights at various locations at the request of the Governor-General in Korea, also named Yamagata. After the tour, exhibition flights were made over Osaka City for an extended period in the spring of 1919. On one occasion another person straddled the fuselage behind the pilot for a low flight over the spectators.
In its later service life the Tsurubane No.1 Aeroplane served as a trainer for the Itoh flying school. Eventually it was bought by Hisayasu Sakae and donated to AkiItsukushima Shrine near Hiroshima.

Single-engine two-bay biplane. Wooden structure with fabric covering. Pilot in open cockpit.
50hp Gnome seven-cylinder aircooled rotary engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller.
Span 10m (32ft 9 1/2in) length 6.5m (21 ft 4in) height 2.6m ( 8ft 6 1/2in) wing area 30sq m (322.927sq ft).
Empty weight 380kg (83 7Ib) loaded weight 520kg (1,146Ib).
Maximum speed 43kt (50mph).
One built in 1918.

Япония Itoh Emi 12 1919

To overcome its shortage of two-seat trainers, the Itoh flying school received a surplus Type Mo-4 (Kishi No.3 Tsurugi-go) pusher aeroplane from Kishi Airfield. From this, Itoh built a tractor training biplane, using the wings and undercarriage from the Kishi aircraft mated to another fuselage, with appropriate modifications. Itoh used an 80hp Shimazu-Le Rhone rotary engine which had received first prize for a Japanese-made engine in 1916. (see Ozaki Tractor Biplane).
While Motoharu Itoh, a nephew of Otojiro Itoh, was practising ground taxi-ing, he suddenly gave the aeroplane full power and took off, only to stall immediately and crash, badly damaging the aeroplane although the young Itoh escaped serious injury. This was an aeroplane with a very low wing-loading, and pupils disliked it because it was difficult to control.

Single-engine biplane. Wooden structure with fabric covering. Two seats in open cockpit.
80hp Shimazu-Le Rhone nine-cylinder air-cooled rotary engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller.
Span 15.50m (50ft 10 1/4in) length 11 m (36ft 1in).
Empty weight 570kg (1,256Ib).
Maximum speed 33kt (38mph).
One built in 1919.

Япония Itoh Tsurubane No.2 1919

Itoh Tsurubane No.2 Aerobatic Aeroplane

In 1918, the japanese Army purchased from France some of the most highly regarded military aeroplanes of the First World War, among them Nieuport 24 fighter. This and others were evaluated at the newly established Kagamigahara Army Airfield. At that time, 27 October, 1918, Tomotari Inagaki, a long-time friend of the company, and still studying in Tokyo Polytechnical School, became engineer of Itoh Aeroplane Research Studio. By chance, he had an opportunity to visit Kagamigahara and was able to rationalize the design and manufacture of a small aerobatic aircraft similar to the designs he had just seen. Beginning on 8 January, 1919, Inagaki started his first design as a company employee. It was to be a single-seat single bay biplane, light in weight, rugged, and easy to fly.
Logically, the design followed that of the Nieuport, but to obtain sufficient lift with the low powered 50hp Gnome engine Inagaki increased the total wing area, yet retained the same overall wing span and chord of the upper wing, by enlarging the lower wing to conform to that of an equal-span biplane rather than the sesquiplane arrangement of the Nieuport. The appearance of this aeroplane was considered radical when compared to other Japanese aircraft at that time.
The front half of the fuselage was ply-covered. To enhance the aeroplane's appearance and resemble a fighter aircraft after which it was patterned, Itoh himself painted a white crane like a unit insignia on the sides of the fuselage similar to those often used by the French Air Force. This aeroplane was completed on 21 April, 1919, and made its first flight on 25 April.
Although Yamagata began teaching himself the skills of aerobatic flying, much had to be learned from an English-language book he had bought. His efforts included being suspended upside down while strapped in a chair to visualize control movements while in inverted flight, which must be considered a rather drastic measure by today's standards of teaching. On 5 May, using this aeroplane, he became the first civil pilot in Japan to complete a loop.

Single-engine single-bay biplane. Wooden structure with fabric covering. Pilot in open cockpit.
50hp Gnome seven-cylinder aircooled rotary engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller.
Span 7.21m (23ft 8in) length 5.77m (18ft 11 1/4in) height 2.38m (7ft 9 1/2in) wing area 14.58sq m (156.942sq ft).
Empty weight 204kg (450Ib) loaded weight 340kg (749Ib)
Maximum speed 74kt (85mph) climb to 1,000m (3,280ft) in 4min 30 sec.
One built in 1919.

Япония Itoh, Gorham Emi 5 1918

An internationally known showman, Yumito Kushibiki, the man who had invited Art Smith and Katherine Stinson to give flying displays throughout Japan, had been looking for an opportunity to manufacture aero engines, when his friend, William Gorham, suggested that he manufacture airframes as well as aero engines in Japan. The two agreed to a partnership. At the start, in 1918, an American aviator, E. H. Patterson, arrived in Japan bringing a second-hand Gorham 125hp biplane and a new 150hp Gorham engine. The aeroplane closely resembled a Curtiss Jenny and may have been one. It was powered by a 125hp Gorham engine, and was therefore called by the Japanese the Gorham Biplane.
Patterson announced a plan to begin air mail services between Tokyo and Osaka, but this was met by strong opposition in Japan. Discouraged, he returned to the United States, leaving the aeroplane and engine in the hands of Kushibiki after a final exhibition at Tokorozawa in August 1918.
The aeroplane was later purchased by Itoh, and with minor modifications it now became the Itoh Emi 5 Aeroplane. ConsequentIy, the Emi 5 was not an aeroplane designed or built by Itoh but was useful to him in later aeroplane designs.
On 23 October, 1919, the aeroplane participated in the First Tokyo Osaka Airmail Flying Contest, piloted by Toyotaro Yamagata, but did not win a place in the competition. In 1920, the aeroplane was entered in the First Prize-winning Flight Competition, this time piloted by Taiwanese Wen-Ta Shie. It won third-place in the altitude (1,400m) and speed (120 km/h) categories.

Single-engine two-bay biplane. Wooden structure with fabric covering. Pilot and passenger in open cockpits.
125hp Gorham six-cylinder watercooled inline engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller.
Maximum speed 65kt (75mph) service ceiling 1,400m (4,593ft).
One modified in 1918.
Dimensions and weights not known.

Япония Izaki No.2 Sempu-go 1915

Izaki, also Sempu Flying School (Privately-built) (Sempu Hiko Gakko)

When aviator Tsunesaburo Ogita returned to Japan from France in May 1914, he took with him an 80hp Le Rhone powered Morane-Saulnier MS 5 monoplane. He won first prize in the altitude category by reaching 2,000m at the First Civil Flying Meet, at Naruo in june 1914. Later, on 2 September, 1914, when he made an exhibition flight over Kyoto City, he was honoured by His Highness Prince Fushimi by giving his aeroplane the name Sempu, (meaning cut the wind with a wing).
With this aeroplane, Ogita established the Sempu Flying School in Yokaichi, near Ohtsu by Lake Biwa. After nearly eight months of flying in Japan, the aeroplane crashed soon after taking off from the Fukakusa Military Parade Grounds in Kyoto on 3 january, 1915. It struck the ground at the nearby Army ordnance arsenal, killing Ogita and his assistant Shigeharu O-hashi, and was destroyed. The parts were collected and, along with spares for the aeroplane, were stored at the nearby Kyoto Flight Sponsorship Society (Kyoto Hiko Koenkai).

One month after the fatal crash, the Kyoto Flight Sponsorship Society decided in February 1915 to build an aeroplane from the remaining parts. With a working budget of 2,500 yen, Shozo Izaki and five flying students set about the task of rebuilding. The same 80hp Le Rhone rotary engine was used, but the repair of the engine by the Shimazu Motor company in Osaka delayed completion of the aeroplane until that August. It was called the No.2 Sempu-go Aeroplane in honour of Ogita.
Initial test flights were made by Army 2-Lt (Reserve) Kyubei Kumaki and Shozo Izaki at the Okinohara ground in Yokaichi. The aeroplane proved very successful and caught the interest of a number of foreign aviators. The first of these was the American pilot Charles F Niles, when, on 31 january, 1916, he set japan's altitude record of 3,050m (10,000ft) with this aeroplane. Later one of the team members of the Miss Katherine Stinson aerobatic circus, pilot engineer Frank Champion, remained in Japan after the team returned to the United States in May 1917. His plan was to make a nonstop flight between Naruo and Tokyo flying the No.2 Sempu-go. In preparation, he equipped the aeroplane with a fuel tank to give a duration of six hours, sufficient for the flight.
He took off from Naruo on 3 june, 1917, but while en route two emergency landings were made, one near Yokaichi and finally at Hamamatsu because of engine problems. The aeroplane had to be dismantled and returned to Yokaichi by rail for repair. When operational again and while performing in an aerobatic exhibition by Frank Champion on 30 October, 1917, over Kouchi City, Shikoku Island, the aeroplane disintegrated and Champion was killed in the crash.

Single-engine shoulder-wing monoplane. Wooden structure with fabric covering. Two in open cockpits.
80hp Le Rhone nine-cylinder aircooled rotary engine, driving a two-bladed wooden propeller.
Span 9.30m (30ft 6in) length 6.58m (21ft 7in) wing area 14.5sqm (156.08sq ft).
Loaded weight 550kg (1,212Ib).
Maximum speed 70kt (81 mph) service ceiling 3,000m (9,843 ft) normal endurance 1 1/2hr.
One built in June 1915.

Япония Kaishiki No.1 - No.6 Aeroplane 1911

Army-built Aeroplanes by the Provisional Military Balloon Research Association (Rinji Gunyo Kikyu Kenkyu Kai), and Army Arsenals (Rikugun Kosho)

The formation and the background of this first source for Japanese built military aircraft, the Provisional Military Balloon Research Association (PMBRA), has been described in some detail at the beginning of this work. Its origin stemmed from the Imperial Order No.207 that was issued on 30 July, 1909, in that it was to develop new weapons systems, particularly those that pertained to balloons and aeroplanes for their military application along with associated air-to-ground communications.
Making up this organization were fourteen members from the Army, Navy, Tokyo Imperial University, and the Central Meteorological Observatory. While this was intended to be bipartisan between the two military services, it was determined by Army influence in that Army Lt-Gen Gaishi Nagaoka was appointed the first president, with Col Jiro Inoue a manager, and having their offices at the 7th Division Army Headquarters. These efforts resulted in aircraft that were developed or purchased of which some were put into Army service, while the Navy accepted none of the design. This may well have been because of Army-Navy distrust, for each had its separate development group that fed on findings made by the PMBRA.
The manufacture of these PMBRA aircraft that were identified as Kaishiki (Association Type) aeroplanes continued until 1916. During this period, officers of the PMBRA supervised modifications of imported Maurice Farmans and the manufacture of some of these took place at the Tokyo Army Artillery Arsenal. New designs that came from the PMBRA were normally built with the joint effort of the PMBRA's Tokorozawa Factory and the Tokyo Army Artillery Arsenal. As aeroplane manufacturing became more technologically orientated, the Nagoya Army Ordnance Arsenal was used for the repair and manufacture of the Type Mo-4 aircraft, and of later types.
In April 1919, the PMBRA was abolished and replaced by the Army Aviation School of the newly formed Army Department of Aviation. Aeroplanes emerging as a result of this organization were known as Koshiki (School Type) aircraft, instead of by their former designation of Kaishiki. The actual building of these aircraft that had been done by the Tokorozawa Factory was then taken over by the Tokorozawa Branch, Department of Supply, under the Army Department of Aviation. Simultaneously, the research and design of new aeroplanes was absorbed by the Department of Research of the Tokorozawa Army Aviation School.
During the Army's final phase of aircraft manufacture, the Chikusa Army Machinery & Equipment Manufacturing Works produced aero engines, while airframes were manufactured at the Atsura Army Weapon Manufacturing Works of the Nagoya Army Ordnance Arsenal. With the formation of the Army Air Headquarters on 1 May, 1925, the manufacture of aircraft by the Army was terminated. By this time the design and manufacture of new aeroplanes was undertaken through competition among civilian companies.
The descriptions of aircraft that follow will identify those that were built under the auspices of the Army production. Resources used in the development and building of aircraft were exclusively those of the Army that centred on the PMBRA facility at Tokorozawa, west of Tokyo, and Army arsenals in Tokyo and Nagoya.

In 1911, Capt Yoshitoshi Tokugawa, an Army committee member of the PMBRA, designed and supervised the construction of the first Japanese-manufactured military aeroplane. This work took place at the Army Balloon Corps facility at Nakano Village, west of Shinjuku, Tokyo.
Using as a pattern, the Henri Farman of 1910 that had been imported, design began in April 1911 and construction was started the following July. Assistant Engineer Goichi Nakazato supervised the construction, while others assisting were Privates l/c Gisaburo Ohshima, Kichitaro Sugiyama and Jinzo Hirano, along with a carpenter and ten soldiers. Although the engine and the propeller were imported from France, all other materials were procured in Japan. The airframe was mainly constructed of hinoki (Japanese cypress) and covering was two layers of silk glued together by what was described as liquid rubber. Attachment fittings, bracing wires and turn buckles were specially procured from iron works companies or bought from local hardware shops.
While this was regarded as a Farman-type, it did have its unique differences. It was converted to a sesquiplane design, giving it reduced wing area and therefore increased speed. A change was made to the aerofoil by having a greater frontal curve in the hope of achieving better lift. Ailerons were on the upper wing only, and the tail was simplified by having a single horizontal tail surface. The engine and propeller were mounted higher than in the original design, and therefore the undercarriage could be shortened. A windshield was added for the pilot.
When completed, in October 1911, it was known as the Tokugawa Type aeroplane, but later was given the official identity Kaishiki No.1 Aeroplane. The aeroplane was moved to the Army facility and flying field at Tokorozawa where it made its first flight on 13 October, piloted by Capt Tokugawa.
The flight recorded on 25 October, 1911, indicated that the aeroplane reached an altitude of 50m (164ft) and attained a speed of 72km/h (45mph). Maximum height recorded was 85m (278ft) and distance covered was 1,600m (1 mile). As tests continued it was discovered that the propeller ground clearance was too small, causing the propeller blades to make contact with the grass and reducing its rotation speed and resultant power. After modifying this and other necessary changes, the aeroplane was known as the Kaizo Kaishiki No.1, Kaizo signifying modified.
Changes to the structure included lengthening the undercarriage, and fitting landing skids not integral with the airframe structure so that they could be more easily replaced when broken. The twin rudders were replaced by a single and larger-area rudder to take better advantage of the propeller slipstream for improved directional control. Longer interplane struts gave a greater spacing between the two wings, and the windshield was removed to give the student pilot a better sense of speed, thought at that time to be essential.
A controversy developed over which aeroplane was the first Japanese-made aeroplane to fly successfully: this Kaishiki No.1 or the civilian Narahara No.2. The problem was that after a straight flight of 60m at a height of 4m, the undercarriage of the Narahara aircraft had failed on landing after its flight on 5 May, 1911, at Tokorozawa, five months before the Army-built craft was flown. Was the flight a failure or a success when the undercarriage broke upon landing? (see Narahara No.2 Aeroplane)
The following data are for the original Kaishiki No.1 aeroplane.

Single-engine pusher sesquiplane trainer. Wooden structure with fabric covering. Elevators at nose and tail. Skid-type undercarriage with dual wheels. Open tandem seating.
50hp Gnome Omega seven-cylinder air-cooled rotary engine, driving a Chauviere two-blade wooden propeller.
Span (upper) 10.50m (34ft 5 1/2in), (lower) 8m (26ft 3in) length 11.50m (37ft 8 1/2in) height 3.90m (12ft 9 1/2in) wing area 41sq m (441.334sq ft).
Empty weight 450kg (992Ib) loaded weight 550kg (1,212Ib) wing loading 13.4kg/sq m (2.7Ib/sq ft) power loading 11kg/hp (24.2Ib/hp).
Maximum speed 39kt (45mph) endurance 3 hr.
One built in 1911, modified in 1912.

Kaishiki Nos. 2, 3 and 4 Aeroplanes

With confidence gained by the success of the Kaishiki No.1, the PMBRA began construction of the Kaishiki No.2 in March 1912. Like the first, this was designed by Capt Tokugawa. It was built in the hangar at Tokorozawa Flight Test Grounds, and first flown in June 1912 by Tokugawa.
Similar designs completed in November 1912 were the No.3 and No.4. Basically, the No.2 was like the No.1 but had a longer undercarriage for better propeller ground clearance. Some changes were made in the interplane strut configuration, and the tailplane and rear elevator were enlarged to improve stability. Engines varied with these aeroplanes and they were often interchanged. Since they were pusher aeroplanes, the engine arrangement with a 50hp Gnome rotary had the propeller between the engine mounting and the engine but the No.4 powered by a 50hp Anzani rotary engine had its propeller behind the engine.
In May 1912, with training aircraft now available, the Army selected five officers to become the first class of pilot officers. The next month, six officers were selected for the first reconnaissance-observer course. The importance of aviation within the Army was being recognized. To further demonstrate the capability of the aeroplane at this time, the first flight to visit Tokyo
was made on 27 October, 1912, by the Kaishiki No.2. To make this long flight of about 18 miles, the removable windscreen nacelle was reinstalled, and Capt Tokugawa made this historic flight, starting at 05:58 and landing at the Yoyogi Parade Grounds at 07:45. It was from here, twenty-two months before, that Tokugawa had made the first flight in Japan on 19 December, 1910, in an imported Farman. After refuelling, he circled the major boroughs of Tokyo and landed once again at Yoyogi for fuel. Returning to Tokorozawa, his starting point, he had covered 96.5km (60sm), a major accomplishment at that time.
These early 'Tokugawa-type' aircraft, as they were more popularly called, were entered in many exhibitions, both singly and together, receiving considerable press coverage. Since the military was the greatest motivator in developing the aeroplane in Japan, and with its intended use as a military weapon, it must be noted that the Army used the Kaishiki No.4 to demonstrate for the first time, in December 1913, the dropping of simulated bombs.

Single-engine pusher sesquiplane trainer. Wooden open structure with fabric-covered wings and control surfaces. Elevators at nose and tail. Skid-type undercarriage with two sets of dual wheels. Two seats in tandem.
50hp Gnome Omega seven-cylinder air-cooled rotary engine, driving a Chauviere two-bladed wooden propeller (No.2 and No.3). 60hp Anzani six-cylinder air-cooled rotary engine, driving a fixed-pitch two-bladed wooden propeller (No.3 after modification and No.4).
Span 11 m (36ft) length 11 m (36ft) height 3.90m (12ft 9 1/2in) wing area 41sq m (441.334sq ft).
Empty weight 450kg (992Ib) loaded weight 570kg (1,256Ib) wing loading 13.4kg/sq m (2.74lb/sq ft) power loading 11kg/hp (24.2Ib/hp).
Maximum speed 39kt (45mph) endurance 3hr.
Three built, No.2, No.3 and No.4, all in 1912.

Kaishiki No.5 and No.6 Aeroplanes

Following the arrival of the four Maurice Farman 1913 aircraft from France, the manufacture in Japan of No.5 and No.6 was put under the two officers who had studied in France and purchased the aeroplanes, Lt Kenjiro Nagasawa and Lt Shigeru Sawada. The aircraft were built from the same drawings but one was constructed at the PMBRA at Tokorazawa and the other at the Artillery Arsenal in Tokyo. Both were powered by 70hp Gnome rotary engines, experimentally manufactured at the Artillery Arsenal, but they proved less reliable than the 70hp Renault engines, thus ending the production of the Gnome-type after only two engines had been built.
The two aeroplanes were a combination of designs for the Kaishiki No.3 and No.4 airframe and Maurice Farman 1913 wings. They were completed in the autumn of 1913 and entered operational service with the Type Mo 1913 Aeroplanes. Compared to the four preceding imported models, the two new aeroplanes had more powerful engines, making them faster by 2. 7kt, larger fuel capacity for a duration of four hours, and the seats were located in a longer fuselage nacelle to improve visibility for aerial reconnaissance. Within the PMBRA, the two aeroplanes were unofficially called Kaishiki Second Year Model (Second year of Taisho 1913).

Single-engine pusher sesquiplane trainer with crew nacelle. Wooden structure with fabric covering. Elevators at nose and tail. Skid-type undercarriage with dual wheels. Crew of two in open cockpit.
70hp Gnome seven-cylinder aircooled rotary engine, driving a Rapid-santral two-bladed wooden propeller.
Span 15.50m (50ft 10 1/4in) length 11m (36ft 1in) height 3.66m (12ft) wing area 44.1 sq m (474. 7sq ft).
Empty weight 485kg( 1,069Ib) loaded weight 765kg (1,686Ib) wing loading 12.7kg/sq m (2.6lb/sq ft) power loading 10.9kg/hp (24Ib/hp).
Maximum speed 51 kt (59mph) endurance 4hr.
One each of No.5 and No.6 built in 1913.

UH-1 Huey Helicopter

The most widely used military helicopter, the Bell UH-1 series Iroquois, better known as the "Huey", began arriving in Vietnam in 1963. Before the end of the conflict, more than 5,000 of these versatile aircraft were introduced into Southeast Asia. "Hueys" were used for MedEvac, command and control, and air assault to transport personnel and materiel and as gun ships. Considered to be the most widely used helicopter in the world, with more than 9,000 produced from the 1950s to the present, the Huey is flown today by about 40 countries.

Bell (model 205) UH-1D (1963) had a longer fuselage than previous models, increased rotor diameter, increased range, and a more powerful Lycoming T53-L-11 1100 shp engine, with growth potential to the Lycoming T53-L-13 1400 shp engine. A distinguishing characteristic is the larger cargo doors, with twin cabin windows, on each side. The UH-1D, redesigned to carry up to 12 troops, with a crew of two, reached Vietnam in 1963. The UH-1D has a range of 293 miles (467km) and a speed of 127 mph (110 knots). UH-1Ds were build under license in Germany. UH-1D "Hueys" could be armed with M60D door guns, quad M60Cs on the M6 aircraft armament subsystem, 20mm cannon, 2.75 inch rocket launchers, 40mm grenade launcher in M5 helicopter chin-turret, and up to six NATO Standard AGM-22B (formerly SS-11B) wire-guided anti-tank missiles on the M11 or M22 guided missile launcher. The UH-1D could also be armed with M60D 7.62mm or M213 .50 Cal. pintle-mounted door guns on the M59 armament subsystem.

The MedEvac version UH-1V could carry six stretchers and one medical attendant.

Bell (model 205A-1) UH-1H (1967-1986) was identical to the UH-1D but was equipped with an upgraded engine that allowed transport of up to 13 troops. The UH-1H has a two-bladed semi-rigid seesaw bonded all metal main rotor and a two-bladed rigid delta hinge bonded all metal tail rotor. The UH-1H is powered by a single Lycoming T53-L-13B 1400 shp turboshaft engine. More UH-1H "Hueys" were built than any other model. The UH-1H was licensed for co-production in the Republic of China (Taiwan) and in Turkey. UH-1H "Nighthawk" was equipped with a landing light and a pintle mounted M134 7.62mm "minigun" for use during night interdiction missions. The AH-1G Cobra was often flown on night "Firefly" missions using the UH-1H "Nighthawk" to locate and illuminate targets.

The UH-1N is a twin-piloted, twin-engine helicopter used in command and control, resupply, casualty evacuation, liaison and troop transport. The Huey provides utility combat helicopter support to the landing force commander during ship-to-shore movement and in subsequent operations ashore.he aircraft can be outfitted to support operations such as command and control with a specialized communication package (ASC-26), supporting arms coordination, assault support, medical evacuation for up to six litter patients and one medical attendant, external cargo, search and rescue using a rescue hoist, reconnaissance and reconnaissance support, and special operations using a new navigational thermal imaging system mission kit.

The goal of the USMC H-1 Upgrades Program is to achieve a platform that meets the growing needs of the Marine Corps. The 4BW and 4BN will be an upgraded version of the current AH-1W and UH-1N Helicopters. The 4BW and 4BN will share a common engine, Auxiliary Power Unit, four-bladed main and tail rotor system, transmission, drive train, and tail boom. The purpose of these modifications is to achieve commonality in both aircraft, thereby reducing logistical support, maintenance workload, and training requirements. The replacement of the two bladed rotor system with a common four bladed rotor system will achieve improved performance, reliability, and maintainability. The addition of an infrared suppresser to the aircraft will improve survivability. The 4BW will also include a newly developed cockpit, which will result in nearly identical front and rear cockpits that simplify operator and maintainer training and maintenance.

Development and design

In 1930, the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service's basic seaplane trainer was the Yokosuka K1Y or Type 13 Seaplane Trainer, which had been in use from 1925, and it instructed the First Naval Air Technical Arsenal based at Yokosuka to design a replacement. [ 1 ] The design team, lead by Jiro Saha and Tamefumi Suzuki designed a single-bay biplane with a welded steel-tube fuselage and wooden wings, it being the first Japanese designed aircraft with such a fuselage. [ 2 ]

Yokosuka built two prototypes, powered by 90 hp (67 kW) Hatakaze four-cylinder inline engines in 1930, flying in 1930, and after sucessful testing, a version powered by a 160 hp Gasuden Jimpu radial engine was ordered into production as the Navy Type 90 Seaplane trainer, with the short designation K4Y1. [ 2 ]

Operational history

The first flight was in August 1943. Nakajima manufactured 1,002 examples, which were operated by five Kokutais (Air Groups), and acted as land-based medium and torpedo bombers from airfields in China, Taiwan, Marianas, Philippines, Ryukyu, Shikoku, and Kyūshū . During the last stages of the war the P1Y was utilized as a kamikaze aircraft against the United States Navy during the Okinawa Campaign in Operation Tan No. 2.

A night fighter version, the P1Y2-S Kyokko (極光, "Aurora"), with Mitsubishi Kasei engines, was equipped with radar and Schräge Musik-style upward-firing -- as well as forward-firing -- 20 mm cannon. A total of 96 were produced by Kawanishi, [ 5 ] but due to inadequate high-altitude performance against B-29s, many were converted back to Ginga bombers. [ 6 ]

Aviation of Japan 日本の航空史

Wow! What a haul of goodies and what great choices. And it's a good idea to get what you want of this bunch as their production runs / windows can often be short. I think this company and Life-Like generally make the best decals for Japanese subjects. Do you have any info on the civil use of the Junkers, Nick?

And thanks for the rundown as far as the Hayabusa production differences. TAIC would certainly have liked a glance at that! Imagine how confusing they found the subject with several gaps unfilled by artifacts, when modelers all these years later are still struggling to understand it. For such a common aircraft that fought from first to last, we still don't have anything solid about the development of the cockpit layout either. The only clear period photos I've seen were of a captured airplane with some American equipment - and that was a Ki-43-if I remember correctly. Have you ever seen photos of the cockpit of "The Raccoon Special" or the other -II Oscar that TAIC cobbled together? I keep thinking there must be many more photos TAIC personnel took that haven't seen publication yet. The old Maru Mechanic and the Aero Detail volume on Ki-43 both have drawings showing cowling development that might match - generally - your description here. Thanks Nick, very interesting post - Mark

I have added a little more information about the Junkers F-13 to the blog.

Thank you very much for the information, Nick, in particular the Ki-43 production differences and denominations. Very interesting also the alternate scheme for the 248th Sentai since I have the 1/72 version of the decal and didn't include it.

The short runs of Rising Decals sheets are frustrating. That is all. -Peter Lloyd

In service with NEIAF.

Just after the First World War the Dutch East Indies bought several airplanes to set up the new Flight Division of the NEI Army. Besides a number of Airco DH-9s, a number AVRO 504Ks was bought.
The first two Avro 504 arrived in August 1919. In 1922, another twelve aircraft were delivered.

The AVRO 504K was used as training aircraft. Despite a number of accidents, the aircraft did very well.
In 1924 a start was made to built an improved version of the AVRO 504K, initially at Andir, later at Soekamiskin. These AL aircraft had a plywood fuselage and improved fuel tank. The prototype was the LA-1 (later serialled as AL-57).

Late twenties and early thirties was a replacement was necessary and one Fokker S. IV and one Morane-Saulnier AR-35-EP-2 were bought. The AVRO turned out to be at least as good as these both types. So most remaining units were given a facelift in 1931 an Armstrong Siddeley Mongoose engine was built in to replace the Clerget rotary engine. These were re-serialled "AM" with the original aircraftnumber. In 1938, the last Avro 504K went out of service.

Watch the video: USS Yorktown colorized


  1. Jimmy

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  2. Vulmaran

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  3. Vidal

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  4. Bede

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  5. Dickson

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